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may be clearly traced on the north and north-west sides of the motte, and is marked on the 6 in. ordnance map as “remains of moat." Mrs. Armitage adds: "I strongly suspect that the churchyard was formerly the bailey; it has something like a ditch on the east side, and on the north-west I saw something very like a fragment of a bank."
KILLERBY, CASTLE HILLS. (Fig. 3.)
History. At the time of the Survey, Killerby (Chiluordebi) was a berewick of five carucates in the manor of Catterick, retained by Alan the Red in his own hands; but it subsequently came into the possession of Scholland or Scolland, sewer to Alan Niger of Richmond (1137-1146), who, probably c. 1120-5, erected a motte and bailey castle upon it. Scolland's name is associated with the great hall at Richmond Castle, and the writer is inclined to think that the twelfth century alterations to the hall may have been executed under his supervision during the minority of Conan le Petit. He had issue a son, Brian, and a daughter, Constance. Agnes,4 who eventually became the heiress of the family, married Brian,5 second son of Alan III of Richmond by his wife, Bertha, daughter and heiress of Conan, Duke of Brittany. Brian was succeeded by his son, Alan Fitz-Brian, who died c. 1190,6 leaving by his wife, Agnes, daughter of Bertram Haget, a son Brian, a minor at the time of his father's death, an adherent of the baronial party against King John, and at one time custodian of the royal castles of Scarborough and Pickering. 10 On his death, c. 1239, the estates passed to his son, Alan Fitz-Brian, who died between 1254 and 1261, and was succeeded by his son, Brian Fitz-Alan, who, in 19 Edward I (1291), abandoned the
1 D.B., fo. 31ob, col. I.
2 Sed graviter irascebatur (ie. Count Alan) contra Scollandum dapiferum et Rollandum constabularium suum et quosdam alios pro multitudine luporum ibi commorantium, qui multa mala tam hominibus quam bestiis faciebant, etc. (Mon. Ang., v. 572)
3 As "Brianus fil. Scollandi," he is a witness to the gift of Melsonby to the priory of Castle Acre, in Norfolk (Castle Acre Reg. quoted in The Ancestor, xii, 186-7).
She was probably another daughter of Scolland.
5 As Briennus filius Alani," he witnesses c. 1154 a deed of Conan, Earl of Richmond (Pipe Rolls, x, 54), and was living in 1165 (Dugdale's Mon. Angl., li, 883).
Pipe Rolls, 1 Rich. I.
H. B. McCall, Early History of Bedale, p. 21.
8 Pipe Rolls, 2 Rich. I.
9 Rot. Claus, i, 165 and 338. 10 Cal. Patent Rolls, p. 144.
11 An excellent history of this distinguished soldier is contained in The Early History of Bedale, pp. 29-41. The Fitz-Alans of Killerby Castle must not be confused with their name-sakes, the Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel, with whom they were not connected in any way. The Killerby family bore the arms:"Barry of eight or and gules." Brian Fitz-Alan died in 1306 (Parl. Writs, i, 598 note). His singularly beautiful effigy still remains in Bedale Church.
earth-and-timber castle of his ancestors, and erected a stone castle a short distance away. Although Killerby was inhabited for about 170 years, it never developed any defences in masonry.
Description. About half-mile south-west of Catterick, on the marshy banks of the Swale, are the earthworks-locally known as Castle Hills-which mark the site of Scolland's fortress. The situation is one of great strategic importance, for not only was the castle close to two main Roman roads leading to Catterick (Cataractonium), but it commanded a ford of the Swale, and from its comparatively lofty site overlooked a great stretch of flat country.
The motte, unfortunately, is very much eaten away, so much so, indeed, that any measurements of its present height, or of the present area of its summit would be entirely misleading. It stands at the northern end of the earthworks, surrounded by a ditch, which completely isolates it from the bailey. The latter is still in fair preservation. On the east its ramparts rise to a height of no less than 60 feet above the swamps of the river Swale, and are very formidable in appearance. It is quite possible, previous to a great flood in 1771, that the river may have washed the base of this side of the bailey. On the west the ramparts rise to a height of no less than 38 feet above the bottom of the bailey ditch. The summit of the ramparts vary in width, and would appear, in parts, to be much eaten away, but the corners are well preserved, and have been enlarged into small platforms, which may have once carried small timber towers. Altogether the bailey must have been a very strong fortification. Clarkson may well be excused for taking the platforms for separate mounts, but they are merely broadenings of the scarp banks. The bailey covers about an acre; the entire earthworks about 1 acres.
One is inclined to think that the timber great hall, solar, kitchen, etc., always stood within the bailey, and that the motte was a citadel pure and simple.
