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66. Arms.-Gules, three lions passant-guardant in pale or, dimidiating azure, three hulks of galleys argent in pale, over all a pastoral staff (?) of the last.
This coat occurs in a window of the North Transept.
67. Arms.-Quarterly: 1, Gules, three lions passant-guardant in pale or, for ENGLAND: impaling, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory gules, for SCOTLAND; 2, Azure, three fleurs-de-lis or, for FRANCE; 3, Azure, an ancient harp or, stringed argent, for IRELAND; 4, Gules, two lions passant guardant or, in pale, for BRUNSWICK: impaling, Or, semée of hearts proper, a lion rampant azure, for LUNENBERG, in base gules, a horse courant argent, for SAXONY. The shield is surrounded by the garter and surmounted by a royal helmet, and crown of crosses patées and fleurs-de-lis, thereon a lion statant guardant crowned all or. Supporters: Dexter, a lion rampant guardant, crowned or; Sinister, A unicorn saliant, royally gorged, armed, crined, and chained or. The mantling is or, lined argent. Motto."Dieu et mon Droit."
This is the royal arms as borne by the Kings George I., George II., and George III.
THE WEALD AND ITS REFUGEE ANNALS.
BY S. W. KERSHAW, F.S.A.
THIS district of Kent from its position, surrounded by outlying towns of importance, and leading to the coast, could not fail to attract settlers, independently of its natural
The chief towns of Cranbrook, Tenterden, Maidstone, Ashford, and Tunbridge, so many centres of activity in the Middle Ages, would alone call forth notice; and a certain difficulty of access in those days tended to retain any trades established within these boundaries. The cloth trade preeminently took the lead at the time when Cranbrook was the metropolis of that industry, and many circumstances had tended to encourage this. The settlements of the Flemings in Edward the Third's reign are well known to historical scholars, while the history of the cloth trade has also been specially treated by Mr. Tarbutt in the Archæologia Cantiana (Vol. IX.), as well as ably discussed in Mr. Furley's well-known work on the Weald. It would therefore be inappropriate to treat this subject at length, other than by a few remarks with which I cannot forbear to preface this paper, dealing as it will especially with the REFUGEE history of the district, and bringing it down to a later period by the help of many recent materials hitherto unnoticed in Mr. Tarbutt's treatise. These are the publication of parochial records, especially those of Canterbury and the Diocese, by Mr. J. M. Cowper, the Registers of the French Church at Canterbury, by Mr. Hovenden, F.S.A., the Wills proved in the "Prerogative Court of Canterbury," as well as the invaluable series of the Historical MSS. Commission Reports, and the "Denization "Lists issued by the Huguenot
Society of London. When we consider these facts, as well as the various measures for the improvement of trade, especially during the reign of Elizabeth, it is not surprising the refugees should seek a district so fertile in resources and employment.
As the wool trade increased, the proprietors of the Weald converted their arable land into pasture, and the opening up of woods and water transit greatly aided commerce. Thus, a statute of Henry VIII. provides "for clearing, deepening, and widening the River Stour from the town of Great Chart to Canterbury, and thence to Sandwich."* Some of the weaving was carried on far away from the Weald, and this improved river passage could not fail to assist in every way.
A wool staple had been set up at Canterbury, and a similar one existed at Calais, so early as the 25th Edward III.; relations could thus be easily maintained between the French-speaking Walloons and their English brethren. The Privy Council Acts of Edward VI. (1552) refer to an Indenture between that King and the merchants of the staple at Calais, sealed and delivered to the King.
The later development of fulling and dyeing mills in and around the Weald led the clothiers to dye their own cloth, instead of sending it away or abroad.
