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(15.) OBSERVATIONS FOR LATITUDE, CHEYENNE, WYOMING TERRITORY,
Giving the first series half-weight on account of the smaller number of the observations and the less favorable condition of that night's work, the resulting latitude, and the one adopted for this station, is, 41° 7′ 46′′.62, with a probable error of 0′′.08. The latitudes were originally computed by Professor William A. Rogers, of Cambridge, Mass., and revised by Dr. F. Kampf.
(16.) RESULTING ASTRONOMICAL CO-ORDINATES.
Taking the longitude of the Salt Lake observatory to be 2h 19m 228.74 west of Washington by determination of the United States Coast Survey, and Washington to be 5h 8m 128.12 west of Greenwich according to the report of Rear-Admiral B. F. Sands, Superintendent of the United States Naval Observatory, October 6, 1871, Cheyenne is in longitude west from Washington, in time, 1h 51m 3.30; in arc, 27° 45′ 49′′.50; in longitude west from Greenwich, in time, 6h 59m 158.42; in arc, 104° 48′ 51′′.30; in latitude, north, 41° 7′ 46′′.62±0.08.
This final result for longitude is subject, as already stated, to a correction for the personal equation of the observers. It is possible, also, that the longitude of Salt Lake may be changed when the observations made last October at Detroit and Ogden by the United States Lake Survey and your expedition respectively are computed. In such an event, of course the longitude of Cheyenne will be correspondingly affected ̧ Respectfully, yours,
Lieut. GEO. M. WHEELER,
Corps of Engineers, in charge.
JOHN H. CLARK.
THE FIELD-SEASON OF 1873,
THE MAIN OR PRIMARY FIELD-STATION, COLORADO SPRINGS, COLORADO TERRITORY,
U. S. ENGINEER OFFICE, GEOGRAPHICAL AND GEOLOGICAL
EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS WEST OF 100TH MERIDIAN,
Washington, D. C., January 1, 1874.
SIR: There is presented herewith a report upon the astronomical observations taken by myself, and the party under my charge, at Colorado Springs, Colorado Territory, during the field-season of 1873.
GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION OF STATION.
Longitude 104° 49′ 15′′.10.
Latitude = 38° 49′ 41′′.67.
Colorado Springs is a town in El Paso County, Colorado Territory. It has been built up within five years, and has nearly fifteen hundred inhabitants, and the place promises to become one of considerable importance. During the summer-months the hotels (of which there are quite a large number) are filled with invalids, who flock here on account of the beautiful scenery and the salubrity of the climate. The track of the Denver and Rio Grande Railway passes around the town at a distance from the town-limits of about four thousand feet.
The astronomical point is situated between the town and the railroad, about six hundred and fifty feet distant from the latter, on a slight eminence near the freightdepot of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. The observations were conducted on a pier built of bricks, which was replaced two months later by a solid sandstone monument, furnished by Mr. S. G. Ward, of Pueblo.
This part of Colorado is not well watered, but the land where irrigated yields almost in every instance splendid harvests.
From the astronomical point there is a clear outlook to the north, south, and east. Looking west, prominent peaks and foot-hills of the Rocky Mountain range are seen running north and south; Pike's Peak, immediately west, being the highest, and Cheyenne Mountain the highest in the south-southwest. At the foot of Cheyenne Mountain there is a creek, the waters of which are brought, by means of ditches, to Colorado Springs. From the station the plains rise a little to the east, at the horizon say one hundred and fifty feet. In the southeast there is a hill about four hundred feet high, called Washington Mountain.
Colorado Springs is laid out regularly, the streets running east and west and north and south; the greatest extension is from north to south.
Generally speaking, it is inadvisable to have the astronomical station near the railroad-track; but in this case the trains ran only during the day, and the observations were never affected by the vibrations of the ground.