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north to south. These defences completely isolated the palace (with the exception of the basement cellar already described) from the western or outer part of the inner ward. It might therefore, with reason, be argued that this alteration converted the castle from Enceintric to modified Concentric in type. It would, from a defensive point of view, have been advisable to have built up the doorway into the basement cellar.

The palace occupied the large north tower, the north-east tower, and the space between them, and was extended, in the form of a very narrow block of buildings, along the eastern curtain. With the exception of the two main towers and of the small apsidal tower immediately to the east of the north tower, which would rise a storey higher than the rest of the block, the palace would be two storeys in height, with a timber roof of low pitch. But the block of buildings between the two main towers would probably be only a few feet lower than the towers themselves, as this block contained the Great Hall and Chapel, both loftier apartments than the corresponding rooms on the same floor in the towers.

Except for the very narrow block of buildings on the eastern curtain, the whole of the palace was ranged along the northern curtain, and the reason for this is at once apparent. The northern façade was the most open to attack (the southern and eastern curtains were quite unapproachable by

by an enemy owing to the steep precipices guarding them), consequently, a massive and lofty wall of enceinte, with boldly projecting mural towers, was necessary on the northern side, and, as the space available was limited owing to the narrowness of the site, these walls and towers were, naturally, utilised.1 But this arrangement possessed another advantage. A high wall being unnecessary on the southern façade, the apartments between the two main towers, viz. the Great Hall and Chapel-both on the first floor-being lighted by windows looking south over the top of the low curtain, would not only obtain plenty of sunshine, but command magnificent views of the ravine and of the moorlands beyond, an advantage not to be lightly overlooked in a type of castle, where, as at Manorbier, all the principal windows looked inwards.

The North TOWER.—The block which we term the north tower, but which was really not a separate tower but part of 1 Exactly the

arrangement Castles of England, p. 133) describes occurs at Carreg Cennen, in Caermarthen- “the most romantic castle in Britain." shire, which Mr. Alfred Harvey (The



the palace buildings, would almost certainly contain the kitchen, buttery, and offices, together with accommodation for the principal retainers and domestics. The underground room, already described in the northern part of the tower, is practically all that now remains, with the exception of the foundations of the rest of the tower. The room above it (measuring 24 feet 6 inches from east to west by 20 feet from north to south), and that on the ground floor level in the southern part of the tower (measuring 25 feet 6 inches from east to west by 16 feet 6 inches from north to south), would probably be approached by means of one of the rooms beneath the Great Hall, and may have been used as buttery and store rooms. Their size would admit of their being subdivided by wooden partitions.

The kitchen, almost certainly, would be on the first floor level; this was the usual arrangement, occupying probably the southern part of the floor (26 feet 6 inches by 17 feet 6 inches), whilst the northern portion (25 feet 6 inches by 21 feet) was probably subdivided by screens into auxiliary kitchen and offices. The kitchen arrangements were much more elaborate in a castle of the Enceintric type than in Norman castles.

The two corresponding rooms on the second floor would probably be subdivided into four or more apartments by partitions, screens, or curtains, and provide sleeping accommodation for the principal retainers, men-at-arms, etc., and even in the case of a large family, such as that of Marmaduke de Thweng and Lucia de Brus, of the younger male members of the family. The turret projecting from the north face of the north tower was probably hollowed out, so far as the two upper floors were concerned, into small mural sleeping chambers.

A circular well-stair constructed in the west wall of the tower -indications of which still remain-immediately above the doorway into the cellar, commencing on the ground floor (as distinguished from the cellar) level, gave access to the various apartments and to the roof of the tower, from which a magnificent view, both seawards and landwards, would be obtained.

It is extremely unlikely that such a tower would be devoid of garde-robes, although no trace of any garde-robe turret now remains. These were probably corbelled out from the walls,

. as in the north-west tower at Mulgrave, discharging on to the ground below.

1 In castles of this type, the kitchen Harlech and Caerphilly. At the latter was almost invariably placed conveniently place it occupied the upper floor of a near the lower end of the Great Hall, large mural tower, abutting upon the with which it communicated, as



main curtain.

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THE NORTHERN BLOCK OF BUILDINGS. THE GREAT HALL' was, almost certainly, immediately east of the north tower, extending along the northern curtain, and including the projection of the small apsidal tower. How long this room was it is impossible to say, as only the foundations of the cellar beneath it now remain, possibly some 50 feet. It would be provided with one or perhaps two fireplaces, and would communicate with the kitchen and offices at its western end. It would probably be somewhat loftier than the corresponding rooms on the same floor in the north and north-east towers. As these rooms were 10 feet high, we may, perhaps, assign 15 feet as the height of the Great Hall. It would be lighted by fairly large lancet-shaped windows looking south, and would be approached from the very narrow courtyard by a flight of steps. The room was about 20 feet in width, but even excavation might fail to reveal its length, as the partition walls on the ground floor need not necessarily have corresponded with those above. Its north wall may have been, and probably was, furnished with two or three loops for the use of the cross-bow, similar to that still existing in the north-east tower. The room on the first floor of the small apsidal tower may have been screened off from the rest of the Hall, and used as a sleeping chamber, possibly by the chaplain resident in the castle.

It is quite possible, indeed probable, that a portion of the dais or eastern end of the Hall was screened off from the rest of the room, and used as a withdrawing room.? If so, it would be some 20 feet long from north to south, but very narrow, possibly just sufficiently wide to allow of a window in its south wall. This window would probably be large enough to allow of a person stepping out on to a narrow timber balcony formed by a continuation eastward of the platform at the top of the flight of steps leading from the little court-yard to the door of the Great Hall. Such a balcony would form a pleasant sittingout place in the summer for the ladies of the household, as it would command a beautiful view over the top of the low

* This apartment was always the latter hall is a particularly fine room, most important feature of the palace measuring 73 feet in length, 35 feet in of a castle of the Enceintric type, and width, and 30 feet in height. was, almost invariably, raised upon a 2 This was the usual arrangement basement or cellar, and equally invariably not only in castles of the Enceintric type, communicated with the kitchen at its but in the palaces of Norman castles lower end, and with the private apart- such as Richmond, where the withdrawing ments at its dais or upper end. The room opens out of the dais end of the windows nearly always face inwards, hall. as at Manorbier and Caerphilly; the

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