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aloud the words, 'But I am rich-that is, I shall be,' which Aurelia had so ingenuously uttered, and the repeating of them seemed to give him peculiar and intense satisfaction.
DOG-WHIPPERS AND SLUGGARD-
ABOUT three years ago, we gave a paper (No. 954, April 8, 1882) on this subject under the heading of Keeping Order in Church,' to which we now propose to add a few particulars which have since come under our notice.
In one of his Injunctions of 1552, Archbishop Holgate of York ordered that the vergers do attend choir in divine-service time for the expulsion of beggars, other light persons, and dogs forth of the church.' That this practice prevailed at least two years earlier is proved by the churchwarden's accounts at Louth, in Lincolnshire, to which we previously referred. The office of Dog-whipper is referred to in Lodge and Green's Looking-glass for London and England-a curious work, published in 1594-in these words: 'A gentleman! good sir; I remember you well, and all your progenitors. Your father bore office in our town. An honest man he was, and in great discredit in the parish, for they bestowed two squire's livings on him; the one on working-days, and then he kept the town stage; and on holidays they made him the sexton's man, for he whipped the dogs out of the church. Methinks I see the gentleman still; a proper youth he was, faith, aged some forty and ten; his beard, rat's colour, half-black, half white; his nose was in the highest degree of noses, it was nose autem glorificans, so set with rubies, that after his death it should have been nailed up in Coppersmith's Hall for a monument.'
Whether old Scarlett-see Book of Days, vol. ii. pp. 16, 17-the well-known sexton of Peterborough, discharged the duties of dog-whipper in addition to that of sexton, we are unable to state with any degree of certainty. In his portrait on the west wall of the cathedral he is, however, depicted as wearing a whip in his belt; but he may have required it to drive off the juveniles during the discharge of his duties as sexton. The painting also shows that famous man with five keys in his hand, which may indicate that he also discharged the duties of apparitor in addition to that of sexton, so that old Scarlett may have been one of the first dog-whippers in this country. He died in 1591, at the age of ninety-eight.
We gather from the parish accounts that the dog-whipper at Bray, in Berkshire, was provided with a jerkin,' to indicate his official position, at a cost of six shillings and fourpence. The same individual appears to have whipped not only dogs but rogues out of the church; and was at a later date furnished with a surplice and a coat, which cost ten shillings. The item paid to Richard Turner for whipping the doggs out of the church' at Morton, in Derbyshire, in 1622, was one shilling.
It has been affirmed that the Puritans introduced dogs in the church in order to show their contempt for consecrated places. Whether this were so or not, the presence of dogs became, in the larger churches, such a nuisance, that an
official, called the dog-whipper or dog-'knawper,' was specially appointed to drive dogs from the sacred edifice, the office having previously been held by the sexton or apparitor, as a rule. The close railing about the altars was first introduced about this period, so that the sacrarium and the holy table might be protected from desecration and pollution by these quadrupeds. In the books of Goosnargh, near Preston, Lancashire, under date April 10, 1705, we find that the sexton had to whip the dogs out' of the church ‘every Lord's day,' in addition to other duties.
The remuneration of dog-whippers and sluggard-wakers varied according to circumstances— from ninepence a year to seven shillings. On his appointment to the office of sexton at St Mary's Church, Reading, in 1571, John Marshall undertook to have the church swept, the mats beaten, the windows cleaned, and all things done necessary to the good and cleanly keeping of the church and the quiet of divine service, for the sum of thirteen shillings and fourpence, paid annually.' The dog-whipper at Great Staughton, in Huntingdonshire, received one shilling in 1652 for the discharge of his duties in respect to the canine race for three months. Nearly a century later, in 1736, the salary of thirteen shillings was received, in addition to a new coat every other year, by one George Grimshaw for his manifold services in Prestwich Church in waking sleepers, whipping out dogs, keeping the children quiet, and the pulpit and church walks clean. The sexton at Barton-on-Humber formerly received four shillings and fourpence by the year from the churchwardens for dog-whipping;' so we gather from an undated 'Survey' relating to the vicarage. In 1764 there was paid to one James Warrington the sum of three shillings and fourpence for waking the church.'
