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of exacting tribute from the inhabitants of the city of Ripon, and of maltreating and extorting ransom from any persons who were unfortunate enough to fall into the clutches of the garrison of the fortress. When order was restored in or about 1154, this robber den would share the same fate as befell Yafforth, being dismantled and destroyed by order of Henry II.

Description.—The earthworks which mark the site of this castle have been much mutilated, probably when the stronghold was destroyed by Henry II. It was clearly useless, when pulling down one of these adulterine fortresses, to destroy only the timber palisading and buildings, for, as we have already seen at Castle Leavington, it would have been a simple matter to restockade them at any time. It is possible the people of Ripon would destroy the earthworks if this were not done by the king. Apparently the castle consisted of a square central platform-after the style of that of Helmsley-defended by outworks and a series of concentric ditches and banks, but the mutilation is so extensive that it is practically impossible to say what was the original design. There would, however, appear to have been two oblong courts on the north and east, and there are traces of an ancient road leading to the entrance at the south-east angle of the eastern enclosure.

KILDALE.

History. At the time of the Survey,3 Kildale was in the king's hands, but very shortly afterwards4 it came into the possession of Robert de Brus, whose caput was probably then the neighbouring fortress of Castleton. At a comparatively early date, certainly as early as the reign of Henry 1,5 this manor, with other property in Cleveland, was subinfeuded by Robert de Brus to a certain Ernald de Percy, and a castle

1

John of Hexham in Symeon of escaped the terrible devastation wrought Durham, Rolls Ser., ii, 308.

by the Normans upon the neighbouring 2 We are told (Suger's Gesla Ludovici manors. Regis, ed. Molinier, p. 79) that when, 4 D.B., fo. 332b, col. 1. Fief of in 1112, Louis VI captured Hugh de

Robert de Brus. In Childale, 6 car. Puiset's castle (Puiset-Eure et Loire),

6 The foundation charter of Guis. he not only levelled the earthworks but dug up the wells (effosis puteis).

borough Priory states that Robert de 3 D.B., fo. 3316, col. 1.

Terra Tain

Brus, Agnes, his wife, and Adam, his

son and heir, confirm, among other orum Regis. In Childale habuit Ligulf vi carucatas terre ad geldum. Terra

grants made by their vassals,“ the Church ad iii carucas. Ibi habet Orme i caruca

of Ormesby, with all its appurtenances,

and the mill of Caldecotes, with the land tam et viii bordarios cum ii carucis. Ibi presbiter et ecclesia. Duas leucas

adjacent, the gift of Ernald de Percy," longa et i lata. T.R.E. ualebat xvi

and we know, from the Percy Feodary,

that the Percies of Kildale held Ormesby solidos. Modo xx solidos. Kildale would

under the Brus in the reign of Henry I. seem, in some way or other, to have

was probably founded here early in the reign of Stephen. Until the earthworks are examined, it is impossible to say when and to what extent the castle developed into a stone fortress, but that it did so develop is very probable, although one is inclined to think that it eventually evolved more on the lines of fortified manor - house than on those of a feudal castle. For many generations it was held by the Percies of Kildale, whose names are frequently met with in the Chartulary of the neighbouring priory of Guisborough. John de Percy, of Kildale, who died towards the close of the fifteenth century, left four daughters and coheiresses, who sold the property to their relative, Henry, Lord Percy, by deeds executed in 1494, 1502, and 1503. The castle, which was probably then more of a manorhouse than a fortress, was evidently occasionally occupied by the Earls of Northumberland, but seems to have been finally abandoned in the Tudor period.

