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earth-and-timber castle of his ancestors, and erected a stone castle a short distance away. Although Killerby was inhabited for about 170 years, it never developed any defences in masonry.

Description.--About half-mile south-west of Catterick, the marshy banks of the Swale, are the earthworks—locally known as Castle Hills—which mark the site of Scolland's fortress. The situation is one of great strategic importance, for not only was the castle close to two main Roman roads leading to Catterick (Cataractonium), but it commanded a ford of the Swale, and from its comparatively lofty site overlooked a great stretch of flat country.

The motte, unfortunately, is very much eaten away, so much so, indeed, that any measurements of its present height, or of the present area of its summit would be entirely misleading. It stands at the northern end of the earthworks, surrounded by a ditch, which completely isolates it from the bailey. The latter is still in fair preservation. On the east its ramparts rise to a height of no less than 60 feet above the swamps of the river Swale, and are very formidable in appearance. It is quite possible, previous to a great flood in 1771, that the river may have washed the base of this side of the bailey. On the west the ramparts rise to a height of no less than 38 feet above the bottom of the bailey ditch. The summit of the ramparts vary in width, and would appear, in parts, to be much eaten away, but the corners are well preserved, and have been enlarged into small platforms, which may have once carried small timber towers. Altogether the bailey must have been a very strong fortification. Clarkson3 may well be excused for taking the platforms for separate mounts, but they are merely broadenings of the scarp banks. The bailey covers about an acre; the entire earthworks about it acres.

One is inclined to think that the timber great hall, solar, kitchen, etc., always stood within the bailey, and that the motte was a citadel pure and simple.

1 This castle will be described in a later article. A local tradition exists that Brian Fitz-Alan also erected a castle at Bedale, but there is not a shred of evidence to support it, and it is most improbable that he built two stone castles so close together.

? Access to the summit of the motte frorn the bailey may have been obtained by means of a bridge or ladder, which could be drawn up on to the top of the motte when desired, a similar arrangement to that adopted with regard to the bailey entrance at Topcliffe.

3 History of Richmondshire, p. 393.

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KILTON. History.-During the reign of Stephen, possibly c. 1135-40, Pagan, a feudatory of the Percies of Topcliffe, and the ancestor of the Kiltons of Kilton, would appear to have founded a stronghold on a bold, narrow promontory jutting out into a deep ravine some 31 miles east - south - east of Skelton Castle, and about 5 miles east-north-east of Guisborough Priory. At the time with which we are dealing, viz. the year 1154, the castle was in the possession of Osbert de Kilton, who would appear to have been a son of Pagan.

Description. The castle occupied the summit of a narrow promontory, some 300 feet in length, 300 feet above sea level, and 180 feet above the Kilton Beck, which washes the base of the nab end of the promontory. The site, which somewhat resembles that of Montferrant,3 the great fortress of the Fossards, was one which could easily and economically be made practically impregnable. The eastern or nab end rose sheer 120 feet above sloping ground, which dropped another 60 feet towards the stream; the southern façade was guarded by inaccessible precipices; the northern façade by a very steep slope. All that

. was necessary in the way of engineering was to cut a ditch, 46 feet wide and 12 feet deep, across the narrow neck of the promontory until it merged into the ravines on either hand, Owing to the unusual strength of the site an artificial motte was evidently considered unnecessary.5 As this castle subsequently developed works in masonry, it will be again referred to in a later article.

1 Pagan held the following manors, etc., in Cleveland under the Percies of Topcliffe, viz.:- Kilton, 3 car.; Kilton, I car.; Kilton Thorpe, 2 car.; Kilton Thorpe, 1} car.; Little Moorsholm, I car.; South Loftus (soke), 6 car.; Hinderwe!), 4 car. 6 bov.; Arnodestorp (soke), 10 bov.; Seaton, 3 car.; Roxby (soke), 2 car.; Roscheltorp (soke),

1 car.; Hinderwell (soke), 10 bov.; Boulby (soke), 2 car.; Roxby, I car.; Kirkleatham, 4 car.; Westlide (soke), 2 car.; in all 36 carucates and 6 bovates of land. The Kilton fief in the Barony of Percy was apparently founded c. 1106, and was necessitated by the augmentation of the Cleveland estates of the Percies, which occurred after the confiscation by the king of the Mortain property.

2 Osbert gave two oxgangs and a toft in Kirkleatham and two bovates of land

in Kilton to the Priory of Guisborough (Cart. Prior. de Gyseburne, ji, 147). He would appear to have married a daughter of Conan Fitz-Henry, a Richmondshire feudatory. He was interred in the Priory Church at Guisborough. In 1875 a seal of this Osbert bearing the inscription, “ Sigillum Osberti de Kiltune,' was in the possession of a Mr. Corner, wine merchant, of Whitby. Osbert died c. 1170.

