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THE

CYCLOPEDIA

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BIBLICAL LITERATURE.

OF

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JOHN KITTO, D.D., F.S.A.,

-

AUTHOR OF THE HISTORY AND PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF PALESTINE," EDITOR OF

THE PICTORIAL BIBLE," &C. &C.

EDITED BY

ILLUSTRATED BY NUMEROUS MAPS AND ENGRAVINGS.

IN TWO VOLUMES.

VOL. I.

TENTH EDITION.

NEW YORK:

PUBLISHED BY MARK H. NEWMAN & CO.,
199 BROADWAY.

1851

C

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INITIALS.

NAMES.

W. L. A...... REV. W. L. ALEXANDER, M.A., Author of The Connexion and Harmony of the Old and New Testaments,' &c.

G. B.

Rev. G. BAUR, Ph. D. of the University of Giessen.

J. R. B. . . . . . . Rev. J. R. BEARD, D.D., Member of the Historico-1 heological Society of Leipzig.

G. M. B. . . . . . G. M. BELL, Author of 'Universal Mechanism,' &c.

C. H. F B.... REV. C. H. F. BIALLOBLOTZKY, Ph. D., Göttingen, Author of 'De Abrogatione Legis.'

.......

J. B......... REV. JOHN BROWN, D.D., Professor of Exegetical Theology to the United Secession Church.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

G. B....... .. REV. GEORGE BUSH, Professor of Hebrew and Oriental Literature in the University of New York.

J. D. B....... REV. JAMES D. BUTLER, Abbot Resident, Theological Seminary, Andover, United States.

S. D.

K. A. C. .... K. A. CREDNER, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Giessen.

......

.....

B. D........ Rev. BENJAMIN DAVIES, D.D.

J. F. D.

REV. J. F. DENHAM, M.A., St. John's College, Cambridge, F.R.S.

J. W. D... ... REV. J. W. DORAN, LL.D., Association Secretary of the Church Missionary

Society.

REV. S. DAVIDSON, LL.D., Professor of Biblical Literature and Oriental
Languages in the Lancashire Independent College.

J. E......... REV. JOHN EADIE, LL.D., Professor of Biblical Literature to the United Secession Church.

G. H. A. v. E. . G. H. A. von EWALD, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Tübingen.

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F. W. G... REV. F. W. GOTCH, M.A., Trinity College, Dublin.

H. A. C. H. ... . H. A. C. HAVERNICK, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Königsberg.

E. W. H. . . . . . E. W. HENGSTENBERG, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Berlin.

J. J. .........

.... REV. J. JACOBI, of the University of Berlin.

R. J. . . . . . . ... REV. R. JAMIESON, M.A., Editor of 'Paxton's Illustrations of Scripture.'

EA. L.

11447

....... REV. E. A. LAWRENCE, Haverhill, United States.

vi

INITIALS.

R. L.........

F. R. L...

E. M..

P. M.

N. M.

......

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LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS.

NAMES.

Rev. Robert LEE, D.D., Edinburgh.

FREDERICK R. LEES, Ph. D., F.S.S.A.; Editor of 'The Truth-Seeker,' &c.

E. MICHELSON, Ph. D. of the University of Heidelberg.

PETER MEARNS, Author of Tirosh,' &c.

·

REV. N. MORREN, M.A., Author of Biblical Theology,' and Translator of 'Rosenmüller's Biblical Geography.'

F. W. NEWMAN, late Fellow of Balliol College, Oxford.

JOHN NICHOLSON, B.A., Oxford, Ph. D., Tübingen, Author of 'An Account of the Establishment of the Fatemite Dynasty,' Translator of Ewald's Hebrew Grammar.'

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W. A. N... ... W. A. NICHOLSON, M.D.

J. P. P.

B. P....

.... Rev. JOHN PHILLIPS POTTER, M.A., Oriel College, Oxford.

REV. BADEN POWELL, M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S., Savilian Professor of Geometry in the University of Oxford.

......

J. F. R. . . . . . . J. F. ROYLE, M.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., Member of the Royal Asiatic Societies of Calcutta and London; Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in King's College, London.

......

·

J. E. R....... J. E. RYLAND, Translator of Neander's Church History,' and of 'Semisch's Justin Martyr.'

C. H. S....... LIEUT.-COLONEL C. HAMILTON SMITH, K.H. and K.W., F.R. and L.S., President of the Devon and Cornwall Natural History Society, &c. &c.

J. P. S.

REV. J. PYE SMITH, D.D., F.R.S., F.G.S.

.....

H. S. . . . . . . . . REV. H. STEBBING, D.D. of St. John's College, Cambridge, Author of 'A History of the Church,' &c.

A. T......... REV. A. THOLUCK, Doctor and Professor of Theology in the University of Halle.

D. W. . . . . . . . Rev. DAVID WELSH, D.D., Professor of Divinity and Church History, New College, Edinburgh.

L. W........ REV. LEONARD WOODS, D.D., Professor of Theology in the Andover Theological Seminary, United States.

W. W........ REV. WILLIAM WRIGHT, M.A. and LL.D. of Trinity College, Dubiin, Translator of Seiler's Biblical Hermeneutics.'

The initials of the Contributors of the following articles have been inadvertently omitted :— J. R. B., ROMAN EMPIRE; TABERNACLES, FEAST OF.-H. A. C. H., GENESIS.-J. F. R., SPICES; STORAX; TAMAR, 1; TEIL TREE; TIRZah, 1.—W. W., JUDE. NEBUCHAD

NEZZAR.

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