Description. The old stronghold of the Percies of Kildale-a purely timber structure at the time of the accession of Henry II

was charmingly situated, immediately to the west of the church (which was in existence long before the castle?), in a narrow, secluded, and beautiful moorland vale, snugly tucked away between the towering heights of Percy Cross and Kempswithen, not far from the source of the river Leven, and some 5} miles east of Stokesley. The motte is very much silted down and defaced, and now measures on the summit some 300 feet in length from east to west by about 200 feet in width from north to south. It is probable that, at some period during its occupation, it has been lowered, as was done at Whorlton. A modern farmstead now occupies the summit, and in part the motte is cut through by the railway. Mrs. Armitage says, in a letter to the writer, An old man whom I met there in 1902 said he had always been told the castle stood on the rising ground west of the church, at the east end of the knoll. He also said there used to be a well there, but that it dried up when the railway cutting was made. There is now a farm

a house and a clump of trees on the knoll. The ground falls all round, probably marking the site of the ditch.” This ditch

1 The Survey informs us that a church existed at Kildale in 1087, and that it was a pre-Conquest church is certain, for when the existing structure was rebuilt in 1868 under the superintendence of Mr. Fowler Jones, replacing a churchwardenised edifice rebuilt in 1714, some interesting Danish interments,

etc., were found, an account of which appears in Canou Atkinson's History of Cleveland, pp. 81-85. Built into the walls of the present porch are four large slabs with floriated crosses, two of which bear the famous five fusils in fess of the Percies.

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5 CALE FOR SECTIONS

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may be clearly traced on the north and north-west sides of the motte, and is marked on the 6 in. ordnance map as “remains of moat.” Mrs. Armitage adds: “I strongly suspect that the churchyard was formerly the bailey; it has something like a ditch on the east side, and on the north-west I saw something very like a fragment of a bank.”

KILLERBY, CASTLE HILLS. (Fig. 3.) Historv.--At the time of the Survey,1 Killerby (Chiluordebi) was a berewick of five carucates in the manor of Catterick, retained by Alan the Red in his own hands; but it subsequently came into the possession of Scholland or Scolland, sewer to Alan Niger of Richmond (1137–1146),? who, probably c. 1120-5, erected a motte and bailey castle upon it.

Scolland's name is associated with the great hall at Richmond Castle, and the writer is inclined to think that the twelfth century alterations to the hall may have been executed under his supervision during the minority of Conan le Petit. He had issue a son, Brian,3 and a daughter, Constance. Agnes, 4 who eventually became the heiress of the family, married Brian,5 second son of Alan III of Richmond by his wife, Bertha, daughter and heiress of Conan, Duke of Brittany. Brian was succeeded by his son, Alan Fitz-Brian, who died c. 1190,6 leaving by his wife, Agnes, daughter of Bertram Haget,’ a sou Brian, a minor at the time of his father's death,8 an adherent of the baronial party against King John, and at one time custodian of the royal castles of Scarborough and Pickering. 10 On his death, C. 1239, the estates passed to his son, Alan Fitz-Brian, who died between 1254 and 1261, and was succeeded by his son, Brian Fitz-Alan, 11 who, in 19 Edward I (1291), abandoned the

1 D.B., fo. 310b, col. 1.

2 Sed graviter irascebatur (i.p. Count Alan) contra Scollandum dapiterum suum et Rollandum constabularium suum et quosdam alios pro multitudine luporum ibi commorantium, qui multa mala tam hominibus quam bestiis faciebant, etc. (.Von. Ang., V, 572)

3 As “ Brianus fil. Scollandi," he is a witness to the gift of Melsonby to the priory of Castle Acre, in Norfolk (Castle Acre Reg. quoted in The Ancestor, xii, 186–7).

4 She was probably another daughter of Scolland.

5 As “ Briennus filius Alani,” he witnesses c. 1154 a deed of Conan, Earl of Richmond (Pipe Rolls, x, 54), and was living in 1165 (Dugdale's Mon. Angl., 11, 883).

6 Pipe Rolls, I Rich. I.

?H. B. McCall, Early History of Bedale, p. 21.

8 Pipe Rolls, 2 Rich. I.
9 Rot. Claus, i, 165 and 338.
10 Cal. Patent Rolls, p. 144.

11 An excellent history of this dis-
tinguished soldier is contained in The
Early History of Bedale, pp. 29-41. The
Fitz-Alans of Killerby Castle must not
be confused with their name-sakes, the
Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel, with whom
they were not connected in any way.
The Killerby family bore the arms :-
“ Barry of eight or and gules." Brian
Fitz-Alan died in 1306 (Parl. Writs, i,
598 note). His singularly beautiful
effigy still remains in Bedale Church.

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