3 The site of the castle of Kilton is even better, from a defensive point of view, than that of Montferrant.

4 The original defences of the castle would be entirely of timber.

5 There would appear to have been a motte at Montferrant; but, strange to say, it was not placed at the nab end of the promontory, as we should naturally have expected would have been the case.

MALTON. History. The foundation of this castle may be assigned to Eustace Fitz-John (obiit 1157), a favourite of Henry I. His first wife was Beatrix, daughter and heiress of Ivo de Vesci; his second wife was Agnes, daughter and heiress of William FitzNigel. Stephen, having just cause to suspect his loyalty, greatly offended him by depriving him of his castle of Bamborough,2 and Fitz-John thereupon openly joined David, king of Scotland, and aided him in his invasion of England, 3 which terminated in the total defeat of the Scottish army, 26,0004 strong, at the battle of the Standard. Fitz-John fought on the Scottish side on this occasion, and after the battle a portion of the victorious army besieged and captured his castle of Malton. It is usually stated that the fortress was dismantled on the accession of Henry II, but this is incorrect. The castle is mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1187," and here Richard I met the king of Scotland in 1194.8 Eustace Fitz-John was succeeded by his son, William, who assumed his mother's name of de Vesci. William, in turn, was followed by his son, Eustace de Vesci.' Both were powerful and influential men, and it is certain that, during their time, the castle developed works in masonry. Colonel Parker, C.B., F.S.A., in a letter to the writer, says: “I think that the stone castle must have been built before the meeting of Richard I and the king of Scotland in 1194-probably by William de Vesci, or by Eustace, his son.” When King John visited the North Riding early in 1213, receiving the submission of all the barons with the solitary exception of Roos of Helmsley, he ordered the destruction of Malton Castle, and the fortress was dismantled in February of that year. 10

1 In 1150 he founded the Priory of and was killed by a crossbow man at St. Mary, at Malton, endowing it with the siege of Barnard Castle in July, 1216 the churches of Malton, Wintringham, (Melrose Chiron., sub anno 1216). and Brompton, and with the vill of 10 “ In expensis Stephani de Oxford Linton, which gifts were confirmed by et 2 magistrorum piccatorum cum ix his son, William de Vesci.

aliis ad prosternandum

de 2 Symeon of Durham, Op. Hist., Mealton. £11 8d." As Colonel Rolls Ser., ii, 292.

Parker points out to the writer the use 3 Richard of Hexham, Gesta Stephani, of the word piccatorum and the sub anno 1138.

comparatively heavy cost of destroying

the building is proof that a certain • He subsequently (1150) founded the amount of masonry was pulled down. Priory of Watton, East Riding, as a The site of the castle is in the grounds of penance for this act.

The Lodge," the residence of the Hon. 6 Chron. Stephen, Henry II and Geoffrey Dawnay, to whom the writer Richard I, Rolls Ser., ii, 165.

is indebited for showing him round. It ?" In liberatione unius capellani resi. was admirably situated for defensive dentis in castro de Malton, £1 8s." purposes, being placed at the angle of Roger of Houeden, iii, 242.

a promontory, but all that now remains 9 This Eustace was an adherent of is an angular fragment of the earthen the baronial party against King John, rampart. No trace of a motte now exists,

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4 Ibid.

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MIDDLEHAM, WILLIAM's Hill (fig. 4). History.--At the time of the Survey, the manor of Middleham was held, under his brother, Alan le Roux, of Richmond, by Ribald, one of the sons of Eudo, Count of Penthièvre in Brittany, by his wife, Innoguent, daughter of the Count of Cornouaille. Ribald married Beatrix,3 daughter of Ivo Taillebois, and by her had issue three sons, Ralph, Hervey,

4 and Henry.5 There would seem to be practically no doubt that the castles of Middleham and Cotherston are contemporary strongholds, and that the former was erected by Ribald early in the reign of Rufus. For the purpose of defending Wensleydale it would have been difficult to select a better site than that chosen by the brother of Alan le Roux. It commanded not only Wensleydale but its tributary vale of the Cover, and stood close to an ancient road leading from Richmond to Skipton-in-Craven, via Carlton-in-Coverdale. Many years after the death of his wife, probably about 1134-certainly between 1131 and 11377_Ribald, then possibly over 80 years of age, became a monk in the famous Abbey of St. Mary at York, founded by his brother, Alan le Roux.

but as the Eures undoubtedly had, in mediæval times, a manor - house on or close to the site, and as Ralph, 3rd Lord Eure, High Sheritf of Yorkshire, 1593, who married Mary, daughter of Sir John Dawnay, and died 16 March, 1613,-built a very large mansion on the site we need not be surprised that practically no traces now remain of the ancient castle.

ID.B., fo. 311h, col. 1. In Medelai (Middleham) for geld 5 carucates and 3 ploughs may be there. Ghilepatric had a manor there. Now Ribald has it, and it is waste. The whole i leaga in length and 1 in breadth. T.R.E. it was worth 205.

