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their carving defaced. Indeed, there is less discussion than the subject requires of the archæology of the series of "Anglian ” crosses and allied objects. For example, Mr. Thurlow, of Leeds, has shown, by the application of modern archæological methods, that the Ormside cup was patched, after the wear and tear of a considerable period, in the late ninth or early tenth century (Annals of Archæology and Anthropology, Liverpool, 1911). Comparing the base of the cup with the Northallerton cross, and its birds with the Croft stone, an eighth century date becomes at least probable for these monuments, and consequently for the series allied to them. But Prof. Cook does not admit comparison with that series into his discussion, nor any evidence tending to show the possibility of seventh and eighth century dates for such forms of art. He allows that the Sta. Sabina doors were carved c. 450, and does not deny that St. Cuthbert's coffin was made in 698, but fails to see any analogy in these to the figures on crosses. He omits mention of the Achmim finds of the fourth and fifth centuries, which include crosses as gravestones, figures, scrolls, and plaits, in a style which antedates the Anglian period. Nor does he seem aware of the development of interlaced and zoomorphic design by the AngloSaxons in their pre-Christian fibulæ (see Archæologia, vol. lxiii, art. 8). These sources of early inspiration ought to be taken into account, for they show that all the elements of "Anglian " art were available long before the twelfth century.

In criticising the inscriptions, Prof. Cook notes (pp. 250-252) that after is not found in Anglo-Saxon literature as meaning "in memory of," and argues that the word must have been learnt from the Norse eptir, which is used in this sense on eleventh and twelfth century stones. But a lapidary form need not occur in literature, and, indeed, it would be difficult to find eptir used for "in memory of" in early Icelandic or Norse literature. The doubt he throws on the existence of runes in England before the tenth century (pp. 242-244) seems strange in the presence of the Franks casket, but Prof. Cook admits that he has not made a study of the history of runes. That he has drawn attention to the subject gives a hope that these relics may be more widely known and more thoroughly investigated; but much remains to be done before the series of Anglian monuments has been adequately classified, and the place of these two most celebrated but most difficult examples determined.


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For notice of this brass, I am indebted to Mr. A. N. Clapham, who, when visiting the church, noticed the brass and finding no mention of it in The Journal, kindly made and gave to me the rubbing from which the accompanying illustration has been made. The slab containing the brass lies on the floor of the chancel; but the brass itself has been sadly mutilated. The head of the figure, the centre of the body, one shield, and two scrolls are missing. The upper part of the body, the legs below the knees, the inscription and one shield still remain, and the pieces are of interest as adding one more example to the work of the local school of engravers. The figure represents Robert Constable, esq., chancellor of Durham, who died 2 October, 1454, and is in armour. Judging from the outline he appears to have worn a livery collar over the gorget. The shoulder and elbow-pieces are, respectively, similar in shape. The breastplate is strengthened by an overlapping plate and the gauntlets have long cuffs. The feet, which are encased in long pointed sollerets, with rowel spurs strapped over the insteps, rest on a mound covered with flowering plants. Below is a black letter inscription in four lines:

Hic iacet Rob'tus Conestable Armig'
quod' Cancellarius dunelm qui obiit
sec do die mens' Octobr' Anno dñí M°
cccc° liiiio Cui' Aie p'picietTM ds Ame

One shield, the upper dexter, still remains, it bears the arms of Constable of Everingham, quarterly (gu.) and (vair) a bend (or), charged with an annulet for difference.

The sinister shield and two scrolls below the inscription are lost. In the illustration the shields and scrolls are closed up in order to save space. On the slab the former are 8 inches above the apex of the outline of the helmet; the latter 18 inches below the inscription plate. The figure, when complete, measured 20 inches in height, the inscription plate 19 by 7 inches, the shields 6 by 5 inches, and the scrolls 3 inches. The will of Robert Constable, dated 25 September and proved 10 November, 1454, an interesting document in English, is printed in Test. Ebor., ii, 174.



The following miscellaneous notices of Yorkshire clergy have been kindly communicated by Colonel Parker, C.B., F.S.A., and will doubtless be found useful by those who are interested in compiling lists of the incumbents of their parish churches. All are from the De Banco Roll, No. 700.

