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Sir,-Having seen in the Literary Gazette of August 24th, that Dr. Fairbrother, of Clifton, has restored animation by stopping the mouth and sucking the foul air from the lungs through the nostrils, while respiration was promoted by pressure on the chest,* I send a

sketch of an instrument to be used in restoring animation, and I hope for its insertion.

As workmen are the persons most likely to be near when a person is taken out of the water, it would be desirable that the knowledge of rendering assistance should be widely diffused. tensive circulation of the Mechanics' Magazine will bring the following plan under the consideration of many.

The ex

The instrument resembles a funnel, with a large aperture in the side; opposite this large aperture, there is a short tube, the orifice of which can be covered completely by the thumb. This orifice may be called the thumb orifice.

The instrument is to be placed over the mouth and nostrils of the person to be relieved, and the thumb orifice is to be closed by the operator. The large aperture in the side of the instrument is to allow the lower part of the nose to fit into it.

If the operator apply his mouth to the top of the funnel to exhaust the air from the lungs, he will not succeed, because the instrument does not fit air-tight. The question is, how to render it so.

This can be easily done by using some soft tenacious substance easily got, round

• See Notes and Notices, last Number, p. 479.


the edges, when applied, dough or putty will answer; even butter may be used if nothing else can be promptly got.

When the instrument is rendered airtight, the operator can exhaust the foul air from the lungs while pressure is made on the chest and sides. When the pressure is relaxed, the chest, by its elasticity expands, and the thumb of the operator is to be removed to allow fresh air to rush in through the thumb orifice to the lungs.

In this way natural respiration is to be imitated by frequently repeating the pro


Experiments carefully made in France have shown that great mischief to the lungs can be done by bellows for injecting air, in unskilful hands. There the use of a broad bandage pulled tight round the body and relaxed frequently to imitate the contraction and expansion of the chest is everywhere recommended.

The plan here described is simple, the instrument is cheap, injury does not arise from its use. If it were made without the thumb orifice, some foul air contained in it would be drawn into the lungs again every time the operator would withdraw his mouth from the top of the funnel, and when he would cause the pressure on the chest to be relaxed.

This funnel should be kept in a box, and a canister containing the soft substance to render it air-tight should be kept with it. Plain and concise directions should be pasted on the inside of the box.

The top of the funnel ought to be small, that the mouth of the operator, should be able to command the exhaustion.


I have frequently caused a partial vacuum with a small glass funnel placed over the In this case the entire ear is to be put under the funnel, which is to be pressed down close to the irregular surface near the ear. Soft putty is then placed round the edges, and the operator applies his mouth to the top of the funnel to cause an exhaustion.

In some kinds of deafness instantaneous relief is thus afforded, when there is some obstruction of the Eustachian tube.

When the edges of a funnel in contact with the hard and irregular surface near the ear can be rendered air-tight, there can be no difficulty in rendering an instru



ment so, over the mouth and nostrils in like manner.

It may be asked, would it not do to have an instrument that would only include the nostrils. It is better to include the mouth also, because there might be some obstruction in the nostrils that would interfere with the free admission of air.

No one can tell but that the upsetting of a boat might cause himself to be the person to whom assistance would have to be afforded.

The diffusion of whatever is useful cannot be too general. This instrument may be the means of saving many lives. I have the honour to remain, Your obedient,

JOSEPH MACSWEENEY, M.D. ork, Sept. 7, 1839.

base A B. It is obvious, from the property of the cycloid, that any portion of the ruler, say, G I, intercepted between the circular arc, V G, and the cycloidal

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Sir, Many years ago it occurred to me that the properties of the cycloid might be advantageously applied to measuring circular arcs, &c., so as to reduce the measurement simply to that of a right line. From the very flattering notice which your intelligent correspondent O. C. F. (in your No. 316, p. 18,) did me the honour to take of my geometrical rectification of any arc of the circle I am induced to hope you will give insertion to my ideas, in your valuable journal, I am, Sir, yours truly,


April 16, 1839.