In Northorpe Church, a 'Hall-dog pew' was formerly set apart for the use of that portion of the canine race which were favoured with homes at Northorpe Hall. It is the only one which has come to our knowledge; but there was probably similar accommodation provided for the dogs of the gentry in other parts of the country.
In admonishing young people, the author of A Choice Drop of Seraphic Lore, said: 'Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy, and carefully attend the worship of God; but bring no dogs with you to church; those Christians surely do not consider where they are going when they bring dogs with them to the assembly of divine worship, disturbing the congregation with their noise and clamour. Be thou careful, I say, of this scandalous thing, which all ought to be advised against as indecent.' At this time, a footman was often seen 'following his lady to church with a large Common Prayer-book under one arm, and a snarling cur under the other.'
The Rev. William Paul, D.D., minister of Banchory-Devenick, in his entertaining reminiscences of seventy years, published in 1881, under the title of Past and Present Aberdeenshire, affirms that many years ago ministers in Scotland were much annoyed by dogs, which were allowed by their owners to follow them to church. In consequence of the disturbance and distraction thus created during divine service, it was part of the beadle's duty to put dogs out. For this purpose
in some parishes he kept an instrument called "a clip," of the construction of a blacksmith's tongs, and having long wooden handles with a joint near the point, by which, without injury to himself, he could lay hold of the intruding animal and drag him out. These instruments were not in use in my time; but the late minister of Durris told me,' continues Dr Paul, 'that one of his friends being annoyed by a dog during the delivery of his sermon, and being unable to bear it any longer, said to his beadle: "Peter, man, canna ye put out that dug?" "Na," said Peter; "he winna gang oot, sir.' "Canna ye clip him, then?" said the minister. "Na, sir," said Peter; "I canna dee't; he's a terrible surlylike beast, an' I'm feart at him."'
Mr Grant, the predecessor of Dr Paul's friend, the late worthy minister of Methlick, was at one period of his ministry much annoyed by dogs during divine service in the church, and had found clip and beadle and much scolding of the congregation alike ineffectual for ridding him of the annoyance. On one occasion he found an unexpected ally who did him good service. He was preaching with great animation and vigour as usual, when a large black dog came stepping up the passage with great formality, moving his long tail from side to side, and sniffing at the entrance of every seat, in order to find out his master. As bad luck for him would have it, he stopped at one of the seats where a rough, halfwitted-looking fellow was sitting with his chin leaning upon a stick, which he clasped with both his hands. The fellow, thinking that the dog was stopping in order to bite, gave him a smart blow upon the nose, and down fell the dog stunned at his feet. On seeing this, the minister was greatly delighted, and having halted, said to the man with great emphasis: Thank you for that, sir,' and then proceeded with his discourse.
Early in the present century, the minister of Old Meldrum, named Harry Likely, was a very eccentric character. One day when preaching, he suddenly paused, and said to the beadle: Tammas, put out that dog there that's lyin' in the pass; he's like to gar me laugh, gashin' an' gnappin' there at the fleas. Put him out, man, an' dinna miss a thud o' him till ye hae him bye Nether Fowlie's door; and haste ye back to the worship.'
Dr John Brown, a dear friend of dogs, relates the story of the first dog he ever owned. It was rescued from drowning by his brother, and was a remarkable dog, 'without one good feature, except his teeth and eyes and his bark.' It was named 'Toby.' 'Toby was usually nowhere to be seen on my father leaving,' writes his genial biographer; he, however, saw him, and up Leith Walk he kept him in view from the opposite side, like a detective; and then, when he knew it was hopeless to hound him home, he crossed unblushingly over, and joined company.' Dr Brown's father was a clergyman, and one Sunday, Toby had gone with him to church, and left him at the vestry door. The second psalm was given out, and my father was sitting back in the pulpit, when the door at its back, up which he came from the vestry, was seen to move and gently open; then, after a long pause, a black shining snout pushed its way steadily into the church, and was followed by Toby's entire body. He looked
somewhat abashed; but sniffing his friend, he advanced as if on thin ice; and not seeing him, put his forelegs on the pulpit, and behold! there he was, his own familiar chum. I watched all this, and anything more beautiful than his look of happiness, of comfort, of entire ease, when he beheld his friend, the smoothing down of the anxious ears, the swing of gladness of that mighty tail, I don't expect soon to see. My father quietly opened the door, and Toby was at his feet, and invisible to all but himself. Had he sent old George, the minister's man, to put him out, Toby would probably have shown his teeth, and astonished George.'
