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the Godfathers and Godmother, and other bystanders. This same red wine may have caused another witness to fall from his horse with such violence as to break his left shin. John Rede had cause to remember the day, because Richard Arthyngton, one of the Godfathers, made him a present of six pounds.

Having attained his majority and the possession of his estates, young Redman promptly got into mischief. Being fond of sport, he was not averse to a little poaching. In the following April he and two of his kin, John and Adam Redman, were charged1 by Henry, Earl of Northumberland, with breaking into his free warren at Spofforth and hunting there and taking his hares, pheasants and partridges, in defiance of the statute which prescribed three years' imprisonment or banishment for life for such enormities. The Redmans did not appear at Westminster to answer the charge and the Sheriff was ordered to arrest them. Here the record ends, but we hear of no ill consequences to the poachers. Soon after this episode Richard Redman was knighted in due course, and in 1442 was returned to Parliament as Knight of the Shire for Westmorland. He was married when young to Ellen daughter of his neighbour Sir William Gascoigne, the Redman estate at Lupton near Levens being settled on them and their issue. This marriage is clearly proved by Inquisitions, at one of which a juror having been challenged on account of kinship, a pedigree showing this Gascoigne marriage was duly set out and admitted to be correct. A pedigree in the Heralds' Colleges makes this Sir Richard marry Margaret Middelton and allots to them thirteen children; but this Richard was of quite another family, and the Middelton match must be deleted once and for all from the Harewood line of Redman. Sir Richard died in 1476 leaving by Ellen Gascoigne four sons and one daughter. In Harewood Church are the recumbent effigies of this knight and his Gascoigne wife, resting side by side on a magnificent altar-tomb.

Sir William Redman, the eldest son, was knighted at the marriage of Richard, the ill-fated Duke of York, in 1477.4 In 1482, just before the capture of Berwick, he was created a

1 De Banco Roll, 709, m. 28d.

2 Coram Rege Roll, 1011, m. 3 (Easter, 6 Hen. VIII). The juror, Thomas Legh, was son of Roger son of Margaret, daughter of Anne, a daughter of William Gascoign, Knight, father of Elizabeth, mother of Edward, father of Richard Redman. Elizabeth is apparently an error for Ellen; but, whatever her Christian name, the mother of Edward

and wife of Sir Richard Redman was a daughter of Sir William Gascoigne.

3 Vincent and Philpot (Duchetiana, p. 24). The Visitations of Yorkshire, 1564, and Westmorland, 1615, show Margaret Middleton as wife of Richard Redman; but do not state that he was of Levens and Harewood.


Medcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 5.

Banneret by the Duke of Gloucester in Scotland1; but he only enjoyed this honour for seven weeks, dying-perhaps from wounds received at the siege-on September 14th, after making a nuncupative will on the 11th. He was married at the age of 12 to his cousin, Margaret Strickland of Sizergh; but, having no issue, was succeeded in the estates by his brother Edward, then aged 27.*

On the death of Edward Redman in 1510 the ownership of Harewood was in dispute between his grand-daughter Joan (only child of Henry his elder son who predeceased him), and Richard his younger son Eventually, after much litigation, Richard established his claim to Harewood as heir male under

his marriage settlement, the Caley estate near Otley passing as her share to Joan, who was given in marriage to Marmaduke Gascoigne fourth son of Gawthorpe.

Richard Redman the successful litigant was twice married : first to Elizabeth Gascoigne of Gawthorpe, relict of Robert Ryther who died without issue; and secondly to Dorothy Layton of Dalemain, by whom he had a large family. This Richard was in the retinue of Cardinal Wolsey, and during his absence in 1528, in London and beyond seas, in attendance on his Grace, his nephew Marmaduke Gascoigne endeavoured to seize some of his land at Pool, yet without success. This early training probably inclined Redman to sympathy with the rebels in the Pilgrimage of Grace. He was captured by the "Commons," as they styled themselves, while hunting in Sizergh Park and made to take their oath. For this however he managed to obtain pardon and was one of those suspected sympathisers whom the Duke of Norfolk, with refined cruelty, selected to serve on the Grand Jury which tried the leaders of the movement. Sir Richard died in 1544 and was succeeded by Matthew his eldest son, a youth of 17 whose wardship was committed to Sir Anthony Browne."

Of Matthew, the last Redman to own this castle, we have but little to say. He has been unduly blamed for a supposed extravagance which compelled him to part with his estates; yet we must remember that service in the retinue of a cardinal and indulgence in sympathy with rebels were not inexpensive amusements; and that these estates probably came to Matthew

1 Medcalfe's Book of Knights, p. 6.

2 York Registry, vol. v, p. 43.

3 Chancery Inq. p. m.. 22 Edw. IV, No. 58.



Coram Rege Roll, 1011, m. 3.