There was much controversy at this time as to the advantages of wrought and unwrought cloth, and several enactments found in the State Papers illustrate this question. The results of the different appeals seem to have been in favour of the dressed cloth, as giving greater employment to native artificers, and increasing their wealth. The Acts themselves tell their own tale, as follows :†
1575. "Memorial to Lord Cobham, exhibiting the decay of the cloth trade in Kent, and desiring an emendation of Statute 8 Elizabeth against the exportation of unwrought cloths." That Act regulated that for every nine cloths
* In this connection I may mention Fordwich as a member of the Cinque Ports, whose peculiar trade customs and archives are brought to light in Mr. Woodruff's History of Fordwich, 1895.
+ Calendar State Papers (Elizabeth).
unwrought, a tenth shall be exported dressed, on penalty of £10, "that no person convey any Kentish or Suffolk cloth undressed on penalty of 40 shillings."
It seems that in 1586 a contraband trade had been carried on, and that persons came from Dunkirk into Kent, and under pretence of landing goods and victuals sold Kentish cloths, which were transported at Calais to Liège and other places. No less than 46 Acts had been passed as to raw and manufactured wool, and although severe measures had been enacted against the transport, it still seems to have been carried on. The Hatfield Papers (Historical MSS. Commission), dated 23 August , contain the following:
"Lord Cobham to Lord Burleigh, begs him (Her Majesty having granted a licence for transmitting 2000 Kentish cloths unwrought a year) to grant him a favourable letter to the Custom House, that he may pass the same, now that our merchants do repair to Antwerp." In 1575 we have an injunction of Lord Cobham (Lord-Lieutenant of Kent) to see that the "Queen's duties are paid for carrying unwrought Kentish cloth," as it appears that sundry cloths passed through creeks in Kent and paid no duties!
It seems difficult to reconcile these inconsistent enactments, sometimes for protective, at another for free trade, measures, but it cannot be denied that the industry had taken full hold, whatever the changing policy of the time.
Guilds had been established and were most helpful to those not wealthy or numerous enough to begin a separate trade, for by combination they effected a great deal. Enquiries into the state of the ports and keeping them in repair were also made, and in 1565 a Royal Commission was issued on this subject. In 1571 returns of the trades carried on by the "strangers" provided against undue encroachments, as well as promoted a generous rivalry and competition. Personal action was, however, of stronger importance, and we hear of Sir Thomas White of St. John's College, Oxford, Master of the Merchant Taylors' Company, giving to Canterbury £100 to be laid out in spinning and weaving of woollen goods; and Archbishop Grindal left to the same
city £100 to be kept for ever for the use of the poor traders and dealers of wool there.
The Corporation of Canterbury encouraged the manufacture, and we find several entries in the city records transcribed into the Historical MSS. Commission Reports (vol. ix.) (Burghmote Records).
1577. "Paid to the Walloons for their allowance of the xxs. given them towards their halls." "Loom money" is mentioned in these documents, whether it was a tax on each loom, or a gradual payment of a loan granted to buy looms, does not appear; it sufficiently indicates, however, a growing interest in the foreign workmen. The correct sealing, stamping, and registering of cloths and other stuffs were systematically maintained at Canterbury, Sandwich, Maidstone, and other central towns.
The way was thus fully prepared for the advent of the refugees into Kent, and this immigration may be divided into three distinct historical epochs, viz., (1) after the expulsion of the Protestants from the Low Countries by the Duke of Alva; (2) before and after the massacre of St. Bartholomew (1572); and (3) on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685). Though naturally most found their way to the large towns, it cannot be disputed that several settled in the Weald, though I think more as artizans than as master workers, the owners and principals of the trade seeming to have been English born.
The Registers of the Wealden Churches occasionally include foreign names, and, if the Christian name is not stated, the appellation "Frenchman" or "stranger leads to a similar conclusion.
I am kindly indebted to Mr. Haskett Smith (one of our Members) for a few names from Goudhurst Register sufficient to establish a foreign occupation.
Gotier (Gautier), 1702.
Furneaux (17th cent.).
At Maidstone, in Elizabeth's reign, we find undisputed
evidence of a foreign settlement (chiefly Flemish), and the