When Her Majesty attended Crathie Church for the first time, the clergyman was followed up the pulpit stairs by a large dog, which reclined against the door during the delivery of the sermon. The minister in attendance on the Queen remonstrated with the clergyman. On the next Sabbath day the dog was not at church. A day or two afterwards, whilst dining at Balmoral, the clergyman was asked by Her Majesty to explain the cause of absence of the animal from church. He explained that he had been informed that the dog's presence had annoyed the Queen. Not at all,' was the royal response; 'pray, let him come as usual. I wish everybody behaved as well at church as your noble dog.'
A clergyman from Edinburgh officiating at a country kirk, could not comprehend why the congregation kept their seats when he rose to pronounce the benediction, instead of standing up, as was then the custom in Scotland. Seeing his embarrassment, the precentor, who had guessed its cause, called out: 'Say awa', sir, say awa'; it's joost to cheat the dowgs!"
We have only dealt with the subject as far as it relates to Great Britain; but the necessity for appointing dog-whippers and sluggardwakers has existed across the Atlantic, and elsewhere. Here are instances: As a clergyman in Connecticut was reading one of the Lessons for the day, he noticed a surly-looking dog frisking along the aisle, evidently in search of something upon which he might exercise his mischievous bent. Soon he secured a hat which was placed outside one of the pews. The owner seeing this, and objecting to this unceremonious proceeding with his chapeau, poked him with a cane, hoping thereby that he might regain his headgear. The cur was disobliging. The sexton soon appeared on the scene. The dog then beat a hasty retreat with his prize. Some of the congregation joined in the chase; but after cleverly dodging his pursuers for some time, the dog reached the door, carrying off with him what remained of the gentleman's hat.
During his visit to Sarna, Du Chaillu tells us in his Midnight Sun that on ascending the pulpit he 'saw near the Bible what resembled a policeman's club, at the end of which was a thick piece of leather, the whole reminding me of a martinet. This had been used, until within a few years, to awake the sleepers; the parson striking the pulpit with it very forcibly, thus compelling attention. Near the pulpit was a long pole, rounded at one end, with which the sexton, it appears, used to poke the ribs of sleepers. These two implements, intended to
BEFORE THE INVENTION OF PRINTING. WOOD was one of the earliest substances employed on which to inscribe names and record events. Stone, brass, lead, and copper were also used at an early period; after which, the leaves of trees. These were superseded by the outer bark of the tree; but this being too coarse, the inner bark came soon after to be used, that of the lime being preferred. This bark was called by the Romans liber, the Latin word for book; and these bark books, that they might be more conveniently carried about, were rolled up, and called volumen, hence our word volume. The skins of sheep, goats, and asses were the next materials used; and so nicely were they prepared, that long narratives were inscribed on them with the greatest accuracy. Some of these were fifteen feet long, containing fifty and sixty skins, fastened together by thongs of the same material. The intestines of certain reptiles were also used, for it is a well-authenticated fact that the poems of Homer were written on intestines of serpents in letters of gold. This roll was a hundred and twenty feet long, and was deposited in the great library of Constantinople, where it was destroyed by fire in the sixth century. The next material was parchment, skins smoothed and polished by pumice-stone; to which succeeded vellum, a finer description of parchment, made from the skins of very young animals. On this vellum, gold and silver letters were stamped with hot-metal types. Some of these productions are very beautiful, requiring much time and labour to prepare and complete them; and the more carefully they are examined, the more do we admire the taste and ingenuity displayed.
