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its own weight and of its load, is ascertained and employed in estimating the total tractive force, the effect of the crank is exactly provided for in a very unexceptionable way, viz., experimentally.
Now both these quantities were determined by de Pambour as elements of his formula; and, therefore, although he nowhere notices in direct terms the effect of the crank in reducing the power, it is by implication, in this way perfectly eliminated. Nothing, therefore, can be more absurd, than to look for the discrepancies of this formula in the omission of elements which its author proved by experiment to be inseperable from it, and for which exact provision had been made.
Every fair and competent valuation of de Pambour's expression will reproduce the train of disorderly errors detailed in the above numerical statements, and that, too, without omitting the effect of the crank; and will hint sufficiently the necessity of having recourse to other primary causes than crank motion, or any other influence bearing a given relation to the power, for an explanation of them. It will be matter for astonishment to me if any engineer will prove that the evaporating capacity of modern locomotives, (and, therefore, their power,) is not increased with the velocity of motion, and in a very great degree; and that the air does not oppose the motion in proportion to the amount of actuating surface; or that these two elements (the one retardative, the other a much more powerful auxiliary, which will exert the utmost influence upon the powers of these engines in the future,) taken together, each according to its specific law and coefficient, do not solve every difficulty.
Albany, March, 1840.
For the American Railroad Journal and Mechanics' Magazine. DESCRIPTION OF H. R. & J. E. SERRELL'S IMPROVED MEANS FOR PREVENTING AND EXTINGUISHING FIRES ON BOARD STEAM VESSELS.
A double cylinder, B, closed air tight at both ends, is to form a ring around the smoke pipe A, and to be about two inches clear, around the same; the cylinder to extend from the top of the boiler upwards, above any wood or deck work near the smoke pipe; the cylinder is to be nearly filled with water, by a force pump D, worked by the engine when running, or by hand if required, when the engine is not running. A waste pipe b, inside the cylinder whose top shall reach within about one foot of the top of the cylinder, is to carry off the surplus water from the cylinder, either to the boilers, or over the side of the vessel; and the space left in the top of the cylinder, becomes an air chamber C.
crease of resistance in engines rating 1 pound per ton of load reduced to a level, the fraction 1-8 (12 per cent.) expresses the total proportion of resistance brought into action by the operation of the engine; and but a part of this is due the effect of the crank. Again, the total resistance of an engine per ton of its own weight is 15 pounds, and 8 pounds of this at least is due the friction of the wheels; consequently--X- 058 (less than 6 per cent)
is the greatest diminution of power attributable to crank motion. It has often been erroneously estimated at 3 or 4 times this amount; but a proper theoretic investigation fully confirms the result which has been established by experiments.
A main pipe e, and branch pipes g, leading from the cylinder, are to terminate in hose, with cocks and nossels h, in any part of the vessel, and a cock c, in the waste pipe b, is connected to the cock d, in the main e, by the communication f; and shutting the cock c, in the waste pipe b, opens the main cock d; converting the whole apparatus into an effective fire engine, (whose power is regulated by the capacity of the force pump) and at the same time supplies all the pipes which have the hose with cocks and nossels, making them available for quenching a fire in any part of the vessel.
A safety valve in the cylinder prevents breakage, through the pressure given to the water by the force pump. The reverse valve R, allows the ingress of air when wanted in the air chamber.
FOURTH ANNUAL REPORT OF THE WESTERN RAILROAD CORPORATION.
To the Honorable Legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: (Continued from page 224.)
The timber wanted for the same purpose, has been, principally, contracted for; and that for the part of the road west of Pittsfield, is in course of delivery.
The damages for land and fencing have been settled and paid, and the titles secured for about
They have been liquidated by agreements in writing, for
And are unsettled for
Convenient depot lands have been secured for seven stations, west of the river; and those for others are offered upon advantageous terms, when the locations shall be agreed upon. No one of the stations has, as yet, been actually located by vote of the directors; but the subject is in the hands of a committee, for a personal examination.