2 Ribald also held, under his brother, !arge estates in Norfolk (V'. C. H. of Norfolk, i, 70-5). After 1114, under the style of Ribauld, frater Alani comitis, Ribald gave the church of Optone to the Priory of Spalding, Lincolnshire, for the souls of King William, Count Alan, and Ivo Taillebois.

3 Beatrix must have died previous to 1112, for in that year, as Ribaldus frater Comitis," Ribald gave to the Abbey of St. Mary, York, for the souls of Count Alan, of Beatrix, his own wife, and of all his ancestors, 4 carucates in Briniston, in the time of Abbot Stephen, who died in 1912.

* Ivo Taillebois figures prominently in Chas. Kingsley's novel,“ Hereward the Wahe." He was an Angevin, and gave

the church of Spalding to the Abbey of St. Nicholas at. Angers, expelling the Fnglish monks of Croyland who had a cell there. He gave certain lands to St. Mary's, York (Mon. Angl., iii, 553), the charter being witnessed, among others, by Lucy, his wife, and Rihald, his son-in-law. In November, 1088, during the rebellion of Williamn de St. Carileph, he besieged and captured Durham Castle (Anglo-Saxon Chron., sub anno 1088).

5 This Henry was one of the witnesses to his nephew Ralph's charter to Fountains Abbey (Mon. Angl., V, 310).

6 As we have already seen, under Carlton, the Fitz-Randolphs probably erected, at a later date, a small motte castle in Coverdale.

It is also very probable that there was another road (Roman ?) leading from Isurium (Aldborough) via Well and Middleham to Bainbridge (Yorks. Arch. Journal, vii, 459), so that Ribald's castle of Middleham was fortunately situated in this way.

? Ribald was evidently still lord of Middleham in 1131, for he quitclaimed by charter to Abbot Goisfrid of St. Mary's, York (1131-2), one of the carucates he was then holding under the monks (Mon. Angl., i, 394). He also gave to St. Mary's certain mansurae near Richmond, and to St. Martin's Priory, Richmond, he gave for two garbs his demesne land in Snape.

was

Ralph, Ribald's eldest son, came into possession of the castle and barony of Middleham on his father's retirement.1 By his wife, Agatha, daughter of Robert de Brus of Skelton Castle, he had issue three sons, Robert, Ribald, and Ralph. Robert, the third feudal baron of Middleham, married Helewisa, the youngest of the three daughters and co-heiresses of Ralph de Glanville," the famous Justiciar to King Henry II. Probably between 1180 and 1190, possibly nearer the latter than the former date-Gale3 says 1190—Robert abandoned the earthand-timber castle on William's Hill," and commenced the erection of the existing rectangular keep, one of the largest in England. About 1189 Helewisa founded, on land she had inherited from her father, a house of Præmonstratensian canons at Swainby in the parish of Pickhill, which, in 1212,

, removed to Coverham by her son, Ralph. Robert, the third feudal baron, had issue by his wife, Helewisa de Glanville, three sons, Walran, who did not long survive his father; Ranulph, and Ralph

Description. The interesting earthworks which mark the site of the Norman castle of the Fitz-Randolphs lie to the south of the later and more famous stronghold. They occupy the summit of a grassy knoll, a highly defensible site, the ground beneath which slopes fairly steeply down towards the grey old-world town of Middleham. The view from the site is beautiful. To the left the lovely vale of Wensley winds upwards to meet the mountains of the west ; just below is feudal Middleham, “the Windsor of the north," the grandest of our Yorkshire castles; northward stretches a delightful and well-wooded country side, studded with villages and churches.

Ribald's fortress is one of the smallest but strongest motte and bailey castles known to the writer, and covers only about

acre of ground, equally divided between the motte and the

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1 He made a grant to Fountains Abbey (Mon. Angl., V, 310), his sons, Robert, Ribald, and Ralph, and his uncle, Henry, being witnesses.

2 Robert, the third feudal baron, gave all the tithes of his lands in Well, Snape, Crakehall, Spennithorne, etc., to St. Martin's Priory, Richmond (Mlon. Angl., iii, 603). This house had been founded c. 1100 by Wymar of Aske, steward to Stephen of Richmond, as a cell to St. Mary's, York (Won. Angl., iii, 601). Robert's father-in-law, Ralph de Glanville, captured William the Lion, king of Scotland, at Alnwick, on July 12, 1174, and had him conveyed to Richmond

Castle, where he was, according to tradition, confined in the small room above the Chapel of St. Nicholas, in “ Robin Hood's Tower." This was the station assigned to the Fitz-Randolphs of Middleham in the garrisoning of Richmond Castle, so it is permissible to conclude that the custody of the Scottish king's person was entrusted by Glanville to his son-in-law The room in question, which forms the first floor of an eleventh century mural tower, is not provided either with a fireplace or a garderobe.

3 Reg. Hon. de Richmond.

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