The papyrus, an Egyptian plant, a kind of rush, was the next substance that came into operation; hence the word paper.
purposes, and continued to be so till the close of the thirteenth, when it was superseded by paper made from linen rags. The inventor and the exact date of the invention have not been clearly ascertained; but there is no book of linen paper extant earlier than 1380. Towards the close of the century, paper-mills were erected in several places of the continent, though it does not appear that any paper was made in England till 1588the maker being a German, and the place Dartford in Kent.
Such were the materials employed for the transmission of knowledge previous to the invention of the art of printing, and we shall now notice some of the tools and instruments used for writing during the same period. stone, wood, and metal. It was so sharpened as The chisel was employed for inscribing on to suit the material operated on, and was dexterously handled by these early artists. The style, a sharp-pointed instrument of metal, ivory, or bone, was used for writing on wax-tablets. The style was unsuitable for holding a fluid, hence a species of reed was employed for writing on fully kept in cases, and the writers had a sponge, parchment. These styles and reeds were careknife, and pumice-stone, compasses for measur ing, scissors for cutting, a puncheon to point out the beginning and the end of each line, a rule to draw and divide the lines into columns, a glass containing sand, and another with writing fluid. These were the chief implements used for centuries to register facts and events.
Reeds continued to be used till the eighth century, though quills were known in the middle of The earliest author who uses the word penna for a writing-pen is Isidorus, who lived the seventh. in that century; and towards the end of it, a Latin sonnet "To a Pen' was written by an AngloSaxon.
But though quills were known at this period, they came into general use very slowly; sent from Venice by a monk with a letter, in for in 1433, a present of a bundle of quills was which he says: Show this bundle to Brother
Nicolas, that he may choose a quill.'
refer is ink, the composition and colours of The only other material to which we would which were various; the black was made of burnt ivory and the liquor of the cuttle-fish. We are not prepared to say what other ingredient was used or how it was manufactured; but these ancient manuscripts prove that the ink was of a superior description. Red, purple, silver, and The red was made gold inks were also used. the murex; and the manufacture of these, espe from vermilion and carmine, the purple from cially the gold and silver varieties, was an exten
sive and lucrative business.
to its value for writing, a sweet nutritive juice was extracted from the pith, the harder portions were made into cups and staves, and the fibrous parts into clothes, ropes, and wick for lamps. The paper was made by placing on a table layers of the plant, saturating them with water, and pressing them closely together; then they were dried, beat with a mallet, stretched, polished with the obstacles to the transmission of knowledge From the above statements, it is obvious that a shell, and cut into various sizes. This process in the early and middle ages in respect of of manufacturing the papyrus commenced about two hundred years before the Christian era, and materials were very great. Blocks of stone, planks was continued with improvements till the ninth of wood, plates of brass or lead, were too heavy century, when cotton paper was made in China better materials were used, such as parchment and cumbersome to circulate; and even after or Persia-for opinion as to this is divided. But there is no doubt that in the tenth century this able. But the discovery and production of paper and the papyrus, the difficulties were considercotton paper was generally used for writing
gave a mighty impetus to the diffusion of knowledge. Copyists sprang up in great numbers, and found remunerative employment. That we may form some idea of the extent of business
carried on, it may be stated that libraries containing thousands of volumes were collected in several places, and that in the thirteenth century there were in Paris alone more than six thousand persons engaged in copying and illuminating manuscripts. But numerous though copyists and books were, the hindrances to the diffusion of knowledge were still very great. The copies were few, after all, compared with the demand; and the cost of transcription enormous, considering the value of money and the rate of wages. As illustrations of this, it may be noticed that in 1274 a Bible sold for fifty marks-thirty-three pounds six shillings and eightpence. The price of wheat was three shillings and fourpence a quarter, a labourer's wage three-halfpence a day, a harvestman's twopence. So that the value of the Bible sold for fifty marks was equal to the value of two hundred quarters of wheat, or the pay of four thousand harvesters for one day. In 1429, a copy of Wicliffe's New Testament was four marks and forty pence two pounds sixteen shillings and eightpence. In 1433, the sum of sixty-six pounds thirteen shillings was paid for transcribing a copy of the works of Nicholas de Lyra, which was chained in the library of the Gray Friars. The price of wheat at that time was five shillings and fourpence the quarter, the wages of a ploughman a penny a day, and of a stone-cutter fourpence. This being the state of things, it was only rich persons who could purchase books and procure libraries, and therefore the information diffused was of a very limited description. But the invention of printing removed these serious impediments, opened up the greatest facilities for the spread of literature, so that now books are so cheap and so numerous as to be within the reach and the purchase of the poorest of the population. It might be wished that the boon were more generally prized, for in the midst of much knowledge there is also much ignorance. It is encouraging and cheering, however, to know that books are being more valued, and the taste for reading becoming greater every day.
