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a condition that it is quite impossible to say with any degree of certainty what were the internal arrangements. The basement of it has evidently been lighted by a window, 9 inches wide, looking south, the sill and west jamb of which still remain. From its shape on the basement, it seems extremely improbable that a well-stair commenced at this level; but there is very little doubt that the upper portion of this turret would contain a staircase commencing on the first floor level, and after leading to the room on the second floor of the north-east tower would descend to the battlements of the tower.

In the west wall of the room are the remains of a fireplace, almost more Late Norman than Early English in its details and characteristics. It dates from 1194-1200, and, so far as the writer is aware, is the oldest existing fireplace in the North Riding. Photograph No. 4 will probably convey a better idea of this interesting feature than can any verbal description. Both the massive corbels which once supported the mantel stone (4 feet 9 inches long and 7 inches high) remain in situ. That on the north measures 20 inches long by 15 inches deep, with a projection into the room of 6 inches. That on the south is somewhat less bold in character, and measures 15 inches long by 14 inches deep, with the same projection. The fireplace has been 5 feet in height to the mantel, and varies from 16 to 28 inches in depth.

The walls of this room are of magnificent masonry.

On the first floor were apartments corresponding to those just described. These rooms, almost certainly, formed the "Lady's Bower," the private apartments of the lady members of the family. They were approached from the rooms below by means of the well-stair in the south-east angle, and would almost certainly, this was an almost universal arrangement, communicate with the Hall and withdrawing room by a passage running along the north wall of the chapel. The southernmost and the middle apartments have disappeared altogether; they were probably the ante-room and the bower or boudoir (which would also serve as the sleeping apartment of the daughters of the family) respectively.

The northernmost room, which formed the first floor of the north-east tower, has been a fine room, about 22 feet long from north to south. It measures 15 feet in width from east to west, and has been 10 feet high. It is in a more ruinous condition than the corresponding room below. The west

wall, for the greater part of its length, is ruined to the floor level; the north and the northern portion of the east wall remain to their full height.

There was, almost certainly, a fireplace nearly above that in the room below, and in the north-west angle of the apartment, just where the apse commences, was a splayed loop for the use of the cross-bow, the northern side of which still remains. Archers stationed here could shoot along the northern curtain and beyond the projection of the north tower.

In the north-east angle of the room, within the apse, is a lancet-shaped Early English window, very similar in its details and characteristics to that already mentioned in the room below. Photograph No. 1 shows the exterior of this window. It is 4 feet 5 inches in height, and 12 inches in external width, or 4 inches wider than is the window below. The sill measures 12 inches in depth, and the wall is then set back 2 inches on either side exactly as in the window below. It is then splayed in a distance of 20 inches to an internal width of 30 inches, and approached by a vaulted recess. Five of the irons which supported the wooden shutter, once closing in the recess, still remain in situ.

Just to the south of this window, almost above the window in the room below, are the remains of a small mural recess or chamber, apparently some 5 feet long by 3 feet deep, constructed in the thickness of the wall and vaulted. It is in such a ruinous condition that it is impossible to say with certainty for what purposes it was used. It may have been either a small oratory or a garde-robe.

The well-stair, which almost certainly commenced at this level, and was contained in the turret already mentioned as projecting from the east face of this tower, led to a chamber occupying the second floor of the north-east tower. This room, which has entirely disappeared, would, most probably, be subdivided by a wooden partition, a division of which its ample proportions (some 23 feet by 16 feet) would readily admit, and would be used as sleeping apartments. The bulk of this floor is probably represented among the masses of debris at the foot of the precipice beneath the walls.

The well-stair would then be continued up to the summit of the tower, from which a magnificent view both seawards and landwards would be obtained. Even now, although the tower has lost a storey, the view is a very extensive one.

THE RAMPART WALK. The northern and eastern curtains of the palace would be provided with a rampart walk, which would communicate with the second floor apartment in the northern part of the north tower. It would then pierce the small apsidal tower, which, on the rampart level, would probably contain an apartment used as a guard room for the sentinels, and probably fitted with a fireplace. As the north-east tower contained the purely private apartments, the walk would not communicate with it, but be carried round the interior or southern side of the tower, thence along the eastern curtain, where it would communicate with the well-stair in the southeast angle.

