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PUBLISHED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE COUNCIL
Yorkshire Archæological Society.
PARTS 53 AND 54.
(BEING THE FIRST AND SECOND PARTS OF VOLUME XIV.)
BRADBURY, AGNEW, AND CO. LD., WHITEFRIARS, E.C.
**The Council of the Society are not responsible for any
Forms of Schedule prepared by a Committee of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, appointed to Organise an Ethnographical Survey of the United Kingdom.
MEMBERS OF THE COMMITTEE.
Francis Galton, F.R.S., J. G. Garson, M.D., and E. W. Brabrook, F.S.A. (Chairman), representing the Anthropological Institute.
Edward Clodd, G. L. Gomme, F.S.A., and Joseph Jacobs, M.A., representing the Folklore Society.
G. W. G. Leveson Gower, V.P.S.A., George Payne, F.S.A., and General Pitt-Rivers, F.R.S., representing the Society of Antiquaries of London.
Sir C. M. Kennedy, C.B., K.C.M.G., and E. G. Ravenstein, representing the Royal Statistical Society.
A Member representing the Dialect Society.
Dr. J. Beddoe, F.R.S.; Arthur J. Evans, F.S.A.; Sir H. H. Howorth, F.R.S.; Professor R. Meldola, F.R.S.
John Rhys, M.A., Jesus Professor of Celtic in the University of Oxford, and also Professor Boyd Dawkins, F.R.S., E. S. Hartland, F.S.A., Edward Laws, the Ven. Archdeacon Thomas, F.S.A., S. W. Williams, F.S.A., and J. Romilly Allen, F.S.A. Scot. (Secretary), representing the Cambrian Archæological Society, and forming a Sub-Committee for Wales. Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland.
Professor D. J. Cunningham, F.R.S., C. R. Browne, M.D., and Professor A. C. Haddon, M.A., representing the Royal Irish Academy, and forming a Sub-Committee for Ireland (Prof. Haddon, Secretary). E. Sidney Hartland, F.S.A., Secretary.
This Committee has already made two preliminary reports to the Association, in which the names of 367 villages or places in various parts of the United Kingdom have been indicated as especially to deserve ethnographic study. The list, large as it is, is not exhaustive. For these and such other villages and places as may appear to be suitable, the Committee propose to record
(1) Physical types of the inhabitants;
(2) Current traditions and beliefs;
(3) Peculiarities of dialect;
(4) Monuments and other remains of ancient culture; and
(5) Historical evidence as to continuity of race.
All communications should be addressed to 'THE SECRETARY OF THE ETHNOGRAPHIC SURVEY, British Association, Burlington House, London, W.'
The most generally convenient method of organising a simultaneous inquiry under these five heads appears to be the appointment of a subcommittee in each place, one or more members of which would be prepared to undertake each head of the inquiry. For the ancient remains advantage should be taken of the work of the Archaeological Survey where it is in operation. The general plan of the Committee is discussed in an article, On the Organisation of local Anthropological Research, in the 'Journal of the Anthropological Institute' of February 1893.
For the use of inquirers copies on foolscap paper of the Forms of Schedule have been prepared, giving a separate page or pages of foolscap for each head of the inquiries, on which are the questions and hints prepared by the Committee, the lower portion of each page, to which should be added as many separate sheets of foolscap as may be required, being left for answers; and, with regard to the physical observations, a single page of foolscap has been set aside for the measurements of each individual to be observed. The requisite number of copies of the foolscap edition of the schedules and of extra copies of the form for the persons to be photographed and measured will be supplied on application.
Communications should all be written on foolscap paper, and the writing should be on one side only of the page, and a margin of about one inch on the left-hand side of the page should be left, with a view to future binding.
Directions for Measurement.
