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it was in the King's hand by reason of the minority of the heir. The difficulty that arose, owing to the claim of Hugh de Courtenay to the Redvers estates, gave the Crown a pretext for seizing them until Hugh came of age. Meanwhile, Warin de L'Isle, son of Robert, also died leaving his son Robert a minor. Eventually, the estates were partitioned between the claimants and Harewood was among the manors allotted to Robert son of Warin de L'Isle, as heir of the Fitzgerald blood.

The new Lord of Harewood, a distinguished soldier, was created a Knight Banneret for gallantry in the field and summoned to Parliament as Baron de L'Isle of Rougemont from 1311 to 1342. In the latter year, on the death of his wife, he assumed the habit of a Religious and himself died a few months later. In 1337, he had granted the manor of Harewood to John de L'Isle, his younger son, to enable him the better to serve the King in his wars.

John de L'Isle, a soldier like his father, distinguished himself at the battle of Cressy and was so highly esteemed by King Edward III that he was created a Knight of the Garter at the institution of that Order. In 1346 he was awarded a pension of 200li. to enable him to maintain his rank of Banneret ; and from 1350 to 1354 (his elder brother having died s.p.) was summoned to Parliament as Baron de L'Isle of Rougemont. He died 14 October, 1355 leaving by Matilda de Ferrers his wife, who survived him two sons, Sir Robert and John.2

Robert de L'Isle was summoned to Parliament in 1357 and again in 1360. In 1364 he had permission from the King3 to alienate to Sir William de Aldeburgh, Elizabeth his wife, and to the heirs of Sir William, two-thirds of the manor of Harewood (a messuage and one oxgang in Carleton excepted) and the reversion of the other third which his mother Matilda held in dower. An inquiry had previously been held as to what loss if any the King, as chief lord, would sustain by this transaction and by a similar alienation from Robert de L'Isle to William Gascoigne of a close called le Stokyng and other land in Harewood; and in each case a fine was levied between the parties concerned. In the record of the fine was made in burgh (Elizabeth his wife being

1 See Speight's Kirkby Overblow and District, p. 29, for the King's writs to deliver seisin to the claimants.

2 These two sons are named in a settlement of the manor of Kirkby Overblow

case of the manor, a further 1377 between William de Aldedead) and Robert de L'Isle

made in 1340. (Baildon's Yorkshire Fines, Yorks. Arch. Society's Record Series, vol. xlii, p. 140.)

3 Patent Roll, 38 Edw. III, Part i, m. 9.

styled de Insula de Rubeo Monte-confirming the manor with its rents and services to William and his heirs.1

Sir Robert de L'Isle is usually said to have died without issue leaving his sister Elizabeth his heir-the wife of William de Aldeburgh. Yet Elizabeth and William both died many years before Robert; and there is no record, or even suggestion, that any part of the vast estates of Robert de L'Isle in other counties descended to William de Aldeburgh the younger or his heirs. Harewood was but one of some ninety manors held by Robert.2 We must surely conclude that Elizabeth—if a sister-was not his heir. On the other hand, Burke3 quotes the Somerset Visitation of 1623 as saying that Sir Robert "left a son, Sir William Lisle of Waterperry, co. Oxford," adding the opinion "but this is very doubtful." Coming to facts, we find in the Coram Rege Roll for 9 Henry IV (1407-8) two charters of William de L'Isle de Rubeomonte Knight, reciting the grant by John de L'Isle to the Prior and Convent of Boltonin-Craven of the advowson of Harewood Church on condition that they find a suitable chaplain to celebrate masses for his soul etc.; which advowson, by another charter, is now conferred on Richard Redman Knight and William Gascoigne Justice of England to hold to them and their heirs until such time as William de L'Isle or his heirs shall pass a Recovery of the manors of Harewood and Gauthorpe.4

The identity of Rougemont is of some interest. If we follow Dugdale, Rougemont was in Bedfordshire. Yet, within a mile of Harewood, across the Wharf, is Ridgman Scar, which has been identified as Rougemont by Whitaker and others. Here, existing remains indicate the site of an early fortified manor house and, possibly, here is the ancient house of the De L'Isles. But was it the place whence they derived their style of de Rubeomonte? If so, how is it that we find the style in use before the De L'Isles succeeded to Harewood5 and long after they had alienated it to the Aldeburghs ?6 After all, Dugdale is correct. Ridgemont in Bedfordshire is surrounded by manors which are enumerated in 1368 among the possessions of Robert de L'Isle,' held by his under-tenants ; and there we must place the chief residence of his family.