Let A V B be a cycloid, A B its base, and V D its axis, as also the diameter of the generating circle, V G D. Let this cycloidal periphery, as also the circular periphery be accurately and deeply cut upon a metallic plate, and let the dia. meter be divided by a graduated scale. Let a strong wire be affixed to the plate, and let this wire, P R, be parallel to the diameter V D, and raised a little above the plate, so that the wire PR, and the diameter V D, be in a plane perpendicular to the plane surface of the metallic plate. To this wire let a graduated ruler EH be attached so as to move freely along the wire, at the same time parallel to the



arc V I, will be equal to the circular arc V G, and, being graduated, will therefore measure the same while the portion of


the ruler E G, intercepted between the wire and the circular periphery, being graduated will measure the sine; also, the diameter being graduated, E C, the intercepted between C, the centre, and the ruler at E, will measure the co-sine, while EV measures the versed sine. Hence, this instrument, if accurately made will be a ready mechanicul table of circular arcs with their corresponding natural sines, cosines, and versed sines, while tangents, co-tangents, &c. will be readily found from the well known forsin.

mula, tang =


In order to apply this instrument for taking observations, an instrument


furnished with sights, or a telescope, as T, should be fixed at the centre C, turning on a swivel. It should be provided also with the proper apparatus of micrometers, &c. It is obvious the ruler E H should be at least equal to D B, the semi-base of the cycloid = the semiphery of the circle.

This instrument, which seems to me to recommend itself by its simplicity, I have denominated a cyclo-meter, as being a measurer of the circle, and therefore appropriately named by the compound, from χυχλός, a circle, and μετρον, α



30, Harmood-street, Camden Town, London.

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Sir,-In consequence of numerous accidents that have come within my knowledge resulting from the want of something to guard the hands from being drawn between the cylinders of bookbinders rolling machines, I have devised a plan to prevent them, which I send for insertion in your valuable Magazine. In my improved rolling machine, the improvement consists of two shields, one for each roller; the shields I propose to be made of well-hardened iron, about th of an inch in thickness, to extend half up, and half down each roller, the shield being kept apart the same

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distance as the space between the rollers, and to be fixed to the sides of the machine. The rollers to work within them.

Fig. 1, The rollers with the shields complete; a the upper roller, bb, the shields.

Fig. 2, One of the shields shown separately.

Fig. 3, A section, or side view of the rollers with the shields fixed.

By your insertion of this, you will not only confer a favour on me, but perhaps be the means of saving many a man of family from being incapacitated for work. Yours, &c.

C. SANDERS, Bookbinder.
No. 185, Drury Lane.



Sir,-About thirteen or fourteen years ago, from an interest I had in manufacturing glue and also size for paper-stainers, I was induced to try a variety of experiments on the French method (at that time shown in one of their scientific bulletins) of clarifying and bleaching glue. My attention was withdrawn from it by my concern in the matter ceasing. I well remember, however, that from the obscurity of the description of manipulation in the French publication, there were difficulties which could not be got over, although the materials became beautifully white. The great deterioration of the glue, its adhesive qualities being reduced one-third to one-half, rendered it useless for all purposes except for pastry cooks, who, I believe, occasionally practice this mode of preparation to make their jellies keep in summer, as well as to clear them.

Mr. Rattray of Aberdeen has taken out a patent for a modification of the French method of clarifying glue. He uses the hydro-sulphurous acid weakened by the addition of water. But I understand from glue dealers that it is rendered much weaker from the acid combining with the glue, and the price it is offered at in the market, three pence per pound more than other glue, precludes the use

of it.

The method of bleaching silk and woollen goods, and indeed all animal substances, by the combustion of brimstone, is well known. But the bleaching of resinous substances, and of straw, wood, and other fibrous matters, so as

to render them more fitted for the various uses to which they are and may be applied, is not known, at least not practised. Straw well washed, soaked in lime, and macerated therein for ten days or a fortnight, then washed again and submitted, as is done by the straw bonnet makers, to the fumes of sulphur, becomes whiter than by any other process if alone used, and from French specimens I have seen a very fair white paper is made therefrom. Perhaps the aid of chloride of lime may have been used in addition in paper making.

For animal substances the latter material is not wanted. A simple exposure (in a vessel partially closed) to the fumes of burning brimstone is sufficient to give a beautiful white to parchment or vellum, and likewise to glue pieces, care being taken to apply the gas to the materials intended to be bleached, while they are in a wet state.

It is not a little surprising that the attention of manufacturers has so long been withheld from the bleaching property of brimstone when burning at a low temperature. Cora dealers and hop growers have long known its value. Brimstoned oats which smell of this material when improperly used are well known in Mark


The wet harvest we have had must be my apology for offering an idea I have long entertained, that a moderate sulphuring of masses of corn, by burning brimstone slowly under malt kilns or hop-casts, would take off the mouldy smell and taste of it if badly harvested, and render it more fit for food. The fumes of sulphur thus imbibed are easily got rid, both as to smell and taste, if the process is carefully done and the sulphur in body not driven over into the corn by using too great heat.

