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chancellor's regulations of 1750, which aimed at stiffening discipline and reducing the expenses of undergraduates, produced a flood of pamphlets which give incidental information on the condition of the university. The Academic, one of the best known of these, credits undergraduates with 'taste for music and modern languages,' and due attention to mathematics, natural philosophy and the ancient languages. The Remarks on the Academic, while dissenting from the conclusions of its opponent, agrees with it as to the condition of learning at Cambridge.

Edward Gibbon's impeachment of the Oxford system is well known; he was at Magdalen college (when not elsewhere on 'schemes') for fourteen months, in 1752-3, entering from Westminster before he completed his fifteenth year. But his remarks are obviously too prejudiced to be accepted as a plain story of events which happened many years before he wrote his Memoirs ; Oxford's chief offence was that it was clerical and tory. Still, the charge of idleness which he brings against fellows of colleges had been made as early as 1715 by dean Prideaux, and, in the interval, the circumstances of clerical life at Oxford had not improved. Prideaux in LVIII Articles for reformation of universities wanted to enforce ancient discipline throughout academic society, to punish neglectful tutors and to superannuate fellows twenty years after matriculation. A fellow who had not secured a provision for himself at that date was to be removed to a special residence supported by the colleges and named 'Drone Hall.' The universities were heavily handicapped by a policy which placed so much of their teaching and government in the hands of clerical celibates, whose professional ambition and hopes of 'settling in life' frequently centred about a prospective college living.




For the history of English journalism prior to and contemporary with Defoe, see Nichols, J., Literary Anecdotes of the Eighteenth Century, vol. I, pp. 6, 312; vol. IV, pp. 33-97; Hunt, F. Knight, The Fourth Estate, 1850; Andrews, A., History of British Journalism, 1859; Fox Bourne, H. R., English Newspapers, 1887, vol. 1, pp. 1-130; Ames, J. Griffith, The English Literary Periodical of Morals and Manners, Mt Vernon, Ohio, 1904; and the chief authority for the earliest period (to 1666), Williams, J. B., A History of English Journalism to the Foundation of the Gazette, 1908.

For the history of English fiction prior to and contemporary with Defoe, see Dunlop, J. C., History of Prose Fiction, ed. Wilson, H., 1896, vol. II, chaps. IX-XIV; Tuckerman, Bayard, A History of English Prose Fiction, New York, 1882; Raleigh, Sir W., The English Novel, 1894; Cross, W. L., The Development of the English Novel, New York, 1899; Millar, J. H., The Mid-Eighteenth Century, Edinburgh, 1902; and Morgan, Charlotte E., The Rise of the Novel of Manners, Columbia University Studies in English, New York, 1911, which contains a full bibliography.


For L'Estrange's life, see a satisfactory article by Sir Sidney Lee in Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xXXIII. For information as to his writings, see this article; also Watt, R., Bibliotheca Britannica, vol. I, Edinburgh, 1824; Halkett and Laing, Dictionary of Anonymous and Pseudonymous Literature, 4 vols., Edinburgh, 1882-8.

A. Original Writings

(1) To a Gentleman, a Member of the Honourable House of Commons [a signed broadside]. July 8, 1646. (2) L'Estrange His Appeale from the Court Martiall to the Parliament, etc. April, 1647. Rptd in Truth and Loyalty Vindicated, pp. 38-45. (3) Lestrange His Vindication to Kent, etc. 1649. (4-23) The Declaration of the City, to the men at Westminster.-The Engagement and Remonstrance of the City of London. December 12, 1659. -The Final Protest, and Sense of the City.-The Resolve of the City. December 23, 1659.-A Free Parliament Proposed by the City to the Nation. Dated Dec. 6, 1659, but apparently combined with a letter To the Honorable the Commissioners of the City of London, for the Liberties and Rights of the English Nation, which is dated Jan. 3, 1659 (i.e. 1660).-A Plain Case. January 24, 1659.-To His Excellency, General Monck. A Letter from the Gentlemen of Devon in Answer to his Lordships of January 23 to them

