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several times 'augmented,' before John Strype once more edited and brought it down to date in 1720. Strype's chief work, however, was in the field of ecclesiastical history and biography; but his books, ill-arranged and uncritical, are distinguished less for their literary value than for the remarkable amount of curious detail which they contain. The diocese of London found a chronicler in Richard Newcourt, who, in 1708-10, published his valuable Repertorium Ecclesiasticum Parochiale Londinense. Wood's Oxford has already been referred to. Thomas Baker, nonjuring fellow of St John's college, Cambridge, added to accurate and wide knowledge the character of unselfish readiness to communicate to others his stores of learning. He made extensive collections towards a history of the university of Cambridge, including an Athenae Cantabrigienses; but, with the exception of the admirable history of his college, published, with large additions, by J. E. B. Mayor in 1869, the forty-two folio volumes in Baker's remarkable hand-writing still remain in manuscript. His Reflections on Learning, which appeared anonymously in 1700 and went through seven editions, brought him considerable credit at the time, but is now happily forgotten. William Cole, the friend of Horace Walpole, ably followed Baker in the same path, and, though he published nothing, his hundred folio volumes of manuscript collections and transcripts attest his industry, and many contributions from his pen appeared in the works of contemporary writers.

In monastic antiquities, the writings of Dugdale and Tanner stand preeminent among the books of this period, as does Dugdale's St Paul's among works devoted to particular ecclesiastical foundations. With these may be mentioned Simon Gunton's History of the Church of Peterborough (1686) and James Bentham's History of Ely Cathedral (1771). Browne Willis's History of the Mitred Abbies (1718), and Survey of the Cathedrals were useful, if not particularly accurate, compilations.

Among the more ancient monuments of antiquity, Stonehenge, from the latitude it afforded for ingenious speculation, formed the subject of various theories. Aubrey, in his oft-quoted but never printed Monumenta Britannica, assigns to it a druidical origin. In 1655 Inigo Jones, in his monograph on the subject, sought to trace a Roman original; while Walter Charleton, in Chorea Gigantum (1663), endeavoured to 'restore' it to the Danes, and William Stukeley, in 1740, produced his Stonehenge, a temple restor❜d to the British Druids.

Roman antiquities attracted comparatively small attention, though such books as William Burton's Commentary on Antoninus, his Itinerary (1658), and John Horsley's Britannia Romana (1732), with the writings of Thomas and Roger Gale, Nathaniel Salmon, Alexander Gordon, and others, suffice to show that the study was not entirely neglected.

The efforts of archbishop Parker in the sixteenth century to further Old English studies, found a successor, among others, in Sir Henry Spelman, who, besides producing numerous learned works of his own, was ever ready to encourage the studies of others. Neither the short-lived lectureship which he founded at Cambridge, nor Rawlinson's abortive similar project at Oxford more than a century later, succeeded in giving the study an academic status. Nevertheless, the subject did not lack votaries, among whom are to be counted William Somner, whose Dictionarium Saxonico-Latino-Anglicum was issued in 1659, Francis Junius, George Hickes, bishop Gibson, editor of the Old English Chronicle, William Elstob, and his learned sister Elizabeth, who published a Homily on the Birthday of St Gregory and a Grammar of the language.

It is not surprising to find that legal antiquities and the history of various offices of state interested many of the able men who either held office or engaged in the business of law, and the results include some of the most successful essays in the antiquarian literature of the time. Of such was The History and Antiquities of the Exchequer of the Kings of England (1711) by Thomas Madox, historiographer royal, whose other works include Formulare Anglicanum, a series of ancient charters and documents arranged in chronological sequence from the Norman conquest to the end of the reign of Henry VIII. This book, with its learned introduction, is important as a contribution to the study of diplomatic, a subject long neglected in this country. Elias Ashmole and John Anstis, both members of the College of Arms, each produced a work on the Order of the Garter. The numerous additions to the literature of heraldry comprised, besides writings by Selden, Dugdale, Nisbet, and others, The Academy of Armory (1688), by Randle Holme (third of that name), with its extraordinary glossaries of terms used in every conceivable art, trade, and domestic employment.

Two books are noteworthy as ventures into new regions of research that have since become fields of modern activity. Henry Bourne's Antiquitates Vulgares, or The antiquities of the common

people (1725) foreshadowed the study of local customs and traditions, now called folklore; and the account of English printers and printing which Joseph Ames issued in 1749, under the title of Typographical Antiquities, is the foundation stone of the history of printing in England.