1 This castle will be described in a later article. A local tradition exists that Brian Fitz-Alan also erected a castle at Bedale, but there is not a shred of evidence to support it, and it is most improbable that he built two stone castles so close together.
2 Access to the summit of the motte from the bailey may have been obtained by means of a bridge or ladder, which could be drawn up on to the top of the motte when desired, a similar arrangement to that adopted with regard to the bailey entrance at Topcliffe.
3 History of Richmondshire, p. 393.
History. During the reign of Stephen, possibly c. 1135-40, Pagan, a feudatory of the Percies of Topcliffe,1 and the ancestor of the Kiltons of Kilton, would appear to have founded a stronghold on a bold, narrow promontory jutting out into a deep ravine some 3 miles east-south-east of Skelton Castle, and about 5 miles east-north-east of Guisborough Priory. At the time with which we are dealing, viz. the year 1154, the castle was in the possession of Osbert de Kilton,2 who would appear to have been a son of Pagan.
Description. The castle occupied the summit of a narrow promontory, some 300 feet in length, 300 feet above sea level, and 180 feet above the Kilton Beck, which washes the base of the nab end of the promontory. The site, which somewhat resembles that of Montferrant,3 the great fortress of the Fossards, was one which could easily and economically be made practically impregnable. The eastern or nab end rose sheer 120 feet above sloping ground, which dropped another 60 feet towards the stream; the southern façade was guarded by inaccessible precipices; the northern façade by a very steep slope. All that was necessary in the way of engineering was to cut a ditch, 46 feet wide and 12 feet deep, across the narrow neck of the promontory until it merged into the ravines on either hand. Owing to the unusual strength of the site an artificial motte was evidently considered unnecessary. As this castle subsequently developed works in masonry, it will be again referred to in a later article.
1 Pagan held the following manors, etc., in Cleveland under the Percies of Topcliffe, viz.:-Kilton, 3 car.; Kilton, I car.; Kilton Thorpe, 2 car.; Kilton Thorpe, 1 car.; Little Moorsholm, I car.; South Loftus (soke), 6 car.; Hinderwell, 4 car. 6 bov.; Arnodestorp (soke), 10 bov.; Seaton, 3 car.; Roxby (soke), 2 car.; Roscheltorp (soke), 1 car.; Hinderwell (soke), 10 bov.; Boulby (soke), 2 car.; Roxby, I car.; Kirkleatham, 4 car.; Westlide (soke), 2 car.; in all 36 carucates and 6 bovates of land. The Kilton fief in the Barony of Percy was apparently founded c. 1106, and was necessitated by the augmentation of the Cleveland estates of the Percies, which occurred after the confiscation by the king of the Mortain property.
2 Osbert gave two oxgangs and a toft in Kirkleatham and two bovates of land
in Kilton to the Priory of Guisborough (Cart. Prior. de Gyseburne, ii, 147). He would appear to have married a daughter of Conan Fitz-Henry, a Richmondshire feudatory. He was interred in the Priory Church at Guisborough. In 1875 a seal of this Osbert bearing the inscription, "Sigillum Osberti de Kiltune," was in the possession of a Mr. Corner, wine merchant, of Whitby. Osbert died c. 1170.
3 The site of the castle of Kilton is even better, from a defensive point of view. than that of Montferrant.
4 The original defences of the castle would be entirely of timber.
5 There would appear to have been a motte at Montferrant; but, strange to say, it was not placed at the nab end of the promontory, as we should naturally have expected would have been the case.
History. The foundation of this castle may be assigned to Eustace Fitz-John1 (obiit 1157), a favourite of Henry I. His first wife was Beatrix, daughter and heiress of Ivo de Vesci; his second wife was Agnes, daughter and heiress of William FitzNigel. Stephen, having just cause to suspect his loyalty, greatly offended him by depriving him of his castle of Bamborough,2 and Fitz-John thereupon openly joined David, king of Scotland, and aided him in his invasion of England, which terminated in the total defeat of the Scottish army, 26,000 strong, at the battle of the Standard. Fitz-John fought on the Scottish side on this occasion,5 and after the battle a portion of the victorious army besieged and captured his castle of Malton. It is usually stated that the fortress was dismantled on the accession of Henry II, but this is incorrect. The castle is mentioned in the Pipe Roll of 1187, and here Richard I met the king of Scotland in 1194.8 Eustace Fitz-John was succeeded by his son, William, who assumed his mother's name of de Vesci. William, in turn, was followed by his son, Eustace de Vesci. Both were powerful and influential men, and it is certain that, during their time, the castle developed works in masonry. Colonel Parker, C.B., F.S.A., in a letter to the writer, says: "I think that the stone castle must have been built before the meeting of Richard I and the king of Scotland in 1194-probably by William de Vesci, or by Eustace, his son." When King John visited the North Riding early in 1213, receiving the submission of all the barons with the solitary exception of Roos of Helmsley, he ordered the destruction of Malton Castle, and the fortress was dismantled in February of that year.10
and was killed by a crossbow man at the siege of Barnard Castle in July, 1216 (Melrose Chron., sub anno 1216).