The receipts and expenditures of the corporation, for the year past, as stated by the treasurer, as of January 1, 1840, are as follows, viz:
ing fund) par, is
990 64 17,425 63
for exchange drawn agt. scrip unsold 655,114 52
Outstanding drafts by engineer, in favor of contractors, accepted, and not yet due,
Amount due Baring, Brothers & Co., Liverpool,
Geo. W. Whistler, agt. moving power,
57,850 05 12,526 05
Amount paid for incidental expenses,
construction, including iron, 1,225,235 55
engines, cars, etc.,
The total amount of receipts from the business of the road, for 3 months prior to January 1, 1840, was,
For transportation of passengers, three months, merchandize, two months nine days,
4,136 21 17,609 15
The expenditures of this department for the same time, were,
engines and cars,
Miscellaneous expenses, including clearing snow, 12,300 21
The amount of capital paid in, is the proceeds of six assessments of $150,000 each, laid upon the stock, amounting in the whole to $900,000. And there has been collected upon these on the first of January, inst. the following sums, viz:
This small deficiency is constantly diminishing by means of collections. And the treasurer anticipates but a very small eventual loss upon all the assessments, including notes secured by a pledge of stock.
And it is believed that a contingent fund, on hand, will cover a considerable part of it.
The act of the legislature of 1838, authorized the loan to the corporation, of the scrip of the State, having 30 years to run, for the sum of $2,100,000, on the condition of the collection of certain proportions of six assessments upon the stockholders. The whole of these assessments was $900,000, and there has been collected thereon, on the 1st of January inst. as before stated, the sum of $893,915, being a much larger amount than was required by the act. A small portion of the 4 last assessments was in notes, secured by sureties or a pledge of stock.
The act further required, that the corporation should execute to the Commonwealth, a bond, to apply the proceeds to the construction of the road, and to pay the principal and interest of the scrip, as it should fall due; and should mortgage the whole road, and all the franchise, and property belonging to the corporation, to secure the performance of the conditions of the bond. This requisition has been complied with, the bond and mortgage were given, and the interest on the scrip has been punctu ally paid by the corporation.
Another provision of the act required, that the premium or profits on tce sales of the scrip should be paid to the Treasurer of the Commonwealth and, that to this should be added, annually, after the road should be opened for use, a sum equal to one per cent. on the amount of the scrip, from the income of the road; and that the whole should by the Treasurer be placed at interest, and the same, with the interest annually accruing thereon, should constitute a Sinking Fund, for the future purchase or final redemption of said scrip. The premium or profits on the sales of scrip heretofore, so far as the accounts of sales have been received, have been duly paid over to the Treasurer of the Commonwealth, as will hereafter appear. And the whole is now under the care of the commissioners of the sinking fund, as provided in an act of the last Legislature.
The act of March 23, 1839, authorized a further issue of scrip. upon terms similar to those of the first act, for such a sum as might be necessary to enable the corporation to complete their road, not however exceeding
$1,200,000. Of this snm, the issuing of $400,000 is on condition that the corporation previously collect the sum of $75,000 upon a 7th assessment upon the private stockholders, and another $400,000 is upon condit.on of a similar collection upon the 8th assessment.
The act further proviles, that the Commonwealth may, at any time after its passage, purchase the road, and all the property of the corporation, by paying therefor the cost, and 7 per cent. interset.
This act has been assented to by the stockholders at a legal meeting; and the bond and mortgage thereby required have been filed with the Treasurer.
The whole of the scrip authorized by the act of 1838, has been received by the corporation, being
And also the first instalment under the act of 1839,
Of the former, there had been sold in England, at the date of the last advices,
And the Treasurer of the corporation has drawn upon the agents, against the balance of scrip unsold, and in anticipation of farther sales,
Making total amount drawn for,
$2,100 000 00
The scrip disposed of has been sold at an advance or profit above par value, averaging 3 per cent.. and it has always commanded a much higher price than any similar American scrip.
Sinking Fund. The profits arising from the sale of the scrip above mentioned as already sold, being $1,228,000, result, 1, from the premium for which the same has been sold above the par value, and 2, from the premium on the exchange drawn for the same, and they amount to the sum of
These profits are regularly paid over to the commissioners of the sinking fund, as fast as the accounts of sales are received from the agents;and occasionally transfers are made to that fund in anticipation of those accounts. The amount so paid over from time to time, was, on the 1st inst,, $115.528 29. And about $22,000 more will be paid over during the month of February next.
To the above sum is to be added the premium on the ex-
And which makes the amount in hand to accrue to the fund
or a little over 11 per cent.
If it shall be found necessary to use the whole of the $1,200,000 of the scrip authorized by the act of 1839, in order to complete to road west of Connecticut river, there will remain unsold and undrawn for,
January 1, 1840, the whole of that amount,
And the balance of that issued under act of 1838,
Total as the basis of further profits hereafter,