1 Yorks. Arch. Journal, iv, p. 110.
2 Originalia Roll, 42 Edw. III, m. 30.
3 Dormant and Extinct Peerages, p. 326.
4 Coram Rege Roll, 9 Hen. IV, m. 33.

5 Robert de L'Isle, of Rugemont,

1 Hen. III. (Bank's Baronage, i, p. 360.) 6 William de L'Isle de Rubeomonte, 1408, above named.

Calendar of Originalia Rolls, ii, pp. 298-300.

Harewood, after all, was a remote manor-usually given away to a younger son, a brother, finally-it may be-to a sister. At Ridgman Scar we have the site of their local residence named,1 as so often happens now as then, after their Bedfordshire home; and here would be the manor house until William de Aldeburgh acquired the estate and built the castle at Harewood itself.

William de Aldeburgh, the new Lord of Harewood, was summoned to Parliament as Baron Aldeburgh from 1371 to 1386. He was a close friend and adherent of Edward Balliol, the three-months' puppet King of Scotland, and his devotion to his lord is evidenced in stone by the presence of the Balliol arms in the place of honour over the entrance to Harewood Castle. Mr. Greenwood2 pictures the Scottish exile gazing at his own arms, fresh from the chisel, over the gateway of the castle, regardless of the fact that Balliol died two years before Aldeburgh acquired the site on which to build. The records show that most intimate relations existed between Edward Balliol and Aldeburgh whose father, Ivo de Aldeburgh, had also been a strong supporter of the Balliol claims. Not only outside the castle, but on the walls within also, the arms of Balliol and Aldeburgh stand side by side; and together they were worked in tapestry. And this was after-immediately after the death of Edward Balliol. Curious to note, we have no evidence that the arms of De L'Isle were ever set up here, in stone or otherwise. There is no evidence, except tradition, that Aldeburgh's wife, Elizabeth, was a De L'Isle; it is an accepted probability—nothing more—and has gained strength by constant repetition. It may yet prove to be the case that she was of Balliol blood.


William de Aldeburgh the son, who succeeded his father as second Baron of the name, died in 1391 childless; and Harewood passed to his two sisters, Elizabeth and Sybil, with whose descendants, Redman and Ryther, it remained for two centuries.

Elizabeth, the elder sister, was aged 28 when her brother died, and was then the wife of Sir Bryan Stapleton, of Carlton.

If the name is not merely a coincidence. Rugemund in Harewood is named in the Inquisition of Baldwin, Earl of Devon, in 1263 (Yorks. Arch. Society's Record Series, vol. xii, p. 91); and the name is quite a common one elsewhere.

2 The Redmans of Levens and Harewood, P. 145.

3 Tapestry, with the arms of Balliol and Aldeburgh, was bequeathed to Peter de Mauley, her son, by Margery, relict of William de Aldeburgh, the younger, in 1391. (York Registry, vol. i, p. 39.)

By him, who died in 1392, she had issue one son, Sir Bryan, and two daughters, Joan and Isabel. A year or so later she married Sir Richard Redman of. Levens, the head of an ancient Westmorland family, himself a distinguished warrior and diplomatist. He was twice High Sheriff of Yorkshire, six times of Cumberland; he represented Yorkshire in Parliament, and in 1415 was elected Speaker of the House of Commons-one of Whitaker's "ordinary knights." We learn that Elizabeth was not on the best of terms with her Stapleton "in-laws," with the result that her share of Harewood was settled on Sir Richard Redman and her issue by him.'

Sybil, her younger sister, born 1367, married Sir William Ryther, of Ryther, and in their descendants the other moiety of the manor of Harewood vested.

