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now made to fabricate net, three, and even four yards in width, thus
“To accomplish these surprising improvements, one gentleman has
“That in addition to the improvement upon the principle of the
original machine, other modifications of the principle of making bobte bin-nets, by the bobbin and carriage, have been accomplished:-by
traversing the warp instead of the bobbin-thread; by placing the care si riages in a single line, instead of a double line, as in the original inrza vention; all of which improvements or modifications have been made
with an immense outlay of capital, and by intense study, care, ingenuity, and perseverance. That in addition to which, though the ori
ginal machine was only calculated to make plain net in a broad piece, e unornamented, yet, by the application of unceasing ingenuity, regardi less of expense, various ornaments have been worked into the net by machinery, whilst the net, instead of being made in broad pieces, is worked into slips, exactly imitating the cushion net. The result of inaking such lace by machinery has been to reduce the foreign cush
ion lace workers to less than a tenth in number, and England has beBoss come a great exporting nation for lace, to the amount of two millions
annually, instead of being an importing nation to nearly that amount. Permit your memorialists here to draw your Lordships' particular
attention to a recapitulation of the exact position of their trade. ios traordinary study, skill, and invention were applied for 40 years to
make the first bobbin-net machine; then continued application for 20 years more has been necessary to bring it to its present degree of perfection. The vast amount of capital sunk during the last 20 years in the machinery now employed, is seen in the incontrovertible fact that, out of the 5000 bobbin-net machines now employed in the English trade, the 3500 machines first constructed, at a cost of two millions sterling, have, by improvements alone, been reduced to the value of 200,0001., leaving the English trade minus 1,800,000l. If continental nations succeeded in obtaining a sufficient number of our improved machines to supply themselves, which is their present effort and design, no part of the outlay in invention and improvement can ever be regained; and your Lordships will perceive the jeopardy in which these continental rival manufactories will place our trade, in which 2,000,000l. is still invested in capital, and 2,500,0001. is paid yearly in wages to between 150,000 and 200,000 persons.”
Until the discovery of the bobbin-net machine, all lace was made by an appended machinery to the stocking frame. Sixteen descripftions of bobbin-net machines were atteinpted (and some of them brought to work) previous to Mr. Heathcote's patent in 1839.
An analysis of the whole of the inventions in lace machinery gives the following results :
Inventions, previous to Heathcote's patent, for making bobbin-net, 16 Inventions on the double-tier principle,
57 Inventions on the traverse-warp principle,
11 Inventions on the pusher principle, Inventions on Levers's principle, Inventions to make fender-net, called loop-net, Inventions to make foreign cushion-net by machinery, Inventions on the double set of carriage principle,
The number of inventions in warp lace is not quite so numerous, but they are equally important.
The invention of the thread-carrier, in 1789, more than doubled the speed of the loom and the stocking frame, and is regarded as the foudation of the fly-shuttle and other momentous improvements in manafacturing skill.
The following are modes of work of fabricating lace and framework knitted manufactures, introduced from foreign states :
1. Round-fingered gloves from Madrid in Spain.
4. Figured warp shawls, the colors worked in on the frame, as practised by Messrs. Hames, at Melbourn. From Lyons.
5. Figured-warp handkerchiefs in various devices, by open works, &c. Lyons.
6. Porcupine point-net scars3. Troyes and Lyons.
12. Chevening in gold and silver, as well as silk, on the frame. Lost. From Cordova and Seville in Spain. The trade has now near left those places, and has removed to Barcelona, Valencia, Maund, and Talavera de la Reyna.
The following are inventions used by foreign states, unknown, of at least not practised in these kingdoms:
1. Pin machine for making point-net. Lost to the English. Franza
2. Trico Berlin machine for making lace in stripes, and to represent feathered work. France, Prussia, Saxony.
3. Cylinder-warp machine to flower the net on the frame. France. 4. Cylinder-tickler machine for making fancy net-hose. France, 5. Nachine for working plain stocking-work in colored figures
, the same as knit, by using a number of colored bobbins, so as to make a representation of flowers, &c. Barcelona and Turin.
c 6. Machine for making a sort of Brussels lace in the plain sik stocking. Valencia in Spain.