Instrument required for these measurements :- -The Anthropometer,' manufactured by Aston & Mander, 25 Old Compton Street, London, W.C.; price 37. 38. complete; without 2-metre steel measuring tape and box footpiece, 27. 108. With this instrument all the measurements can be taken. In a permanent laboratory it will be found convenient to have a fixed graduated standard for measuring the height, or a scale affixed to a wall. For field work a tape measure may be temporarily suspended to a rigid vertical support, with the zero just touching the ground or floor.
A 2-metre tape, a pair of folding callipers, a folding square, all of which are graduated in millimetres, and a small set-square can be obtained from Aston & Mander for 17. 6s. with this small equipment all the necessary measurements can be taken.
Height Standing. The subject should stand perfectly upright, with his back to the standard or fixed tape, and his eyes directed horizontally forwards. Care should be taken that the standard or support for the tape is vertical. The stature may be measured by placing the person with his back against a wall to which a metre scale has been affixed. The height is determined by placing a carpenter's square or a large set-square against the support in such a manner that the lower edge is at right angles to thei scale; the square should be placed well above the head, and then brought down till its lower edge feels the resistance of the top of the head. The observer should be careful that the height is taken in the middle line of the head. If the subject should object to take off his boots, measure the thickness of the boot-heel, and deduct it from stature indicated in boots.
Height Sitting. For this the subject should be seated on a low stool or bench, having behind it a graduated rod or tape with its zero level with the seat; he should sit perfectly erect, with his back well in against the scale. Then proceed as in measuring the height standing. The square should be employed here also if the tape against a wall is used.
Length of Cranium.-Measured with callipers from the most prominent part of the projection between the eyebrows (glabella) to the most distant point at the back of the head in the middle line. Care should be taken to keep the end of the callipers steady on the glabella by holding it there with the fingers, while the other extremity is searching for the maximum projection of the head behind.
Breadth of Cranium. The maximum breadth of head, which is usually about the level of the top of the ears, is measured at right angles to the length. Care must be taken to hold the instrument so that both its points are exactly on the same horizontal level.
Face Length. This is measured from the slight furrow which marks the root of the nose, and which is about the level of a line drawn from the centre of the pupil of one eye to that of the other, to the under part of the chin. Should there be two furrows, as is often the case, measure from between them.
Upper Face Length. From root of nose to the interval between the two central front teeth at their roots.
Face Breadth.-Maximum breadth of face between the bony projections in front of the ears.
Inter-ocular Breadth.-Width between the internal angles of the eyes. While this is being measured the subject should shut his eyes.
Bigonial Breadth.-Breadth of face at the outer surface of the angles of the lower jaw below the ears.
Nose Length. From the furrow at root of nose to the angle between the nose and the upper lip in the middle line.
Breadth of Nose.-Measured horizontally across the nostrils at the widest part, but without compressing the nostrils.
Height of Head.-The head should be so held that the eyes look straight forward to a point at the same level as themselves-i.e., the plane of vision should be exactly horizontal. The rod of the Anthropometer should be held vertically in front of the face of the subject, and the upper straight arm should be extended as far as possible and placed along the middle line of the head; the shorter lower arm should be pushed up to the lower surface of the chin. When measured with the square the depending bar must be held vertically in front of the face (with the assistance of the spirit-level or plumb-line), and the small set-square passed up this arm from below in such a manner that its horizontal upper edge will come into contact with the lower contour of the chin. The distance between the lower edge of the horizontal bar of the square and the upper edge of the set-square can be read off, and this will be the maximum height of the head.
Height of Cranium.-The head being held in precisely the same manner as in measuring the height of the head, the instrument is rotated to the left side of the head, its upper bar still resting on the crown, and the recording arm (or the set-square) is pointed to the centre of the line of attachment of the small projecting cartilage in front of the ear-hole.
NOTE. It is essential that these rules should be strictly followed in order to secure accuracy. All measurements must be made in millimetres. If possible, the subject's weight should be obtained, and recorded in the place set apart for remarks. The observer is recommended to procure Notes and Queries on Anthropology,' 2nd edition, from the Anthropological Institute, 3 Hanover Square, London, W.; net price, 3s. 6d.