'COOPERING' IN THE NORTH SEA.
coopers at a considerably lower rate than articles of the same denomination on shore, owing to the inferiority of the articles, and also to the fact that a heavy duty is levied upon like goods purchased ashore. With such facilities for obtaining these luxuries, it is not to be wondered at that the fishermen should take advantage of the opportunity, and frequently reduce themselves to a state of stupefaction by indulging in the liquor purchased from the coopers. Recently, the Board of Trade have held several inquiries into the conduct of smack-masters, who, it has been alleged, have been rendered incapable of performing the duties of their office owing to an excessive indulgence in the coopers' spirits. The evidence adduced at these inquiries has disclosed a disgraceful state of affairs, and proves conclusively the necessity of taking immediate action in the matter for the better protection of life and property at sea.
It frequently happens that quarrels arise on board the fishing-boats amongst those who have partaken of the drugged spirits, and these sometimes result in injury to one or more members of the crew. Should a drunken brawl occur on shore, the presence of a policeman is generally sufficient to quell it; but at sea, where the police are not available, the fishermen are placed at a disadvantage; and consequently, the quarrels arising there cannot be so easily decided. When drunkenness exists on board a vessel, improper navigation must ensue, thus placing life and property at a great risk; but now that the Board of Trade can deal with the certificates of defaulting smacksmen, it is to be hoped that greater care will be exercised by those in charge of vessels.
The coopers not only seek money in payment for the goods vended by them, but they are willing to exchange for any of the vessels' belongings. This is a temptation to the fishermen which ought not to be allowed to exist, as it is detrimental to the interests both of the fishermen and of the smack-owners themselves, seeing that the latter are frequently not made cognisant of the dealings of the men at sea. The usual mode of obtaining the goods is for intending purchasers to go from their vessel in the small boat and board the cooper, there purchasing the articles required. This is often attended with great danger, particularly if the occupants of the boat should indulge too freely whilst on board the contraband goods made from time to time on so-called 'floating grog-shop.' The seizures of board the fishing-craft point to another attendant evil of the system of coopering. The fishermen are no doubt induced to purchase the goods hoping thereby to add a few shillings to the otherwise small revenue arising from their usual employment, provided, of course, that they should escape detection. On several recent occasions, however, fishermen with large quantities of the coopers' tobacco in their possession have been the magistrates and heavily fined. This should detected on shore, and have been brought before prove a warning to others who may be tempted
THE system of coopering' in the North Sea has recently been brought into some prominence. The North Sea fishermen in pursuing their calling are exposed to many dangers, and it is only just that, where practicable, steps should be taken to minimise those dangers as much as possible. It is a notorious fact that for some years past the coopers have been carrying on an extensive and increasing trade in the North Sea, particularly among the flotillas of boats engaged in the herring-fishery, and it is to be regretted that their trade is productive of so much evil. The coopers' vessels are generally fitted up in a most elaborate manner, and trade principally in spirits of various kinds, perfumed waters, and tobacco, all of which articles have a ready sale among fishermen. The spirits are of such a vile nature that a very small quantity has a maddening effect, to invest in the coopers' stores in the hope of
and the other articles are also of an inferior making a little profit by getting the goods quality. They may be purchased from the ashore.
