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the remnants of Warenne's army driven out of the country, but the north of England was ravaged by the victorious Scots. Marmaduke held Stirling for thirteen weeks until all food was exhausted, and then agreed to surrender the castle to Wallace, who was conducting the siege in person, on condition that he and the remainder of his men were allowed to retire unmolested, with their arms, to the nearest English fortress. This condition Wallace treacherously broke, imprisoning Marmaduke in Dumbarton Castle (Chronicon de Melsa, Rolls Series, ii, 355).

After the victory of Falkirk, Marmaduke received an important command in Scotland, and gained great distinction by the fearless and cruel manner in which he drove the roving bands of rebels from one part of the country to another, giving quarter to none. He fought at the battle of Methven, June 19th, 1306, when Bruce was defeated, and driven to take refuge in Ireland, and was one of the most trusted lieutenants of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, the commander-in-chief of the English army of occupation in Scotland.

Marmaduke was summoned to Parliament as a baron in 22 Edward I (1294), and regularly from 35 Edward I to 16 Edward II. He certified pursuant to writ tested at Clipston, March 5th, 1316, as lord of the manors of Thweng, Octon, and Swathorp, in the East Riding; and Lythe, Hinderwell, Kilton, Kirkleatham, and Thorp, in the Cleveland district (Palgrave's Parliamentary Writs).

From 1295 until 1307 Marmaduke spent nearly the whole of his time in Scotland, returning at intervals to Kilton for a short visit. After 1307 he does not appear to have again visited Scotland, and at the age of 51 settled down to a life of ease at his castle of Kilton, where he appears to have kept up considerable state. But two years later (1309) his wife, Isabella de Roos, died, and was interred in the north aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory. Marmaduke then retired to his manorhouse of Thweng, giving up Kilton Castle to his eldest surviving son, William.

In 1321, when 65 years of age, and in very feeble health, Marmaduke made a formal grant of the manors of Kirkleatham and Kilton, together with the castle of Kilton, to William. He died in April, 1323, at the age of 67, and was interred near his wife in the north aisle of the chancel of Guisborough Priory. An inquisition, held at Stokesley on the Saturday before the feast of St. Mark (April 23rd), 1323, proves that he held the

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fief of Kilton of the Percy family by knight's service, and a similar return was made at Kilham on the previous Thursday with regard to the fiefs of Lund and Thwing (Inq. p. m. 16 Edward II, No. 51).

WILLIAM, the second Parliamentary Baron de Thweng of Kilton Castle, was the second son of Marmaduke, first Parliamentary baron, by his wife, Isabel de Roos, and was born and baptised at Kilton Castle in 1276. He seems to have possessed all the external advantages for which his house was famous, a handsome person, charming manners, great skill in all military exercises, and much affability. But he may be classed with his intimate friend, Peter de Mauley V, as one of the most profligate and dissolute of the northern nobles.

He fought at the battle of Stirling in 1296, in which his brother Marmaduke was killed, and afterwards distinguished himself in the defence of Stirling Castle. He also took part in the campaign of 1306.

William was summoned to Parliament a baron from 18 Edward II to 15 Edward III, but to the last summons he is noted on the roll mortuus est.”

He is principally noted as the avenger of the horrible and dastardly murder of the unfortunate King Edward II, and much may be forgiven him on this account. Sir Thomas Gourney, who devised and executed the crime, fled abroad, and for a long time escaped justice, “sed per dominum Willelmum de Thweng, militem, longe lateque quaesitus captus est, et, pro nimio dolore causa vindictae in ipsium exercendae victui parcens mortuus est in mari, sed tamen mortuus in Angliam est retuctus (Chron. de Meaux, ii, 355).

William died 14 Edward III (1341), and was interred in the chancel of the Priory Church of Handale, two miles east of the castle, a Benedictine nunnery founded in 1133 by William de Percy, of which not a trace now remains, although, according to Graves, the west end of the chapel was still standing in 1808. From his death the decline of Kilton Castle may be said to date. By his wife, Catherine de Furnival, he left no issue, and the barony passed to his brother Robert.

THE DESTRUCTION OF KILTON CASTLE.

ROBERT, third hereditary Baron de Thweng of Kilton, was born at Kilton Castle in 1277, and was 63 years of age at the time of his succession.

He was a priest, and does not appear to have ever taken up his residence at Kilton, where Catherine, his brother's widow, continued to live. But the life at the castle would be very different to what it had been thirty years previously, Catherine probably occupying only a few rooms-possibly those in the apsidal north-east tower--the rest of the fortalice being unoccupied.

Robert died 18 Edward III, and the following is the account given of the castle at this time : "Et est apud Kilton quoddam parvum castrum et nichil valet infra muros et dicunt quod non potest reparari per annum minus quam de xls. quolibet anno et si in sufficienti statu debeat sustentari.”

Castles and manor - houses were exempt from taxation in these inquisitions, and the words “et nichil valet infra muros are merely those usually employed to convey this fact, and have no bearing whatever upon the condition of the castle, which is described as small.

Robert was interred with his ancestors, in the north aisle of the chancel at Guisborough.

THOMAS, the last of the Thweng lords of Kilton, was born at the castle in 1283, and was, therefore, 62 years of age at the time of his succession. At the age of 9 he had been appointed Rector of Kirkleatham by his father, Marmaduke, and would appear to have actually taken up his duties there about 1300.

