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ROCHESTER. While these pages are passing through the press a portion of the foundations of a Roman building was discovered during excavations on the southern edge of the yard of the Police Station, in rear of the Guildhall. At a depth of 14 feet from the level of High Street the workmen threw out a few horn-cores of bos longifrons and other bones, together with fragments of Roman pottery, and the half of a bone-piercer with a hole drilled through its flat head. Immediately after massive foundations were struck which required repeated blows of the pick-axe before any of the masonry could be removed. Unfortunately the work of demolition proceeded until 2 feet of it had been destroyed. The City Surveyor (Mr. W. Banks) then arrived, and at once kindly communicated with the writer, who was permitted to disclose all that was possible in a cavity 7 feet by 6 feet.

A wall was met with running north and south, 5 feet of its length being composed of flints set in a brownish-coloured mortar of the finest quality, the remaining 2 feet of the wall was constructed with layers of broken tiles bedded in mortar mixed with pounded tile, the joints being as wide as the tiles. The whole mass of masonry visible was from 3 feet 4 inches to 3 feet 10 inches in width, but how much wider could not be ascertained. On its western side was a wall 22 inches in width, running in a westerly direction, half its width being built with flints, the other half with tiles laid in courses. This wall turned to the north, thus forming the angle of a compartment, the east side of which was also faced with tiles to a depth of twelve courses, the work being of the best description. Upon this eastern bit of wall rested the super-structure of broken tiles set in pink mortar already mentioned. The latter was evidently a later work of Roman date. On sinking down in the angle in hope of finding a floor, portions of buff-coloured tiles. were found. On the southern side of the 22-inch wall, which was probably the exterior face, the earth was so soft that the crowbar almost sank in with its own weight. Small as this discovery is, it is of the highest importance in connection with the history of Rochester, as no record has hitherto been made of the finding of Roman foundations within the boundary of the city walls. It is therefore most unfortunate that those which have just come to light are in such a position that nothing further can be exposed. A Plan however, of what has been discovered will be inserted upon Map in the Rochester Museum for future guidance.

BIRCHINGTON.-A house has recently been erected for Mr. W. W. Neame at Birchington between the high road from Margate and the London, Chatham, and Dover Railway, on the edge of a new thoroughfare to be called the "Beaconsfield Road." During excavations for the foundations of the house the workmen state that they found two skeletons at a depth of 10 feet, lying head to head; both skeletons lay east and west, one being head to the east, the other to the west. No relics were observed, but animal bones, charred matter, and oyster shells were met with. A few yards to the north-east of the house, when laying a drain, a third skeleton was discovered with a small Roman vase by the skull. It lay east and west, head to the west, at a depth of 2 feet 6 inches. Within a yard of the skull I detected in the drain-trench the outline of another grave, cut north and south. The information we have hitherto received concerning discoveries on the border of the county in this locality has been meagre and imperfect. I have therefore taken steps to ensure systematic watchfulness when land is again disturbed for building purposes at Birchington. October, 1896.


We have been requested by the Dean of Canterbury to publish the following Appeal.


THE year 1897 will conclude a very memorable epoch in the History of the Church of England; for June 2, 1897, will be the THIRTEEN HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY of the baptism of King Ethelbert, the first Christian English King, by St. Augustine of Canterbury.

Since that day a Christian Church has always stood on the present site of Canterbury Cathedral; and through that Cathedral and its precincts have flowed those thirteen centuries of English Christianity.

1.-In its close connection with the great secular events of our national history, Canterbury Cathedral stands almost unrivalled. It contains the royal tombs of Henry IV., and Queen Joan of Navarre; of Edward the Black Prince, and others of Royal lineage. It has been visited in State, and on great occasions, by nearly all our sovereigns.


In 1023 King Knut presented to the Cathedral his golden crown. On May 4, 1130, Henry I. came here with King David of Scotland and all the English Bishops. Here on July 12, 1174, Henry II. performed his memorable penance before the tomb of Becket. On Aug. 23, 1179, the Cathedral was visited by Louis VII. of France, the first French King who ever set foot on English shores. In Dec. 1189 Richard Coeur de Lion came here with William, King of Scotland, and again in 1194 on his return from the Crusades. King John and Isabella were crowned by Archbishop Hubert Walter at Easter, 1201. Henry III. was present, as a boy, with Archbishop Langton and Pandulph, the Papal Legate, on July 7, 1220, at the translation of Becket's remains; and he was here re-crowned by St. Edmund in 1236. Edward I. was married to Margaret of France; and he presented Here on Sept. 10, 1299, the golden crown of Scotland to the Cathedral in the same year. is visited by the Black Prince with his prisoner the after the battle of Poictiers; and in 1363 he built 'er his marriage with the Fair Maid of Kent.