The summits of the various flanking towers, and also the wall above the entrance gate, would be fitted with wooden galleries,2 to enable the defenders to shoot down on the assailants, and fling big stones upon them. "Hurdicia quæ muros tutos reddebant " (Philippodos, vii, 201; Bouquet, xvii). These galleries are now usually termed bretasches, but the original meaning of this latter word signified wooden towers. For instance, Close Rolls, i, 549b, contains an order that the timber and bretasche of Nafferton Castle be taken to Newcastle, and the bretasche be placed at the gate of the drawbridge in place of the little tower, which had fallen through defective foundations.

Kilton is essentially a small castle, quoddam parvum castrum," as it is described in the Inq. p. m. of Robert de Thweng (18 Edw. III). The actual space occupied by the inner ward and its towers is less than half an acre-about one-sixth of that occupied by Richmond Castle.

1 At Pencoed Castle, Monmouthshire, the rampart walk is carried round the towers on the interior side. In castles of this type, where the rampart walk communicates with or pierces the mural towers, the latter are generally protected by strong doors, gate and portcullis, in some cases by small bridge pits with drawbridges, which were worked from within the towers, as was probably the case in the north tower at Kilton.

2 It seems to be doubtful whether these timber galleries were in general use previous to the latter part of the twelfth century, although the Bayeux tapestry shows the stockade on the top of the motte at Bayeux Castle, sur

mounted with what appears to be hurdicia or bretasches. In 1184, the famous Chateau Gaillard was provided with stone machicolations-the first instance of their use-and in 1186, the Duke of Burgundy caused hordiari to be placed on the towers and walls of Chatillon Castle. After this date these timber galleries came into general use, as is proved by the Close Rolls of the early thirteenth century, in which numerous orders for timber for that purpose are met with. In the fourteenth century, stone machicolations came into general use in place of timber galleries; but it is exceedingly doubtful whether any of the towers at Kilton were so treated.

Canon J. T. Fowler has kindly drawn my attention to a few errata in the article which appeared under this title in the last volume of the Journal, and which should be corrected as follows:

Page 356, line 5. Cenagium has nothing to do with the Lord's Supper. It is another mode of spelling Senagium, i.e. Synodals.

Page 356, lines 4 and 6 from bottom. Oblacione inde facienda should probably be read oblatis inde faciendis, and in the thirteenth line from the bottom oblacionis should probably be read oblatarum. Oblacione facta in the second line from the bottom of page 362 should probably be read Oblatis factis. The reference in every case being to the making of obleys or altar bread for the Easter celebration. Quoting from Canon Fowler's Introduction to the Durham Account Rolls, vol. iii, page xii, “The bread (at Durham) was always in the form of wafers made of the finest flour that could be obtained from picked grains of the best wheat. These wafers were commonly called 'obleys,' which word is a short form of the word 'oblation,' and they were made by pinching the paste between a pair of nippers called 'obley-irons' or 'baking-irons,' previously heated."

The cause of the false reading and extension is that in every instance the word translated oblation' is written oblač in the roll, and the last letter is more like a 'c' than a 't.' But on comparing other words on the roll which end with a 't,' I find that the scribe has used the same letter, and therefore Canon Fowler's correction seems to be right, especially as the obleys are more probable than an oblation.

Page 358, line 13 from top. The word 'et,' which is omitted in the roll, should follow arura, and the sentence should be translated, 'he charges for ploughing and harrowing.' The word arura is interlined in the roll. Page 370, line 12 from bottom. I have translated gurgitis by the words ' embankment' and 'dam,' although Page 378, line 6 from top. such meanings are uncommon, but they seemed most probable. I now find that at one time there was a 'cut' or watercourse (see Saxton's map of 1600), which may have been the gurgitis (gurges) mentioned here.

Page 370, line 4 from bottom. Butamen is a mistake for bittumine. I have somehow overlooked the wrong transcript. The word in the roll is bittume. It should be translated' tar,' as also should butimine in the eighteenth line of page 358.

Page 373n. For Kitchen's read Kitchin's.

Page 390, line 23. For decimam read decimalem, as in page 387, line 3 from bottom.

Page 452, line 8 from bottom. For ayte read yate.


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