He seems to have been much attached to Kirkleatham, and in 1348, three years after inheriting the family estates, he founded a large and important chantry in the parish church there, consisting of no less than 12 chaplains and 4 clerks, who were to live together in one house (" within the mansion of the rectory, and also lodge there"), and were to obey the Rector submissively in all things, wear garments suitable to their order, receive 20 shillings per annum sterling, and a robe yearly at Martinmas of one sort, containing six ells of cloth, etc., and to be fed by the Rector and provided by him with fuel and lights. They were to say mass daily for the healthful estate of the founder, of the King and Queen, and of Lord Henry Percy—the overlord of the Kilton fief—and for the repose of the souls of Robert de Thweng and Matilda (de Kylton) his wife, of Marmaduke de Thweng and Lucia (de Brus) his wife, of Marmaduke and Isabel (de Roos) his wife, the parents of the founder, and of Marmaduke, William, Robert, John, and Nicholas, the founder's brothers, etc. etc.

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This important chantry was founded in May, 1348, “at the request of Thomas de Thweng, Rector of the church of Lythum, and patron thereof,” and it practically converted the Rectory House, which at that time stood to the east of the church, into a small monastic house. The Roman branch of the Catholic Church has always cared for the poor and friendless, nor were they unprovided for in this new establishment. “He ordained that the Rector of the church for the time being, do every year, on the Feast of All Saints, give to 13 poor people of the parish, 6 pence, and a gown of 20d. price at least; also do yearly distribute among the poor of the parish nine quarters of bread-corn, and as many quarters of peas."

The old castle of Kilton was greatly neglected, and although Catherine, the widow of William, Lord Thweng, continued to reside there in strict seclusion until her death in 1349, she probably only occupied a few rooms, the remainder of the structure being practically allowed to go to ruin.

From 1349 to 1358 the castle remained untenanted, but in the latter year Sir Marmaduke de Lumley, Knt., who had been Prior of St. John of Jerusalem in Ireland, and who some two years previously had married Margaret Holland, took up his residence there without, however, making any alterations in the gloomy old structure, which was now hopelessly out of date. He had issue four sons and a daughter, Isabel, who subsequently married Sir W. Fulthorp, Knt.

Thomas, last Baron de Thweng, continued to preside over the establishment he had founded at Kirkleatham until his last illness in 1374, when he retired to the manor house at Thwing, where he died at the great age of 91 years. He was interred within the altar rails of the chancel of Thwing Church, where his effigy remains to this day.

SIR MARMADUKE DE LUMLEY, who had assumed the Thweng arms, Argent, a fesse gules between three popinjays vert, had predeceased his uncle, Thomas, and the custody of his young children had been granted to William, Lord Latimer of Danby, son of Lucia's grandson, William, Lord Latimer, by his wife Elizabeth, daughter of Lord Botetourt.

ROBERT DE LUMLEY, Marmaduke's eldest son and heir, and the great-grandson of Marmaduke, first Parliamentary Baron de Thweng of Kilton, was born at Kilton Castle in 1358, and succeeded his great-uncle, Thomas, last Baron de Thweng of Kilton, in 1374.

His guardian, William, Lord Latimer, married Elizabeth, daughter of Edmund, Earl of Arundel, and had issue an only daughter and heiress, who became the second wife of John, Lord Nevill of Raby and Middleham.

Robert came into possession of the whole of the ancient Thweng estates, viz. the manors of Thweng, Lund, North Cave, Foxholes, etc., in the East Riding : and of Kilton, Kiltonthorpe, Great and Little Moorsholm, Kirkleatham, and Hinderwell, in Cleveland, with certain lands in Egton, Marske, Brotton, Skinningrove, and Liverton, together with the advowsons of Thwing, Kirkleatham, and Hinderwell churches and of the chapel of St. Peter within the castle of Kilton.

He, however, never entered into full possession, dying at Danby Castle on the Sunday before the Nativity (24th December), 1374, as is proved by the inquisition taken at Guisborough after his death, 49 Edward III, before John Savile, the King's Escheator for the county of York.

RALPH, ist Parliamentary Baron de Lumley of Lumley, was born at Kilton Castle in 1361, and at the age of 13 became lord of Kilton.

He was, like his brother, a ward of William, Lord Latimer of Danby, who had summons to Parliament as a baron from 42 Edward III to 3 Richard II, and who died in 1381. At the time of his guardian's death, Ralph was still in his minority, being then 20 years of age, and the custody of his person and lands passed to John, Lord Nevill of Raby and Middleham, a famous noble, who had married, as his second wife, Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Latimer. Nevill had married, as his first wife, Matilda, daughter of Henry, Lord Percy, and by his conspicuous bravery and great business ability had added very greatly to the aggrandisement of the famous house of Nevill. He converted Raby into a great fortress-palace, and also erected the castle of Sheriff Hutton.

Ralph de Lumley resided at the old manor house of Lumley, erected in the reign of King Edward I by his grandfather, Sir Robert de Lumley, the husband of Lucia, daughter of Marmaduke, Lord Thweng. Ralph and his intimate personal friend, Sir William le Scrope—eldest son and heir of Richard, Lord Scrope, High Chancellor of England, the builder of the great fortress-palace of Bolton--married, on the same day, in the chapel of Raby Castle, two daughters, Eleanor and Matilda,

* Eleanor, the wife of Ralph, Lord Middleham, by his first wife, Matilda, Lumley, was the sixth and youngest daughter of Henry, Lord Percy. child of John, Lord Nevill of Raby and

VOL. XXII.

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