10" In expensis Stephani de Oxford et 2 magistrorum piccatorum cum ix aliis ad prosternandum castrum de Mealton. II 25. 8d." As Colonel Parker points out to the writer the use of the word " piccatorum" and the comparatively heavy cost of destroying the building is proof that a certain amount of masonry was pulled down. The site of the castle is in the grounds of "The Lodge," the residence of the Hon. Geoffrey Dawnay, to whom the writer is indebited for showing him round. was admirably situated for defensive purposes, being placed at the angle of a promontory, but all that now remains is an angular fragment of the earthen rampart. No trace of a motte now exists,
MIDDLEHAM, WILLIAM'S HILL (fig. 4).
History. At the time of the Survey, the manor of Middleham was held, under his brother, Alan le Roux, of Richmond, by Ribald, one of the sons of Eudo, Count of Penthièvre in Brittany, by his wife, Innoguent, daughter of the Count of Cornouaille. Ribald married Beatrix, daughter of Ivo Taillebois, and by her had issue three sons, Ralph, Hervey, and Henry.5 There would seem to be practically no doubt that the castles of Middleham and Cotherston are contemporary strongholds, and that the former was erected by Ribald early in the reign of Rufus. For the purpose of defending Wensleydale it would have been difficult to select a better site than that chosen by the brother of Alan le Roux. It commanded not only Wensleydale but its tributary vale of the Cover, and stood close to an ancient road leading from Richmond to Skipton-in-Craven, via Carlton-in-Coverdale. Many years after the death of his wife, probably about 1134-certainly between 1131 and 11377-Ribald, then possibly over 80 years of age, became a monk in the famous Abbey of St. Mary at York, founded by his brother, Alan le Roux.
but as the Eures undoubtedly had, in mediæval times, a manor house on or close to the site, and as Ralph, 3rd Lord Eure, High Sheriff of Yorkshire, 1593, who married Mary, daughter of Sir John Dawnay, and died 16 March, 1612,-built a very large mansion on the site we need not be surprised that practically no traces now remain of the ancient castle.
1 D.B., fo. 311b, col. 1. In Medelai (Middleham) for geld 5 carucates and 3 ploughs may be there. Ghilepatric had a manor there. Now Ribald has it, and it is waste. The whole I leaga in length and I in breadth. T.R.E. it was worth 20s.
2 Ribald also held, under his brother, large estates in Norfolk (V. C. H. of Norfolk, i, 70-5). After 1114, under the style of Ribauld, frater Alani comitis," Ribald gave the church of Optone to the Priory of Spalding, Lincolnshire, for the souls of King William, Count Alan, and Ivo Taillebois.
3 Beatrix must have died previous to 1112, for in that year, as Ribaldus frater Comitis," Ribald gave to the Abbey of St. Mary, York, for the souls of Count Alan, of Beatrix, his own wife, and of all his ancestors, 4 carucates in Briniston, in the time of Abbot Stephen, who died in 1112.
Ivo Taillebois figures prominently in Chas. Kingsley's novel," Hereward the Wake." He was an Angevin, and gave
the church of Spalding to the Abbey of St. Nicholas at. Angers, expelling the English monks of Croyland who had a cell there. He gave certain lands to St. Mary's, York (Mon. Angl., iii, 553), the charter being witnessed, among others, by Lucy, his wife, and Ribald, his son-in-law. In November, 1088, during the rebellion of William de St. Carileph, he besieged and captured Durham Castle (Anglo-Saxon Chron., sub anno 1088).
5 This Henry was one of the witnesses to his nephew Ralph's charter to Fountains Abbey (Mon. Angl., v, 310).
6 As we have already seen, under Carlton, the Fitz-Randolphs probably erected, at a later date, a small motte castle in Coverdale. It is also very probable that there was another road (Roman ?) leading from Isurium (Aldborough) via Well and Middleham to Bainbridge (Yorks. Arch. Journal, vii, 459), so that Ribald's castle of Middleham was fortunately situated in this way.
7 Ribald was evidently still lord of Middleham in 1131, for he quitclaimed by charter to Abbot Goisfrid of St. Mary's, York (1131-2), one of the carucates he was then holding under the monks (Mon. Angl., i, 394). He also gave to St. Mary's certain mansurae near Richmond, and to St. Martin's Priory, Richmond, he gave for two garbs in his demesne land in Snape.