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that date, the old Georgic village still existed, as indeed it did until some forty years ago, there being five old houses-one ivy-clad structure being known as Primrose Cottage -a smithy (which still exists, but is not used), and the old hall. Two wells, connected with these old houses, still remain.

Approaching the site of this village from the north down Howe Lane over Town End Close, the road is some 470 feet above sea-level. Magnificent views are obtained, a perfect panorama of mountain, moor, and woodland being spread out before our eyes, with stupendous sea-cliffs rising to a height of some 600 feet sheer above the waters of the northern sea. This view is now marred to some extent by signs of industrial activity; but sixty years ago, before the opening out of the Cleveland ironstone mines, it must have been one of the most picturesque, most lonely, and most sparsely inhabited stretches of country in the county.

The road dips down to the site of the village, which is some 330 feet above sea-level. It then turns at right angles westward, and climbing a slight rise turns southwards, to what is still known as "Park Gate," the original entrance to the park surrounding the castle. At the foot of a short steep bank this ancient road diverges, the portion on our left leading to Stank House Farm, which lies some 500 yards west of the castle. The original road, now only a footpath, leads across the fields to the ruins of the castle, leaving Sweet Hill Wood on our left.

THE OUTER WARD.-The first object to draw our attention is a slight depression in the ground indicating the site of the north fosse of the outer ward. In 1853, this ward was still clearly traceable in the field immediately north-west of the promontory. The north moat measured 250 feet in length from east to west by 50 feet in width from north to south, and not only stretched along the whole northern front of this ward, but flanked it on both sides. The moat was then extended along the western front, being here some 20 feet in width, and continued along the southern front in the form of a moat some 30 feet wide. The earth parapet seems to have been some 15 feet in width, rising perhaps some 4 or 5 feet above the interior ground level, and on the summit would be a wall, probably not more than 2 feet thick and 10 feet high. The space contained by these defences measured some 170 feet in length from north to south, and varied in width from about

100 feet at the northern to 70 feet at the southern end, enclosing in all about one-third of an acre.

This outer ward was added about 1212 by Sir Wm. de Kylton to flank and protect the entrance to the castle. The advent of the Trebuchet, the most formidable of mediæval siege engines (first used at the siege of Piacenza in 1199), made this addition to the defences of the castle an absolute necessity, and such additions were frequently made to existing castles in the reign of John. Castles of the Enceintric type erected subsequent to the introduction of the Trebuchet, were all provided with these outer wards, but the system of defence in connection with them varied. It was, however, generally that which would appear to have been adopted at Kilton, viz. light walls and extensive moats, fosses, and earthworks. At Castroggy and Grosmont there was no walling whatever, the ward being defended by large platforms of earth, which were probably stockaded. Denbigh, a much later example, erected in the reign of Edward I, has, however, an elaborate outer ward provided with its own gate-house and flanking mural towers, and the same may be said of the purely garrison fortress of Whitecastle.

Two modern brick cottages, occupied by a game-keeper and a woodman in the employ of Mr. W. H. A. Wharton, of Skelton Castle, now stand on the site of the entrance to this outer ward, and the moats have been filled up, only a slight depression now indicating the site of that on the north. These moats were fed by a run of water down the field to the east of Stank House.

THE INNER WARD.-Kilton Castle, in its first form, was one of the numerous hastily-constructed "adulterine" castles run up in great numbers during the civil wars of the time of Stephen. As erected between 1135 and 1140, it was an unusually strong but small wooden fortress, occupying a natural “Motte." The great strength of the site rendered an artificial mound unnecessary, and the scarping of a part of the southern side of the promontory, and the digging of a deep and broad fosse right across the narrow neck of the promontory, was practically the only engineering work necessary.

The omission, as at Bamborough, for the same reason, of any artificial "Motte" had much to do with the ultimate permanent arrangements of the structure.

The wooden palisading was, at a relatively early date, replaced by permanent walling, so that probably as early as

1160 the fortalice was practically converted into a walled enclosure, containing the usual timber "palace" and out-buildings. The fact that the north of England suffered much less than did the south during these troublous times, may account for the relatively early date at which time was found to replace the timber palisading by permanent walling. In many castles, some erected as early as the time of the Conqueror, the last vestige of timber palisading did not disappear until as late as the reign of Edward I.1

What were the arrangements of the timber castle, which was founded about 1135, it is, of course, quite impossible to say, for it is hardly necessary to mention that no such structure now remains either in England or any other country. Fortunately, however, we have a very elaborate and interesting account of a famous wooden castle, written in 1194 by Lambert, of Ardres. Ardres Castle, says this historian, was built about 1117 by Arnold, Lord of Ardres, and on the ground-floor were cellars, store rooms, and granaries; on the first floor was the Great Hall, buttery, bakery, and the sleeping apartment of the waiting maids and children. The lord and lady of the castle appear to have slept on the dais of the Great Hall, which, at night, was probably screened off from the rest of the room. This part of the Great Hall contained the only fireplace in the house, and it appears to have only been used occasionally. On the second floor, in the roof, were two large rooms, one for the use of the daughters of the lord, another for his sons, and on the same floor was the accommodation for the garrison. High up on the east side of the house was the chapel, with decorated and painted ceiling. Stairs and passages led from one floor to another. The kitchen was built at right angles to this house, and was of two storeys, the cattle being placed in the basement, the kitchen proper being on the first floor level, probably opening out of the Great Hall. During the summer months the cooking was probably done in the open air.

1 The Castle of Corfe, founded in the reign of William I, had timber curtains until the time of Henry III, when, according to Hutchin's Dorset, i, 488, the cost of making "two good walls in place of the palisades at Corfe between the old bailey of the said castle and the middle bailey towards the west, and between the keep of the said castle and the outer bailey towards the south, was £62." The Castle of Chester, founded soon after the Conquest, had no stonework until 1159 (Pipe Rolls, ii,


Carlisle had wooden palisading as late as 1319 (Cal. of Close Rolls, Edw. II, iii, 161); in 1225, the stockade of Gloucester Castle, founded soon after the Conquest, was blown down by the wind, and had to be repaired (Close Rolls, ii, 886); whilst at Durham there were only timber buildings on the "Motte" until as late as 1345.

Numerous other instances of the long delay between the foundation of the castle and the erection of permanent curtains and buildings might be quoted.

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