directed from Leicester. D. Jan. 18, 1659.-The Sense of the Army. D. Feb. 2, 1659.-The Citizens Declaration for a Free Parliament (same date). --For his Excellency Generall Monck. D. Feb. 4, 1659.—A Narrative. D., without title, Feb. 12, 1659.-A Word in Season, To General Monck (with his officers, etc.), To the City, and To the Nation. D. February 18, 1659.-A Seasonable Word-Quære for Quære, etc.-No Fool to the Old Fool. D. March 16, 1659.—A Paper against the Faction. D., without title, March 24, 1659.—A Necessary and Seasonable Caution, Concerning Elections; A Sober Answer to a Jugling Pamphlet, Entituled, A Letter Intercepted, etc. D. March 27, 1660.-Treason Arraigned, In Answer to Plain English. 1660.An Answer to An Alarum to the Armies of England, Scotland and Ireland. D. April 4, 1660. [Nos. 4-23, together in some copies with Nos. 24 and 25, are rptd in No. 26, L'Estrange His Apology, and in almost every case are said to have been ptd.] (24) No Blinde Guides, In Answer To a seditious Pamphlet of J. Milton's, Intituled Brief Notes upon a late Sermon, etc. April 20, 1660. (25) Physician Cure thy Self: or, an Answer To a Seditious Pamphlet, Entitled Eye-Salve for the English Army, etc.... April 23, 1660. (26) L'Estrange His Apology: with A Short View of Some Late and Remarkable Transactions, etc. 1660. (27) An Appeal in the Case of the late King's Party. 1660. (28) A Plea for a Limited Monarchy, etc. 1660. Rptd in Harleian Miscellany, vol. I. 1744. (29) A. Caveat to the Cavaliers... Dedicated to the Author [James Howell] of A Cordial for the Cavaliers. 1661. (30) A Modest Plea Both for the Caveat, and The Author of It. With some Notes upon Mr. James Howell, etc. August, 1661. (31) Interest Mistaken, or, The Holy Cheat.... By way of Observation upon a Treatise, Entituled, The Interest of England in the Matter of Religion, etc. 1661. (32) The Relaps'd Apostate: or Notes upon A Presbyterian Pamphlet, Entituled, A Petition for Peace, etc. November, 1661. (33) To the Right Hon. Edward Earl of Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor of England: The Humble Apology of Roger L'Estrange. December 3, 1661. (34) State Divinity; or a Supplement to The Relaps'd Apostate, etc. Dec. 4, 1661. (35) A Memento: Directed To all Those That Truly Reverence the Memory of King Charles the Martyr; And as Passionately wish the Honour... of his Royall Successour... Charles the II. The First Part. April, 1662. New ed. omitting the three last chapters and entitled A Memento treating of the Rise, Progress, and Remedies of Sedition. 1682. (36) Truth and Loyalty Vindicated, From the Reproches and Clamours of Mr Edward Bagshaw, etc. June 7, 1662. (37) A Whipp For the Schismaticall Animadverter [Bagshaw] Upon the Bishop of Worcester's Letter, etc. February, 1662. (38) Toleration Discuss'd. 1663. (39) Considerations and Proposals In Order to the Regulation of the Press: together with Diverse Instances of Treasonous, and Seditious Pamphlets, Proving the Necessity thereof. June 3, 1663. (40) The Intelligencer. Published for the satisfaction and information of the people. With Privilege. From Aug. 31, 1663, on Mondays, to January 29, 1666. (41) The Newes. Published for the satisfaction and information of the people. With Privilege. From September 3, 1663, on Thursdays, until January 29, 1666. [Beginning with 1664, these two periodicals were numbered and paged together.] (42) Publick Intelligence. With sole Privilege. [A single number.] Nov. 28, 1665. (43) Publick Advertisements (with Privilege). [One number (?).] June 25, 1666. (44) A Discourse of the Fishery, etc. 1674. (45) The Parallel or, An Account of the Growth of Knavery, Under the Pretext of Arbitrary Government and Popery. With some Observations upon a Pamphlet [by Andrew Marvell], Entitled, An Account of the Growth of Popery, etc. 1677. 3rd ed., 1681, with a new title, An Account of the Growth of Knavery, under the Pretended Fears of Arbitrary Government, and Popery. With A Parallel

