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and 1119_it would seem impossible to fix the exact date—and doubtless at once moved his caput to Skelton. He married Agnes, a daughter of Fulke Paynel.

As nothing remains of Skelton Castle except the deep scarped ravines which surrounded the old Surdeval fortress, it is unnecessary to go into detail, in a work of this kind, with regard to its history. In 1119 Robert de Brus founded the famous and wealthy Priory of Guisborough, endowing it with truly regal prodigality, and in 1138, as a man well stricken in years, was one of the principal commanders of the Anglo-Norman army at the battle of the Standard. By his wife, Agnes Paynel, he had two sons, Adam, who inherited the barony of Skelton, and Robert, 3 who inherited the Scottish property given to his father by David of Scotland, and who became the ancestor of the famous royal house of Scotland.

Adam Brus I was one of the adherents of Stephen against the Empress; and we have already noticed that Henry II compelled him to exchange his castle and lordship of Danby for lands in the West Riding. All historical inferences would tend to show that his son and heir, Adam II, in the last decade of the twelfth century, converted the old timber castle into a strong stone fortress with a rectangular keep. Adam II was succeeded by his son, Peter I, who, as we have already seen, repurchased his ancestral fortress at Castleton. He died in February, 1222, and was buried in Guisborough Priory. By his wife, Agnes, sister of William le Gros, Earl of Albemarle, and widow of William de Romara, Earl of Lincoln, he had, among other issue, a son Peter, who succeeded him. Peter was a man of very considerable power and influence, and one of the principal leaders of the baronial party against King John. On 31 January, 1216, John, in one of his rapid rushes to the North of England, came to Guisborough, where he spent a week, as the guest of the Prior, who was probably a somewhat unwilling host. From there he went to Skeltons and received Brus'

1 As we have already seen Brus states, in his foundation charter (1119) to Guisborough, that he held his Skelton property.“ by the gift and grant of Henry, king of England," who came to the throne in 1100.

Twenty-nine carucates with the advowson of ten churches and other gifts speak for themselves. . . :: Guisborough, which at the time of the Re. formation was the fourth richest monastery in Yorkshire, being surpassed only

by St. Mary's, Fountains, and Selby, may be called, without any exaggeration, the creation of the Brus family." Wm. Brown, Guisborough Chart., i, Intro., pp. xvi-xvii.

3 Ninth in descent from this Robert was Robert Bruce, the celebrated warrior king of Scots.

* Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., Rolls Ser.,

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ii, 531.

6 See the king's itinerary.


submission. On 12 February he went to Scarborough. Practically all the North of England had been in arms against him, but all the North Riding barons submitted with the solitary exception of Robert de Roos, who held out defiantly in his great castle of Helmsley.? Vesci of Malton appears to have been absent, and for this want of courtesy John ordered the destruction of his castle. Peter de Brus I would appear to have been the builder of the famous chapel within the castle of Skelton,3 which chapel would probably be in existence when he had the honour of entertaining, somewhat unwillingly no doubt, that very unpopular monarch, King John. By his wife, Helewise, one of the sisters and co-heiresses of Wm. de Lancaster, baron of Kendal, Peter II had, among other issue, a son Peter, who succeeded him. Peter III married Hillaria, eldest daughter of Peter de Mauley I, of Mulgrave Castle, and dying in 25 Henry III was interred at Guisborough. He was succeeded by his son, Peter,5 who died in 1272 without issue, when his vast estates were divided among his four sisters and co-heiresses, his eldest sister, Agnes, carrying Skelton Castle to her husband, Walter de Fauconberg. We may take it for granted that certain alterations would be made, previous to 1271, to the original stone castle erected c. 1190-1200 by Adam de Brus II.

The Fauconbergs resided at Skelton Castle for a considerable period, 8 and would, no doubt, make minor alterations to the structure. Finally Joan, daughter and heiress of Sir Thomas

1 Here William, Earl of Albemarle was probably in command. Rot. Lit. Pat. (Rec. Com.), i, 152.

2 Matt. Paris, Chron. Maj., Rolls Ser., ii, 642. The county of York was left under the control of three of John's favourites, Robert de Vipont, Brian de l'Isle, and Geoffrey de Lucy (ibid., ii, 643). The barons invoked the aid of Louis, the dauphin, and when he landed in England, the North Riding barons again rose in rebellion under Roos, Percy, and Brus (ibid., ii, 663).

3* In the latter part of the reign of King John, Peter de Brus, then lord of Skelton, is recorded to have delighted soe inuch in the beauty of the chapelle, that he gave certain landes unto Henry Percye, upon condition that every Christinasse day he should come to that castell, and leade his wife by the arme from her chamber to the chapell (Cott. MS. Julius F.C., fo. 455, cited by Graves, History of Cleveland, P: 351).

In io Henry III he was one of the justices itinerant in Northumberland.

6 In 31 Henry III, on the partition of the lands of Williain de Lancaster, lord of Kendal, he had certain property

assigned to him in right of his grandmother, Helewise, the wife of Peter II. In 42 Henry III he served in the Welsh campaign. In 52 Henry III he was one of the justices itinerant in Yorkshire ; in 53 Henry III was constable of Scarborough Castle; and left four sisters, his co-heiresses.

6 In his Ing. p. m. in 1271 (No. 32, mem. 4), it is stated that he held 1165 carucates of land.

? See Yorkshire Inquisitions, i, 147. Walter de Fauconberg bore the arms : 'Or, a fess azure, in chief three pallets gules," but subsequently assumed the

Argent, a lion rampant azure of the Bruces of Skelton Castle.

