Page images

church, which took place in 1865, the chancel ended in a straight wall, which was pierced by a three-light window-opening. An old drawing of the church, however, indicates that the western part of the south wall of the chancel showed a slight inward curve at its junction with the east wall, as though an original apse had been cut short, and the straight east wall built across it. The methods adopted with regard to the early fourteenth-century insertions in the north wall of the chancel also point to an original apsidal termination. During the restoration, the foundations of the apse are said to have been discovered. The east wall was taken down, and the apse rebuilt on the old foundations. Unfortunately, no definite record of the discovery of the old apse has been preserved, and the date of the building of the straight east wall is unknown. The drawing already mentioned, and a small photograph taken shortly before the restoration, show that the east window had tracery of a poor fifteenth-century type, whether mediæval or not, it is impossible to say.

The whole of the three bays of the apse proper, with the pilaster buttresses which divide them, are modern; a few of the corbels in the corbel table below the outer roof appear to be old, but have been partially recarved. The western bay of the chancel on each side is straight-sided, and is divided externally from the apsidal bays by a pilaster buttress, also in great part new, which is more than double the width of the buttresses of the apse, and projects some 8 inches further. On the north side, the western bay has been left without much alteration as it existed after the insertions made about 1300. The corresponding bay on the south side has suffered little external change since that period, but the wall has been refaced internally, and the new arcade of intersecting round-headed arches has been carried along it. This alteration involved the destruction of old sedilia, and the removal into the tower of some eighteenth-century tablets which had been placed against the wall at their back.

The space for the quire, west of the chancel, is unusually short, and its oblong form is in striking contrast to the approximately square shape of the similar space at Birkin and other twelfth-century churches. The single window-opening on each

1 A well-known example of an alteration of an apsidal termination in this way is the chancel of Melbourne Church,

in Derbyshire. See illustration in F. Bond, Gothic Architecture in England, p. 213.

side is not in the centre of the wall, and this may point to some shortening of the space, possibly at the time of the mediæval alterations in the western part of the chancel. This, however, is merely a possibility. The arch which divides the quire from the chancel is semi-circular and of two orders, and is modern; but the jamb-shafts, consisting of a cylindrical central shaft on either side flanked by two smaller shafts, are substantially old, and the capitals, although in great part recarved, show rich and delicate sculpture of an early twelfthcentury type, and of some variety. The arch between the quire and nave is also modern, with chevron and beak-head ornaments, but the shafts, of similar plan, retain much of the old masonry. The capitals of the central shafts have neck-mouldings of cable ornament, and are sculptured with intertwined bands of foliage in flat relief, with small heads at the angles and in the centre of the faces. The lesser shafts have scolloped capitals; that of the western shaft on the south side shows, in addition to scolloping, incised voluting. The window-openings in the sidewalls are original. They are long and narrow, with rounded heads, cut externally in lintels. Their internal splays are deep, but very slight; the rear-arches have thick edge-rolls and cylindrical jamb-shafts. The capitals of the eastern shafts are cubical; those of the western are scolloped.

Externally a string-course, consisting of a segmental roll between two chamfers, runs beneath the window-openings of the quire, and was originally continued round the chancel ; it has been imitated in the modern apse. Beneath this, in the south wall of the quire, is a doorway, now blocked, with a head composed of two large stones, with a straight joint between them. The under-sides are cut so as to form a segmental arch, with a semi-circular projection beneath the crown, and another at each springing-point. The upper portions, forming a plain tympanum, are are enclosed within a semi-circular arch with an edge-roll and a chamfered hood.

The details of the older work of the chancel and quire point to the first quarter of the twelfth century as the original date for this part of the building. The restoration has somewhat obscured this probability by the addition of details of a rather more advanced character.

Aisles were added to the nave in the last quarter of the twelfth century The arcades of two bays have no eastern responds, the pointed arches of two orders without mouldings

springing directly from the wall. Much rebuilding has been done here, but the large cylindrical column which divides the bays on each side is largely original. The bases are of a distinctly twelfthcentury character, with a hollow chamfer in the upper member. The capitals are plain rectangular blocks, with their undersides chamfered at the angles to adapt them to the cylindrical shafts below; the abaci are square, with chamfered under-sides.

The aisles have been entirely rebuilt. In the west wall of the south aisle is a large round-headed window. This may be a restoration of an older window; if so, the south aisle is probably of its original breadth. The walls appear to be built on old foundations. The south porch is modern. The north aisle is of considerable breadth, and may take the place of an aisle rebuilt in the fourteenth or fifteenth century.

Towards the close of the thirteenth century two-light windowopenings were inserted in the western bay of the chancel, in place of the earlier round-headed openings on each side. That on the south has two trefoiled lights, with a rudely cut piercing of approximately vesica shape in the spandril. The insertion involved the cutting away of the string-course beneath the old sill-level, but internally the eastern jamb-shaft of the old reararch was retained. The northern window was formed by removing every trace of the older opening; it consists of two trefoiled lights, with a pointed quatrefoil in the spandril. The tracery, however, has been renewed, but the date indicated is about 1300. Beneath this window internally is a handsome tomb-recess, with a crocketed pediment. The carving of the crockets is rather coarse, but the general detail suggests that the work is contemporary with the window above. The recess contains a beautiful effigy of a knight in chain-mail, with surcoat and plate knee-caps. The shield is plain. The face has, apparently, been recarved, but the detail of the mail armour is worked with great delicacy, and the naturalistic carving of the folds is worthy of special remark. It is probable that this effigy commemorates Sir William de Cantilupe, who died in 1309; the details of the recess, effigy, and window taken together indicate that the tomb may have been prepared a few years earlier, during his lifetime. On the chancel floor, close