EARTHQUAKE OBSERVATIONS IN JAPAN. THE Transactions of the Seismological Society of Japan for 1884 contains (says Nature) a paper, by Professor Milne, on three hundred and eighty-seven earthquakes observed during two years in North Japan. To determine the extent of country over which an earthquake was felt, he distributed bundles of postcards to the government officials at all important towns within a distance of one hundred miles of Tokio, with a request that every week one of the cards should be posted with a note of any earthquakes that might have occurred. By this expedient it was discovered that the Hakme Mountains, to the south of the Tokio plain, appeared to stop every shock coming from the north; and accordingly the barrier of postcards was stopped in that direction, but was extended gradually to the north until it included the forty-five principal towns in the main island to the north of Tokio, besides several places in Yezo. In Tokio, observations as to direction, velocity, and intensity were made with various earthquake instruments. A description of the principal instruments used, with a comparison of their relative merits, has already been given by Professor Milne in vol. iv. of the Transactions of the Society. The second part of the paper is devoted to a list of the three hundred and eighty-seven earthquakes recorded, with particulars of each; one hundred and twenty-four maps of earthquake districts, as well as numerous other illustrations, are appended.
The results of an exhaustive study of these earthquakes may be summed up as follows: (1) As to distribution in space of the three hundred and eighty-seven shocks, two hundred and fifty-four were local, that is, they were not felt over an area greater than fifty square miles; one hundred and ninety-eight of these were confined to the seaboard; and fifty-six were inland. The average diameter of the land surface over which the remaining one hundred and thirty-three extended was about forty-five miles, but four or five of them embraced a land area of about fortyfour thousand square miles. These great shocks originated far out at sea, and consequently were not so alarming in their character as many which originated nearer to or beneath the land. (2) Simultaneous shocks: some of the disturbances took place at areas remote from each other, whilst intermediate stations did not record them. (3) Origins of earthquakes: the general result under this head is that the greater number of earthquakes felt in Northern Japan originated beneath the ocean, eighty-four per cent. of the whole having so originated. The district which is most shaken is the flat alluvial plain around Tokio. Indeed, the large number of earthquakes felt in low ground as compared with the small number felt in the mountains is very remarkable. It is also noticeable that in the immediate vicinity of active or recent volcanoes seismic activity has been small. The map marking the general distribution of volcanoes and the regions of the greatest seismic activity shows that these are not directly related to each other. The district, too, where earthquakes are the most numerous is one of recent and rapid elevation, and it slopes down steeply beneath an ocean which, at one hundred
and twenty miles from the coast, has a depth of about two thousand fathoms; whilst on the other side of the country, where earthquakes are comparatively rare, at the same distance from the shore the depth is only about one hundred and twenty fathoms. In these respects the seismic regions of Japan resemble those of South America, where the earthquakes also originate beneath a deep ocean, at the foot of a steep slope, on the upper parts of which there are numerous volcanic vents; whilst on the side of this ridge opposite to the ocean earthquakes are rare. (4) Relation of earthquakes to various natural phenomena : the preponderance of shocks in winter, as revealed by this investigation, is really remarkable; two hundred and seventy-eight took place in the winter months, as against one hundred and nine in the summer; and of the former number, one hundred and ninety-five, or more than half of the whole number for the two years, took place in the three coldest months of the year-namely, January, February, and March; in other words, there is a general coincidence between the maximum of earthquakes and the minimum of temperatures. But the relation of seismic intensity as distinct from the number of earthquakes) is even more remarkable, for the figures show that the winter intensity is nearly three and a half times as great as the summer intensity. M. Perrey thought he discovered a maximum of earthquakes for the moon's perigee, but no such maximum has been found for Japan. Speaking generally, no marked coincidence was found in the present instance in the occurrence of earthquakes and the phases of the moon.
The above are the general results, stated briefly, of the most exhaustive and remarkable study yet undertaken in the domain of seismology.
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