8 They lived at Skelton Castle for five generations. Walter, first Lord Fauconberg of Skelton Castle, died I Nov., 1304 He was succeeded by his son, Walter, second Lord Fauconberg (Chan. Ing. p.m., 32 Edw. I, No. 40)who married Isabel, daughter of Robert, Lord de Roos of Helmsley Castle, and died in 1318 (ibid., 12 Edw. II, No. 51) and who was succeeded by his son, John, third Lord Fauconberg. John, born 1290, High Sheriff of Yorkshire

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Fauconberg, carried the castle to her husband, Sir William Neville, afterwards Earl of Kent, who died 3 Edward IV,

1 leaving three daughters and co-heiresses, the youngest of whom, Alice, carried the castle in marriage to her husband, John, Lord Conyers. Skelton Castle remained the seat of the Conyers family until the reign of Mary Tudor, when an unfortunate dispute arose between the husbands and co-heiresses, a dispute which appears to have had very disastrous results. In 1577, the castle was purchased by Robert Trotter, whose descendants in 1342, settled the manor on himself 2 An ancient MS. (Cott. MS. Julius with remainder to his son Walter, in F.C., fo. 455) gives the following interesttail, in 1344 (Cal. Patent Rolls, 1343-5, ing description of the castle about this P. 301), and died in 1349 (Chan. Ing. p.m., time. On the righte Hande an antyent 23 Edw. III (1st Nos.), No. 57). Walter, castle all rente and torne yt seemed fourth Lord Fauconberg, who died 29 Sept., rather by the unkind vyolence of man, 1362, was buried in Guisborough Priory. than by the envye of Tyme, shewed itself He was succeeded by his son, Thomas on the syde of a broken banke. I (ibid., 36 Edw. III (ist Nos.), No. 77), demanded of my guide how the castle one-third of the property, however, was named and what misfortune had so being assigned as dower to his step- miserablye deprived yt. Sir, Quoth mother, Isabel (Close Rolls, 40 Edw. III, he, yt is Skelton Castle, the ancyent m. II; Chan. Ing. p. m., 40 Edw. III inheritance of the Lord Bruce, and (ist Nos.), No. 52). Thomas gave the dignified with the title of an Honor, reversion of this third, together with the which by marriage came to the Lord castle, for his lifetime, to Henry Percy, Falconbridge, and successively to the Earl of Northumberland (Chan. Ing. p.m., Lord Conyers, who leaving three daugh2 Hen. IV, No. 47), who was holding ters, co-partners of his estate, much Varythe fortress in 1401 (Cal. Patent Rolls, ance fell betwixt their Husbands for 1401-5, p. 24). As Thomas Fauconberg the Division of their shares, that neither was incapable, through mental disorder, Partye being inclyned to yield unto of looking after his estates, the custody other, every one for despite ruyned the of the castle was, in 1403, in the hands part of the castle whereof he was in of the king, who granted it to Robert possession, lest afterwards by suyte of and John Conyers (ibid., 255). Thomas Lawe the Lott should fall to another, died in 1407 (Chan. Ing. p.m., 9 Hen. IV, insomuch that the goodlye chappell, No. 19), leaving issue by his second one of the Jewells of this kingdom, rudely wife, Joan Bromflete, an only daughter went to the Grounde, with the fayre Hall and heiress, Joan (ibid., 9 Hen. IV, No. and large towers; but now scarcelye 19), his widow holding a third of the are the Řuynes of a Chappell to be seene, property as her dower (ibid., 10 Hen. IV, such Barbarisme raseth out the Glorye No. 15). This heiress, who was also of noble families, when an entyre Right mentally afflicted, married, when not of Inheritance is not invested in the 16 years old (ibid., 10 Hen. V, No. 22b), Person of one Man." If we may accept William Neville, second son of Ralph this story as correct, it is evident that Neville, first Earl of Westmorland, by the famous chapel was destroyed some his second wife, Joan Beaufort.

350 years ago.

The MS. referred to 1 Arms :

Gules, a saltire argent has been printed in the Topographer differenced by a rose (The Ancestor, iv, and Genealogist, ii, 403–432, the passage 232), or by a red mullet (Harl. MS., given above commencing on p. 419. 6163). He would appear to have Mr. Wm. Brown, F.S.A., in a letter subsequently quartered these with the to the writer, says, “I should be inclined Argent, a lion rampant azure of to accept the story as true. The guide the Bruces and Fauconbergs. He was mentioned may actually have been an the second son of Ralph Neville, first eye-witness to the destruction of the Earl of Westmorland by his second wife, chapel." Joan Beaufort, daughter of John of Robert Trotter died in 1611, and Gaunt, and was summoned to Parlia- was succeeded by his son Henry, who ment 3 August, 7 Henry VI (1429), as died in 1623, and was succeeded by his Lord Fauconberg of Skelton Castle, son George, who, in turn, was followed in right of his wife. He was created by Edward Trotter, who married Mary, Earl of Kent 30 June, 1461; fought daughter of Sir John Lowther of Lowas a Yorkist leader at Towton, was a ther, which alliance accounts for the K.G., and Admiral of England. Died presence, in the hall at Skelton Castle, 9 January, 1.463, and was buried in of a portrait of John, Lord Lowther. Guisborough Priory.

Edward died in 1708, and was succeeded VOL. XXII.


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