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Henry V. visited the Cathedral on his way home after the battle of Agincourt. In 1900 it was visited by Emmanuel, Emperor of the East; and in 1417 by Sigismund, Emperor of the West. In 1465 Edward IV. and Queen Elizabeth Woodville visited it and presented the grand north window of the Martyrdom. Henry VII. came almost every year of his reign. In 1520 Henry VIII. worshipped here in great state with the Emperor Charles V.* The late Prince Consort stopped at Canterbury, and attended the Cathedral Service, in 1840, just before his marriage with Queen Victoria. The Queen had gone over the Cathedral with the Duchess of Kent on Sept. 28, 1835, previous to Her Majesty's accession, and visited Canterbury again in 1812.

2. The Cathedral is still more closely connected with the entire stream of events in the history of our Church. Here the great Archbishop Theodore († 690) founded the first great English School, and here he placed the first Organ that was ever heard in England. All the Old English Archbishops, with only one exception, from Cuthbert († 759) to Robert († 1052), including St. Dunstan, St. Odo, and St. Alphege, lie buried under its roof; as also do the great majority of the later Archbishops, from Lanfrane († 1089) to Cardinal Pole († 1558), including St. Anselm, St. Thomas Becket, Hubert Walter, Stephen Langton, Archbishops Peckham, Winchelsey, Bradwardine, Islip, Simon de Sudbury, Courtenay, Arundel, Chicheley, Bourchier, Morton, Warham, and other Saints and Statesmen famous in history for their high services to Church and Commonwealth.

3. The Cathedral itself is one of the most uniquely beautiful in England. It exhibits the first traces of Early English style, and besides the ancient Roman work recognised by archæologians in the Crypt, it contains specimens of the Pre-Norman, Norman, Transition, Early English, Decorated, Perpendicular, and Modern styles. Its Cloisters are described by Prof. Willis as a perfect museum of Mediaeval architecture."


4.The stateliness and beauty of Canterbury Cathedral is a matter of more than national concern. It is yearly visited by hundreds of Americans, and, with Westminster Abbey, is one of their chief points of attraction in the old Country. They, no less than we, have a profound interest in a structure so intimately conneeted with the history of our Church. It is also visited by multitudes of Colonial and foreign visitors, as well as by thousands of our own countrymen, sometimes as many as a thousand in one

It has also been visited, among other sovereigns, by King Stephen; Philip, Earl of Flanders (1184); King Philip of Spain (1555); Queen Mary (1558); Queen Elizabeth (1573); Charles I. and Henrietta Maria, immediately after their marriage (1625); Charles II. (1660); William and Mary (1689); George I. (1720); George H. (1728); George Prince Regent (1798). Richard II. presented the Cathedral with £1000. Queen Mary gave some magnificent hangings.

day; and it cannot but involve something of a stigma on our national generosity that means should be so grievously lacking to maintain its fabric and its institutions on a level worthy of its dignity as the Premier Cathedral of England.

It is our earnest desire to render memorable this thirteenth centenary of its history, by raising such funds as will enable us to make the fabric more secure and more beautiful for many years to come. In accordance with careful reports by the late and present architects-Mr. Christian and Sir Arthur Blomfield, A.R.A.—the most immediately necessary work is

i. The clearance and restoration of the long-neglected CRYPT, which would then be once more available for religious services;

ii. The repair of the CLOISTERS;

iii. The repair, sustentation, and restoration of the CHAPTER


iv. The restoration of the ancient CHAPEL OF ST. ANDREW, which is now unsightly from neglect and disfigurement.

i.-The Crypt is the largest in England, and, with the "LadyChapel in the Undercroft" and the other Chapels, is not only replete with the highest historic and architectural interest, but might be fully restored to the striking impressiveness of its early condition.

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ii.-The Cloisters are also a work of unusual beauty and interest. Mr. Christian's report of 1890 says, "They are now progressing towards destruction by decay of the stone-work; and Sir A. Blomfield adds that "their state is now (in 1896) considerably worse than it was in 1890." Unless they are speedily and thoroughly taken in hand, without any attempt at doing more than “to save what still remains from the further ravages of wind and weather," they will soon perish irreparably to the grievous loss of the nation.

iii.-The Chapter-house, once surpassingly magnificent, now (to quote the words of Sir A. Blomfield) "wears a depressing aspect of neglect and dilapidation," and is becoming in many parts very insecure. It might be made a source of pleasure to many coming generations, if restored to anything approaching the splendour which it once derived from its sumptuous decorations; but, in any case, it would be discreditable to this generation to allow it to perish from irremediable decay.

There is much else which it would be most desirable to do if we had the funds, but these unhappily are grievously lacking. Among other works, one or more stained-glass windows, the best that this generation can produce, should certainly be erected to commemorate so remarkable a centenary; in honour of which the Cathedral will be visited by the great majority of the Archbishops, Metropolitans, and Bishops of the English, Irish, Scotch, and American Dioceses, with the Bishops of India, Canada, Africa, Australia, and our whole Colonial Empire.



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