With the growth of the literature of antiquarian studies consequent upon this increased activity, there arose the need of guides through the labyrinth of existing materials and of working books designed to facilitate research; and, accordingly, such aids begin to appear, though they were not always the outcome of a deliberate intention to furnish the tool-chest of the student of antiquities. Some of these books, such as Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannica and Notitia Monastica, and the indispensable Athenae Oxonienses, have already been mentioned. Sir Henry Spelman's Glossarium Archaiologicum represents another class of aids; while Thomas Rymer's Foedera, and David Wilkins's Concilia (founded on the work of Spelman and Dugdale), though perhaps belonging more properly to the domain of history, may also be noted here. The English, Scotch, and Irish Historical Libraries of that industrious but too impetuous antiquary, archbishop William Nicolson, was a new departure which, whatever its shortcomings, continued to be for long after its appearance a useful, and the best existing, conspectus of the literature with which it dealt.

The stores of original sources whence this army of antiquaries quarried material included the various archives of state papers and records, and the chief public and private libraries. A key to the manuscript treasures of the more important libraries, including the extensive collection formed by John Moore, bishop of Ely, was provided, in 1697, by the publication of the Catalogi Librorum Manuscriptorum Angliae et Hiberniae, a compilation which has not even yet ceased to be useful, and which must, in its own day, have been invaluable. In this work the editor, Edward Bernard, was assisted by many scholars, including Humfrey Wanley, celebrated for his skill in palaeography and for his catalogue of the Harleian manuscripts, upon which he was at work when overtaken by death.

Of state papers and records the most important depository was the Tower, where, at the beginning of the eighteenth century, something was done towards reducing them to order under the keepership of William Petyt, author, among other works,

of Jus Parliamentarium, a treatise on the ancient power, jurisdiction, rights, and liberties of parliament. Among public libraries, the Bodleian, with its continuous accession of large and important gifts and bequests, had no rival; and almost every antiquary who essayed original work was indebted to the resources of the Cottonian or the Harleian library.

The former of these two wonderful collections, brought together by Sir Robert Cotton, scholar and antiquary, was justly celebrated as much for the liberality with which the founder and his successors made its riches accessible, as for the extraordinary historical value of its contents, largely composed, as they were, of salvage from the archives and libraries of the dispossessed monasteries. The Harleian library, no less remarkable in its way, was collected by Robert Harley, first earl of Oxford, and his son the second earl, friend of Pope and patron of letters. On the death of the second earl, the printed books (upwards of 20,000 volumes) were purchased by Thomas Osborne, a bookseller who has had fame thrust upon him through having been castigated at the hands of Johnson and satirised by the pen of Pope, but who has a much better claim to being remembered as the publisher of The Harleian Miscellany (1744-6). This reprint of a selection of tracts from the Harleian library was edited by William Oldys and Johnson, who also worked together for some time upon a catalogue of the whole collection. Oldys, who deserved a better fate, spent a large part of his life in hack-work for booksellers. To the edition of Ralegh's History of the World, edited by him in 1736, he prefixed an elaborate life of the author, perhaps his most important work. The British Librarian, which he issued in six monthly numbers, in 1737, is merely an analytical contents of a selection of books, new and old; but his annotations in copies of various books, especially Langbaine's Dramatic Poets1, have been largely used by later commentators.

About the year 1572 there had been founded in London, chiefly through the instrumentality of archbishop Parker, a Society of Antiquaries. For nearly twenty years, this society met at the house of Sir Robert Cotton; but, on the accession of James I, it was, for some not very apparent reason, suppressed. It seems to have been fully a century later before there was any revival of such reunions; but in 1707 a few persons 'curious in their researches in antiquity' arranged to meet weekly for the discussion of such subjects, and, after ten years of these more or less informal

1 As to Langbaine, cf. ante, chap. v.

meetings, the present Society of Antiquaries was regularly constituted in January 1717-18, with Peter Le Neve as president, and Dr Stukeley as secretary. The list of founders included Roger and Samuel Gale, Humfrey Wanley, Browne Willis, and other wellknown names. In 1770, the society began to print selections from its papers under the title of Archaeologia. This publication formed a convenient repository for minor studies, a function which had previously been performed to some extent by the Philosophical Transactions, which the Royal society, instituted in 1660, began to issue five years later.

A period of new activities like that under review is scarcely expected to be productive of definitive work, and few, if any, of the books that have been named in this section attained the degree of exhaustiveness and niceness of accuracy demanded in the present age of work in the same field. Much, however, was done, by collecting data, examining material and making inventorial records, to prepare the way for succeeding workers; and the general results of this period are well summed up in the words of Tanner, which, written in 1695, are applicable with even more force at the close of the time covered by this brief survey.

The advances, that all parts of Learning have within these few years made in England, are very obvious; but the progress is visible in nothing more, than in the illustrations of our own History and Antiquities. To which end we have had our ancient Records and Annals published from the Originals, the Chorographical Description of these Kingdoms very much improved, and some attempts made toward a just body of English History. For those also that are more particularly curious, we have had not only the Histories both Natural and Civil of several Counties, the descriptions of Cities, and the Monuments and Antiquities of Cathedral Churches accurately collected; but even the memoirs of private Families, Villages, and Houses, compiled and published1.

1 Notitia Monastica, preface.

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