1 The effigy is very similar in detail to the two fine effigies of members of the Goldesburgh family in the chancel of Goldsborough Church, one of which is as late as 1310. Stothard, Monumental Effigies, plate 36, figures another effigy

of this type in Hatfield Broad Oak Church, Essex. Such effigies probably came from one workshop, the shields being left bare, for armorial bearings to be filled in by the purchasers,

to the south wall, is the effigy of a lady, which may be assigned to the first quarter of the fourteenth century; her feet appear beneath her dress, and her head rests on a pillow supported by two angels. The tomb in the north wall is somewhat large. in scale for the space it occupies, and its position was probably cramped by the curve of the apse, which began immediately to the east of it.

It is possible, as has been noted, that the north aisle was enlarged at some period subsequent to its original building. The present vestry is composed of much old stone-work, and the window in the east wall, of three lights, with tall shouldered heads, appears to be made up of parts of an older window of the later part of the fourteenth century, which may have been the east window of the north aisle. This aisle contained an altar, which was dedicated to our Lady. There was probably an altar in the south aisle dedicated to St. Anne.3

The lower part of the western tower may be in part of the twelfth century, but towards the close of the Middle Ages it was apparently refaced, and the belfry stage rebuilt with a two-light window-opening, square-headed, in each face. A threelight west window with narrow mullions was inserted in the lowest stage. Diagonal buttresses, I ft. 11 in. broad, with a projection of 4 ft. 8 in., were made at the western angles without bonding; but the plinth and base-moulding of the buttresses was continued round the tower. The date of this work may be indicated by various bequests made to the "church. works" between 1530 and 1536.4 Internally, the tower has been entirely refaced, and the arch into the nave is modern; before the restoration the tower and the west end of the nave and north aisle were filled by galleries, which were then removed.

There is some early fourteenth-century heraldic glass in the window above the tomb on the north side of the chancel.5 On the central capitals of the shafts between the chancel and

1 Test. Ebor., iv, 260.

2 Reg. Test. Ebor., xi, fo. 285d: "Thymage of our Ladie in the northsyde of the kyrke."

3 Ibid., x, fo. 45. At Sibthorpe, Notts., there was an altar of our Lady in the north aisle, and of St. Anne in the south aisle. (Reg. Zouche, fo. 92 et seq.)

Reg. Test. Ebor., xi, fo. 96d, etc. The church works," however, may imply a permanent fabric fund.

5 This glass is contemporary with, and probably came from, the same workshop as the heraldic fourteenthcentury glass in the nave of York Minster. Cf. the influence of the York glaziers in the fifteenth century on Yorkshire churches, e.g. at Almondbury, where two windows in the Kaye Chapel are obviously from the same workshop as contemporary windows in All Saints', North Street, and other parish churches in York.

quire are two small iron stanchions; these seem to be old, and were probably employed to hold the hooks of the Lenten veil, which would, naturally, hang in this position.



The effigy on the north side of the chancel mentioned above may be compared with the Brian fitz Alan monument at Bedale, which must date from about 1306. Other fine contemporary examples in the North Riding are the Stapleton effigy at Kirkby Fleetham and an anonymous knight at East Harlsey, with beautiful curling hair. The Feliskirk knight, like the East Harlsey one, has no heraldic bearings, but it is believed that with the aid of the shields of arms in the contemporary window above it is possible with a fair amount of probability to indicate who is the person commemorated. The ancient arms in the window are those of Walkingham, Cantilupe, and Roos of Ingmanthorpe. The connecting link between these families is furnished by Eva, daughter of Sir Adam de Bolteby, of Boltby, in the parish of Feliskirk, silver on a fess three sheaves gold.1 She had a sister Isabel, wife of Sir Thomas, son of Alan de Moleton, to whom her father gave his Northumberland property by a deed, dated at Scarborough on the Friday before Michaelmas, 2 Edward I (Sept. 28, 1274). Eva and her husband, Alan de Walkingham, were not willing to assent to this arrangement, and when it was acknowledged in chancery by Adam de Bolteby on the day it was executed, they laid claim to the tenements, and said they would speak about them when they wished.2 This property was, no doubt, inherited by Bolteby from his mother, Philippa, daughter of Adam de Tindale.3 Eva's husband, Alan de Walkingham, of Walkingham, near Knaresborough, was probably considerably her senior, as he was acting as a judge of assize in 1280. He died shortly before 1284, leaving Adam, his son and heir, a minor. In the same year his widow paid the king Soli. to marry whom she would.5 The arms of Walkingham, vair two bars gules, occur in the window.

1 Archæologia Eliana, New Series, vi, 103, 167. The family also bore canting arms, azure three pheon (bolts) gold.

2 Cal. of Close Rolls (1279-1288), p. 62. 3 Yorkshire Inquisitions, i, 120; ii, 6.


Foss's Judges of England.

5 Yorkshire Inquisitions, ii, 6; and Cal. of Close Rolls (1279-1288), p. 248.

Sire Johan de Walkingham de veer a ij barres de goules. (Roll of Arms, temp. Edward II, p. 95.)

« PreviousContinue »