St. Hilary, 14 Henry VI (13th January, 1436).

m. 54. John Storme, parson of the parish church of Erghom (near Skipsea), defendant in an action for debt.

m. 56. Master Robert Gilbert, Dean of the Cathedral Church of S. Peter, York, v. William Monkton, Vicar of the church of Topclyff, re debt 16 li.

m. 57d. Master Roger Dokwra, clerk, plaintiff, his trees at Burton in Kendal cut by defendants.

m. 88d. Richard de Sherburne and Robert de Wodrofe, chaplain, v. Thomas de Colthurst, of Mitton, yeoman, debt 20 marks.

m. 178. Prior of Nostell v. Thomas Woderofe, vicar of the church of

Thikehill, debt 20 li.

m. 179. Adam de Overend v. William Wade, parson of the church of Ellyngton, debt 47s.

m. 179d. John Wenesley, of Lemyng com. Ebor., chaplain, defendant in an action for debt.




Thos. Marshall v. Thomas de Reynton, of Thresk, chaplain,
breaking his close at Thresk.

Executors of Richard Semer, late sub-treasurer of the
Cathedral Church of York, v. Executors of William
Bamburgh, late parson of the church of Goldesburgh.
Richard Hyde, parson of the church of Wynestede, and
John Robynson, vicar of the church of Swyn, executors
of will of Rob. Hilton, Knt., plaintiffs.

m. 193. William Anderby, John Marshall, clerk, John Wynter, and William Lamson, executors of the will of William Pelleson alias Pelson, Archdeacon of Clyveland, and Canon Residentiary of York, plaintiffs, v. Abbot of S. Mary's, York, debt 40 li.

m. 195. Master Robert Wyot, parson of the church of Baynton, v. William Estyby, parson of the church of Blaketoryngton, debt 6 li. 13s. 111d.

m. 195d. Thomas Hoderod, chaplain of the chantry in the Chapel of B. Mary V. in the parish church of Acworth, plaintiff, re his chattels at Thorpanderby.

m. 196d. Master William Fylham, John Stevenys, John Welston, chaplains, and Thomas Waryn, executors of the will of the Reverend Master William Pilton, clerk, late Prebendary of the Prebend of Dryffeld, plaintiffs in an action for debt.

m. 197d. Abbot of Byland v. Robert Habram, vicar of the parish church of Scardburgh, debt 40s.

m. 206d. Richard Dryffeld, parson of the church of Lofthous, executor of the will of Thomas Scott, late parson of a moiety of the church of Hoton Bussell in Pykeringlyth, v. Thomas Fyscher of Kyllom, chaplain, debt 40s.

m. 212. Ibid.

Thomas Hemelsay, of York, clerk, plaintiff.

John Kyng, vicar of the church of Halyfax, plaintiff, debt 40s.

m. 213d. John Murchall, clerk, Nicholas Keld, parson in the choir (p'sona in choro) of the Cathedral Church of York, Richard Sprunt, chaplain, and Thomas de Mynskyp, late Registrar of John Wodham, late Archdeacon of the Estrydyng in the metropolitan church of York and of the churches of York aforesaid and of the collegiate church of Beverley, York Diocese, late Canon Residentiary of the Prebendary of Stenelyngton and of the Altar of S. Andrew, late Prebend in the same, executors of the will of John Wodham, late Archdeacon (etc. etc., as before) alias John Wodham, clerk, plaintiffs.

m. 234. Thomas Howelot or Hughlot, vicar of the parish church of Kildeswyke, plaintiff, debt 10 li.

m. 237.

m. 296.

John Clerk, parson of the church of Spofforth, plaintiff.
William White, vicar of the church of Ilkesley, defendant,

debt 40s.

m. 341d. John Orwen, vicar of the church of Thornton Steward, John Plungar of Watlous, chaplain, and Thomas Sutton of Hunton, yeoman, executors of the will of William Plungar, late parson of the church of Watlous, to answer the executors of Henry Fitz Hugh, Knt., late Lord of Ravensworth, for debts of 16s. and 9s. William Elleslake, parson of the church of Cheryburton, defendant in an action for debt.


m. 343. John Mounkton, vicar of the church of Wartre, defendant in an action for debt.

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