betwixt the Reformers of 1677 and those of 1641, etc. (46) Tyranny and Popery Lording it Over the Consciences, Lives, Liberties and Estates both of King and People. 1678. (47) The History of the Plot: Or a Brief and Historical Account of the Charge and Defence of Edward Coleman, Esq. [and 16 others]... By Authority. 1679. (48) An Answer to the Appeal [by Charles Blount] from the Country to the City. 1679. (49) The Case Put, Concerning the Succession of his Royal Highness the Duke of York. With Some Observations upon The Political Catechism, And Two or Three Other Seditious Libels. 1679. (50) The Reformed Catholique: or, the True Protestant. 1679. (51) The Free-born Subject: or, the Englishman's Birthright, etc. 1679. (52) Citt and Bumpkin. In a Dialogue over A Pot of Ale, concerning Matters of Religion and Government. 1680. (53) Citt and Bumpkin. The Second Part. Or, a Learned Discourse upon Swearing And Lying, and other Laudable Qualities tending to a Thorow Reformation. 1680. (54) A Seasonable Memorial in some Historical Notes upon the Liberties of the Presse and Pulpit, etc. 1680. (55) A Further Discovery of the Plot, etc. 1680. (56) L'Estrange's Narrative of the Plot. Set Forth for the Edification Of His Majesties Liege People. 1680. (57) The Casuist Uncas'd in a Dialogue Betwixt Richard and Baxter, With a Moderator Between Them For Quietnesse Sake. 1680. (58) Discovery upon Discovery, In Defence of Dr Oates against B. W's Libellous Vindication of him, in his Additional Discovery; and in Justification of L'Estrange against the same Libell. In a Letter to Doctor Titus Oates. 1680. (59) A Letter to Miles Prance. 1680. (60) L'Estrange's Case In a Civil Dialogue Betwixt 'Zekiel and Ephraim. 1680. (61) A Short Answer to a whole Litter of Libels. 1680. [Some copies read 'Libellers.'] (62) To the Rev. Dr Thomas Ken. February 1, 1680. (63) The Character of a Papist in Masquerade; Supported by Authority and Experience. In Answer to the Character of a Popish Successor. 1681. (64) A Reply To the Second Part of the Character of a Popish Successor. 1681. (65) L'Estrange his Appeal Humbly Submitted to the Kings most Excellent Majesty And the Three Estates Assembled in Parliament. 1681. (66) L'Estrange No Papist: In Answer to a Libel Entituled L'Estrange a Papist, etc. In a Letter to a Friend. With Notes and Animadversions upon Miles Prance, Silver-smith, etc. 1681. (67) The Observator, etc. April 13, 1681, to Mar. 19, 1686-87. (68) The Dissenter's Sayings, In Requital for L'Estrange's Sayings. Published in Their Own Words, for the Information of the People. 1681. (69) Dissenters Sayings. The Second Part... Dedicated to the Grand-Jury of London, August 29, 1681. 1681. (70) Notes upon Stephen College. Grounded Principally upon his own Declarations and Confessions, etc. 1681. (71) The Reformation Reformed; or a Short History of New-fashioned Christians, etc. 1681. (72) A Word concerning Libels and Libellers, Humbly Presented To the Right Hon. Sir John Moor, Lord-Mayor of London, etc. 1681. (73) The Shammer Shamm'd: In a Plain Discovery, Under Young Tong's Own Hand, of a Designe to Trepann L'Estrange Into a Pretended Subornation against the Popish Plot. 1681. (74) The Accompt clear'd: In Answer to a Libel Intituled A True Account from Chichester, etc. 1682. (75) The Apostate Protestant. A Letter to a Friend, occasioned By the late Reprinting of a Jesuites Book. About Succession to the Crown of England. Pretended to have been written by R. Doleman. July, 1682. (76) Remarks on the Growth and Progress of Non-Conformity, etc. 1682. (77) Considerations upon a Printed Sheet Entituled the Speech Of the Late Lord Russel to the Sheriffs: together With the Paper delivered by Him to Them...on July 21, 1683. [Rptd by Clarendon Historical Soc., 1882.] (78) The Observator Defended. By the Author of the Observators, etc.