7. Metier au Griffre, or frame on two trucks, having no hall-jack; and only a top cramp on jack-springs. France.
8. Revolving slur-wheel stocking frame, which forces down the
jacks without a slur-cock, for cold countries where jacks would not fall. Denmark, Russia, United States of America.
In the preceding enumeration of the various inventions that have been made from time to time, it has been shown that the lace trade has
emanated from the stocking-frame, as well as the hosiery trade; I have - not therefore attempted to dissever the connexion existing between -- them (which locality seems also to aid in perpetuating) by separate de
scriptions of the improved machinery which now relates exclusively to the one or to the other. Those familiar with either trade will at once : discover, and be enabled to make the distinction. It is, however, I
think manifest that the popular opinion that the stocking frame has = received no improvement since its first formation is erroneons, and that time has introduced into this machine many important and salutary amendments. Its peculiar characteristic of having escaped the propelling and invincible power of steam, to which even the winds and the waves may be said to have been constrained to
submit, has been ascribed to the fact that the varied movements of the body, hands, and legs, which are each called into action in the
working of a stocking frame, are all necessarily mainly regulated and
guided by the eye. In the finer work especially, the tax upon this e organ is often of great severity, which is shown by the number of
middle-aged men who are found using spectacles wheu at work; and confirmed still further by the fact that, as age advances on the operative, he is invariably found receding from the work of the finer to the coarser gauged frames, long before bodily decrepitude would necessitate the change.
Other and totally different causes may have contributed to discourage any attempt to apply mechanical power to the stocking frame. If all obstacles to a correct and properly made article of hosiery by such means could be overcome, it is doubtful whether, in a pecuniary point of view, it would be a measure of economy in the employers to adopt it. While wages remain, as they have done for years past, almost at the minimum of existence to the workman ; while custom sanctions, and his defenceless poverty forces him to subunit to pay au exorbitant and disproportionale weekly rent for the machine in which he works; while the inode of constructing the business remains in force, which actually prescribes the very limits of the labor he shall perform, as subsequently shown in the practice of stinting; and while at any time the employer can at little sacrifice to himself lay down his one, his ten, or his hundred frames,-even the rental of the places in which they stand, when at work, being paid by the workmen, there must be great advantages clearly manifested as derivable from any new system of production, which shall preponderale over those yielded by the present one.
Lond. Mech. Mag.
Application of Electricity in the Extraction of Metals. At a recent meeting of the Society of Arts, Mr. Whishaw (secretary) read a paper, by Mr. Napier, “On Separating Metals from their Ores by means of Electricity.” The author's mode of operation is as falows :—He uses a blacklead crucible, lined inside, within an inch a two of the bottom, with a coating of fire-clay, which is allowed to dry, and a second and third coat superadded; the ore to be operated on (which, if a sulphate, should be previously roasted) is put into the crucible, together with a little lime or other flux for the purpose * giving it fluidity. The crucible, with its contents, is then placed in a common crucible furvace; a battery of zinc and copper is preparad with five pair of plates, excited by very dilute sulphuric acid; to the zinc of this battery is attached an iron rod, the end of which is inserai in the furnace, and caused to touch the outside of the crucible; 13) ther rod, either of iron or copper, is used, having at one extremity : disk of iron or coke, which is made to rest on the surface of the insal mass in the crucible. The electricity is thus passed down througa the whole fluid mass in the crucible, and in the course of an hour ite metal is separated from the ore and deposited at the bottom. lib.