6 Star Chamber Proceedings, Hen. VIII, Bla. 27, No. 108.

Chancery Inq. p. m., 36 Hen. VIII,

No. 62.

heavily burdened with debt. In 1574,1 having no children, he and his next brother William conveyed all their interests in this estate to James Ryther and William Plumpton, Esquires. It seems probable (the documents have not been closely examined) that Matthew retained a life interest in the premises, but he did not long survive. His widow Bridget Gascoigne of Gawthorpe was married at Otley in 1586 to her own and her late husband's cousin, William Gascoigne of Caley, by whom she had issue.

Of the Ryther family-the owners of the other moiety of Harewood-it is perhaps enough to say that their portion descended in the male line until the death of Henry Ryther in 1544. It then passed to his cousin William Ryther, who probably inherited but a fragment of the original estate. By marriage with one of the daughters of William Atherton, James son of this William Ryther seems to have regained much that was lost and to have added part of the old Redman lands. James died in 1596 and the end came four years later, at Easter, 1600, when young Robert Ryther and his sisters and all others (fourteen in number) having an interest in the castle and manor of Harewood joined in a conveyance of the estate to Robert Chamberlain, John Gregory and Henry Atkinson, Esquires, with a warranty against any claim on behalf of the Redman and Ryther families.2

Thus, after an ownership extending over five centuries, the descendants of Robert de Romelli ceased to be Lords of Harewood.

1 Yorkshire Fines, ii, p. 62. (Yorks. Arch. Society's Record Series, vol. v.)

2 Ibid., iv, p. 145. (Yorks. Arch. Society's Record Series, vol. viii.)




THE architectural history of the church is the subject of a paper read by the Rev. J. L. Petit at the Hull meeting of the Royal Archæological Institute in 1867, and printed in the Archæological Journal, xxv, 179. As some of Mr. Petit's views on the order in which the different parts of the church were built appear to me to be untenable, and as his paper has been extensively used in subsequent accounts of the church, it may be worth while to print here a summary of the conclusions which I presented to the Royal Archæological Institute in 1903, and repeated at the recent excursion of our Society. These notes, however, will be confined to the fabric itself, and make no pretension to be an adequate description of the church.

On the outside of the transept and nave, especially on the north side, many large gritstones have been reused. Comparison with similar masonry at Skipwith, Hemingbrough, and Laughtonen-le-Morthen suggests that these gritstones probably formed part of the pre-Conquest church of Howden. There are some fragments of twelfth-century work in the garden of the vicarage, and some of the corbels to the eaves on the east side of the north transept seem to be of twelfth-century date.

The earliest work in situ, however, is the transept and crossing, and the question arises-what was the eastern arm to which this work was attached. An entry in the Chronicle of Lanercost,1 under the year 1272, is important in this connection. It records the death about this time of a canon of Howden named John, who at his own cost began the new choir of the church. What was left over he predicted that he would finish after death, and we see it clearer than daylight. For being buried in a stately tomb in the middle of the choir itself, he is held for a saint, and from the offerings of the thronging people we see not only the choir, but a spacious and elaborate nave in course of completion (non tantum chorum sed navem ecclesiæ latam videmus compleri et operosam). This record receives

1 Chronicon de Lanercost (Edinburgh, 1839), p. 93.

some confirmation from the ordinance of 1265,1 when the church was made collegiate, where it is ordained that the value of certain buildings shall be converted to the fabric of the choir. It is obvious that there can be no question here of the present choir, nothing of which can be placed within the thirteenth century. The western respond piers of the choir arcades (on the east side of the eastern piers of the crossing) have, however, been raised when the arcades were built, and the original capitals remain at a lower level than those which actually receive the arches. These original capitals of the choir responds have the same profile as those of the respond piers of the arcades on the east side of the transept, attached to the crossing piers on each side, and they differ slightly from the profiles of the other capitals of the transept arcades. The plan of the respond piers, too, repeats that of the piers of the transept arcades. The original capitals are at a lower level than those of the transept arcades, which would scarcely have been the case if these earlier respond piers had belonged to an aisled choir. Evidently they belonged to arches opening from the transept aisles into an unaisled choir, the roof-line of which is indicated by the lower of the two weather-moulds on the east face of the tower, and is a little lower than the roofs of the transept.

The conclusion from the above is that, when the rebuilding of the church was begun, at a date which must be placed somewhere near the middle of the thirteenth century, it was planned with a transept with an aisle of three bays on the east side of each arm, a crossing for a central tower, and a short unaisled choir; and that it was this choir which was built by canon John, and in which he was buried.

The transept aisles, each of which formed three chapels, were both altered in later times. The windows of the north and south gables are of the simplest early type of geometrical tracery; the transoms are later insertions. The transept has no clearstory.

The extent westward of this first section of the rebuilding is marked near the east end of the aisle walls of the nave by a break in the masonry, and by a change in the section of the string below the aisle windows. This first section included the lower part of the crossing, and, although the pier plans of the transept and nave are the same, there is a differ

1 History and Antiquities of the County Palatine of Durham, by W. Hutchinson (1794), iii, 451. The Institution of the

Prebendal Church at Howden, by W.
Brown, p. 170 infra.

2 E. Sharpe, Decorated Window Tracery in England (1849), pl. 14 and pl. C, 14.

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