E. L. IX.


1685. (79) An Answer to a Letter to a Dissenter [Halifax's], Upon Occasion of His Majesties Late Gracious Declaration of Indulgence. 1687. (80-82) A Brief History of the Times, etc. 3 parts. 1687-8. (83) A Reply to the Reasons of the Oxford Clergy against Addressing. 168-. [Rptd in Scott's Somers Tracts, vol. IX, 1809.] (84) Two Cases submitted to Consideration, etc. 1687.

L'Estrange wrote the Notice to the Reader in an edition of Fairfax's Godfrey of Bulloigne, 1687; and, in 1715, A Key to Hudibras, attributed to him, was printed in Butler's Posthumous Works.

[L'Estrange has been frequently credited with works which he, probably or certainly, did not write.]

See, also, Le Breton, A., Le Roman au dix-huitième Siècle, Paris, 1898; Texte, Joseph, Rousseau et les origines du Cosmopolitisme Littéraire, Paris, 1895; Warner, G. F., An Unpublished Political Paper by Daniel De Foe, Engl. Hist. Rev., January, 1907.

B. Translations

(1) The 'Visions' of Quevedo. 1667. (2) Five Love Letters from a [Portuguese] Nun to a Cavalier, from the French. 1678. (3) The Gentleman 'Pothecary; a true Story done out of the French. 1678. (4) Tully's Offices. 1680. (5) Cardinal J. Bona's ‘A Guide to Eternity' (from the Latin). 2nd ed. 1680. (6) Seneca's Morals by way of Abstract. 5th ed. 1693. (7) Twenty Select Colloquies of Erasmus, etc. 1680. With two additional colloquies, 1689. (8) An Apology for the Protestants; Being A full Justification of their Departure from The Church of Rome.... Done out of French into English. 1681. (9) The Fables of Aesop and other Eminent Mythologists; with Morals and Reflexions. 1692. (10) Five Love Letters written by a Cavalier in Answer [to No. (2) above]. 1694. (11) Terence's Comedies made English, etc. [revised by J. Eachard and L'Estrange]. 2nd ed. 1698. (12) Fables and Storyes Moralized. Being a Second Part of the Fables of Aesop and other Eminent Mythologists. 1699. (13) The Works of Flavius Josephus. 1702. (14) The Spanish Pole-Cat: or, the Adventures of Seniora Rufina, etc. [from the Spanish of A. del Castillo Solorzano, begun by L'Estrange and finished by Ozell]. 1717. Reissued in 1727 as Spanish Amusements, etc.


The chief biographies of Defoe are those by Chalmers, George (1790), which marks the beginning of serious study of the man and his works; Wilson, W. (3 vols. 1830), still valuable, particularly as a history of Defoe's times; Lee, W., in vol. I of Life and Newly Discovered Writings of Daniel Defoe (1869), which contains much new material badly handled and fixes Defoe's bibliography at the point at which it has stood almost to the present time; Minto, W., in English Men of Letters (1879), still valuable for the critical acumen displayed; Wright, T. (1894), which contains new material, but occasionally indulges in extravagant theories. Other biographers on a larger or a smaller scale, such as Towers, Dr, Hazlitt, William, the younger, Forster, John, Morley, Henry, and Whitten, W. (1900), deserve to be mentioned, as well as Stephen, Sir Leslie, and, for a good essay, Rannie, D. W. (Oxford, 1890). Cf. also, Lamb, Charles, Works, 1, Miscellaneous Prose, ed. Lucas, E., 1903; Dennis, John, Studies in English Literature, 1883; York Powell, F., Occasional Writings, ed. Elton, O., 1906. The most important recent student of Defoe is Aitken, George A., in his contributions to periodicals and his introductions to his edition of Defoe's novels. Cf. four articles, chiefly bibliographical, contributed by the present writer to The Nation (New York, 1907-8).

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