Submarine Currents. M. Arago presented to the Academy of Sciences, Paris, in the name of M. Aimè, iwo instruments, one to ascertain the direction of submarine currents, the other to measure their speed. These instruments were accompanied by an account of several experiments which had been made with them: it states, amongst other things, that the greatest speed of the currents on the coasts is on the coast of Africa, bel eta Algiers and Bona, and not, as is generally supposed, between Gibraltar and Algiers, and that in the Straits of Gibraltar there are three parallel currents. Near the coasts the direction is from east to west
. whereas the central current proceeds constantly from the west to the east; the latter is seven miles wide between Trafalgar and Cape Spattel. The width of the strait, at its narrowest part, is twelve mies: between Trafalgar and Cape Spartel it is twenty-seven miles; and fifteen miles between the Point of Europe and Ceuta.
Lond. Mining Joer.
Quantity of Coals, Cinders, and Culm, shipped at the sereral Porli
of Great Britain, during the years 1843 and 1814. A return, moved for by Mr. Vivian, M. P., shows that the total quantities of coals, cinders, and culm, shipped at the several ports the United Kingdom coast ways to other ports of the United Kingdom, aniounted altogether in 1943 to 7,447,084 tons, of which 7,138,107 were coals; and in 1844, to 7,377,862 tons, of which 7,017,113 were coals. The quantities exported to foreign countries amounted in 1818 10 1,866,211 ions of which 1,367,925 tous were large, and 452,35 small coals. The declared value of the whole amounted to 690,424. The large coals were chiefly exported to Russia, Denmark, Prusia, Germany, Holland, and France, the United States of America, the British West Indies, and Brazil. France alone took 358,874 tons of large coal, and 99,720 of small coal. The quar.tities exported in 18H
uthor's me amounted to 1,289,957 tons of large, and 408,424 tons of small coal, de lei a the declared value of all the coals, cinders, and culm being, 672,056/. of fired, The total amount of duties received on the coals exported in 1844 peradi: t appears to have been 118,4931.-viz., 76,095l. on those exported in prerest - British, and 40,708). on those exported in foreign ships entitled to the or orde is privileges conferred by treaties of reciprocity. The rates of duty th its op were, ou coals exported in British ships to foreign countries, 28. per of exz ton, and in foreign ships 4s. per ton.
he cust. On the Connexion between the Winds of the St. Lawrence and the miset, best Movements of the Baromeler. By W. KELLY, M. D., Surgeon o res c. R. N., attuched to the Naval Surveying Parly on the River Sl. is 135 Lawrence.
The author adduces a great number of observations, which are in opposition to the generally received opinion, that the mercury in the
barometer has always a tendency to sail when the wind is strong, rents During a period of fifteen years passed in the Gulf and River St. Lawof Vir rence, he found that the barometer as frequently rises as falls under
the prevalence of a strong wind; and that the winds often blew with Birgit a greater force with a rising than with a falling barometer. He gives veniva circumstantial account of the progress and course of various gales
which came under his observation during that period, and from which he infers the existence of a steady connexion between the prevailing winds of this region and the movements of the barometer, and enters into an inquiry into the mode in which that instrument is affected by them. The extensive valley of the St. Lawrence is bounded at its lower part, for a distance of nearly 500 miles, by ranges of hills, rising on each side to a considerable elevation. Within this space the ordinary winds sollow the course of the river : and in almost every instance where they approach from windward, the barometer rises with them; and when, on the other hand, the wind approaches from leeward, the barometer not only falls before the arrival of the wind, but continues to fall until it has subsided. An appendix is subjoined, con
, taining extracts from the tabular register of the barometer and winds at various points in the valley of the St. Lawrence, during the years 1834 and 1835, acconipanied by remarks on different points deserving notice in particular cases.—Proceed. Royal Soc. London Athenæum.
to On the Elliptic Polarizution of Light by Reflexion from Metallic
Surfaces. By the Rev. BADEN POWELL. In a sormer paper, published in the Philosophical Transactions for · 1843, the author gave an account of the observations he had made on the phenomena of elliptic polarization by reflexion from certain metallic surfaces, but with reference only to one class of comparative results. He has since pursued the inquiry into other relations besides those at first contemplated; and the present paper is devoted to the