So amicable were the relations between the houses of Redman and Ryther that they have been credited with the joint occupancy of this castle for two hundred years. So far as can be ascertained, the Redmans practically monopolised the castle, the Rythers preferring their own home at Ryther; but of the close and intimate friendship of the two families ample proof.

we have

Elizabeth died in 1417.2 Sir Richard Redman survived her nine years, dying 22 May, 1426.3 It is not the case that he had a second wife, a daughter of Sir William Gascoigne ; that lady was wife to his grandson. Still less is there any foundation for the absurd suggestion that he has the honour of two monumental effigies in Harewood Church-one in company with each of these ladies. It is, surely, apparent that there is a difference of fifty years in the date and style of

1 Yorks. Arch. Journal, viii, p. 249; iv, p. 93.

2Chancery Ing. p. m., 12 Hen. VI, No. 18.

3 Ibid., 25 Hen. VI, No. 28.

The altar-tombs in Harewood Church demand a much more critical examination than they have hitherto been accorded. It may be that the two nearest the chancel, on either side of it, commemorate the Aldeburgh sisters and their husbands -though buried elsewhere. The tomb to the north of the chancel is undoubtedly Redman, identified by the crest on the helm-a horse's head issuing from a ducal coronet; and these must be the effigies either of Sir Richard, the Speaker, and his wife, or of Sir Matthew, his son, and his wife, We have seen that the advowson was granted in 1408 to Sir Richard Redman and Sir William

Gascoigne no mention of Ryther; and we should expect to find the chapels north and south of the chancel restricted to Redman and Gascoigne respectively, and their kin. Hence the presumption that the tomb south of the chancel is a Gascoigne and not a Ryther monument. In Glover's account of the arms in Harewood Church in 1585, there is shown, "under Gascoyn head," a helmet with a torse and bear's (?) head. If this tomb be examined it will be seen that the crest on the helm is an animal's head on a plain torse. Probably, then, this is the tomb identified in Foster's Visitations of Yorkshire as that of John Gascoigne, of Lasingcroft, nephew of the Chief Justice, who died 1445. In Loidis and Elmete is a plan of these monuments in their original positions.

the armour and costume of the two figures who, in point of fact, are grandsire and grandson.

By Elizabeth de Aldeburgh, Sir Richard Redman had two sons. The elder, Sir Matthew, died before his father, leaving an infant son Richard, who, at the age of nine, succeeded as heir to his grandfather. The younger son of the Speaker,

Richard, was ancestor of the Redmans of Bossall. He occurs frequently on the records, and lived much at Harewood during the minority of his nephew..

About the time that this nephew came of age the official mind awoke to the fact that, though he succeeded as heir to his grandfather, he must also have had a father as to whose death they were uninformed. An inquiry was therefore ordered as to whether Matthew son of Sir Richard Redman was dead; and, if so, who was the heir and of what age. By inquisition held at Sherburne on the 11th November, 1437, it was found that Sir Matthew Redman Knight died 20 September, 1419 and that young Richard his son and heir had attained the age of 21 on the 18th October last. This necessitated a further inquiry and proof of age.2 Twelve trusty and loyal men assembled at Wetherby on the 24th November, 1437 and, being diligently examined as to the age of Richard son and heir of Sir Matthew son of Richard Redman and Elizabeth his wife, declared that he was born at Harewood on the feast of St. Luke the Evangelist (October 18th) 1416 and was baptized the same day at Harewood Church.

Apart from this important event at the castle, this was quite a busy day in the village. One witness lost his son, who died after a long illness; to another a son was born; a third was married to Margaret his wife. Robert Butler had the event impressed on his mind by a great gale of wind which distinguished that day. Of the chief event, we learn that Thomas Johnson was hurried off to fetch the nurse, Margaret Urkylf (ad predictum Ricardum filium lactandum et nutricendum); John Harey carried a basin and a bath or font before the infant at the christening; William Dutton held the book before the priest; John del Wode gave water to the Godparents for washing their hands immediately after the ceremony; Thomas Warde bore to the church two silver dishes with silver and gold, which was thrown among those standing round; and Alexander West took two flagons of red wine to be drunk by 2 Ibid., No. 69.

1 Chancery Ing. p. m., 16 Hen. VI,

No. 61.

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