The antiseptic qualities of sulphurous gas are undoubted, and the facility with which it be removed from the submay stance acted upon renders it worth the trial to prevent the loss of ill-gotten corn, by checking the progress of mouldiness.

Sept. 30, 1839.



In consequence of an invitation which Mr. Hancock received from several influential parties in Cambridge, he per


formed a demonstrative trip to that town with his common road locomotive the Automaton on Monday last. The Automaton is the largest steam-carriage Mr. Hancock has constructed; it was built in the year 1836, and ran successfully for some time on the Islington road. Two years' exposure to the weather in an open shed was not treatment likely however to improve steam-engine machinery; and although several short distances were lately worked by it, and it was thoroughly examined, a derangement or failure of some of the parts in a journey of 50 miles was no more than could have been naturally expected.

The Automaton ran from Mr. Hancock's factory at Stratford to Bishopgate-street in beautiful style. At the

Four Swans it took up its company, amongst whom were Sir James Gardner, Mr. Snow of the Highgate-road trust, Messrs. Humphreys of Cambridge, several civic capitalists, and a new steamcarriage inventor, Mr. Hills of Deptford, who doubtless came to take a lesson from Mr. Hancock in the difficult path of enterprise he has chosen.

At about five minutes to ten o'clock, the steam-carriage left the Four Swans, and was beautifully steered by Mr. Hancock through the crowd of spectators, and the number of coaches, carts and waggons usually passing in the neighbourhood of Bishopsgate on a Monday morning. Notwithstanding a heavy luggage waggon blocked the way for some minutes, Shoreditch-church was passed at two minutes past ten. This is the spot from whence the miles are measured and the mile-stones placed. The first station for taking in coke and water was the Old Plough at Tottenham, a distance of 44 miles from Shoreditch, which was ran in seventeen minutes. Ten minutes were occupied in taking in coke and water. The sixth mile-stone was passed in six minutes, (a mile and a half); seventh mile five minutes; eighth mile three minutes; ninth mile four minutes; tenth mile three minutes; eleventh mile four minutes. Near to the twelfth mile-stone, the stay of the blower broke, and after a stoppage of about ten minutes, the steamer proceeded to the second station, Cheshunt. The travelling time of the twelfth was about four-and-a-half minutes. An hour and five minutes were spent at Cheshunt,


putting a temporary stay of hoop-iron to the blower. The thirteenth mile was gone over in seven minutes; fourteenth four minutes; fifteenth four minutes; sixteenth, three-and-a-half minutes; seventeenth, very hilly, five minutes; eighteenth three minutes; nineteenth, hilly, four minutes; twentieth and a half, to the Oak at Ware, seven-and-a-half minutes. Here the passengers lunching, the engineers dining, and filling tanks with water, occupied fifty minutes. From Ware the twenty-second and twenty-third miles of considerable incline, were done in six minutes each. The Automaton was now approaching its most difficult task, the ascent of Wade's Mill Hill, an incline nearly as great as Holborn Hill, London, with a soft bottom, and newly covered with loose gravel. It was confidently prophesied by several who hoped and wished otherwise, that here the steam would fail, and many had gathered on the spot to witness Mr. Hancock's success or failure. To the gratification of most and the astonishment of many, the hill was ascended beautifully; the two miles of incline (twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth from London) were done, the former in seven minutes and the latter in eight minutes. The twentysixth mile was done in three minutes; the twenty-seventh, to Puckridge, in four minutes. Here coke and water were taken in. From Puckridge to Buckland, the 7 miles were travelled at about 5 minutes each, exclusive of various stoppages to cool the axles, which were now becoming extremely hot, by throwing water over them. From Buckland to Melborne, 8 miles, the rate was about 6 minutes a mile; from Melborne to Harston, about 5 minutes a mile. In ascending Wade's Mill Hill the full power of the engines was of course exerted, and the force of the steam loosened the packing of the stuffing-boxes; a segment also of the ring of lead-packing between the flange of the cylinder, and its cap was blown out. These leakages of steam, and the clinkers which had gathered on the furnace-bars, and on the sides of the boiler-chambers, from the badness of the coke, had crippled the Automaton's power, so that the last 5 miles into Cambridge occupied nearly an hour. The average rate of travelling the first 30 miles was, exclusive of stoppages, nearly 12 miles an hour, and of the whole

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