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the enamel will remain attached to the meta and become properly glazed, so as to withstand the ordinary heat to which saucepans and other the like ware are exposed, without cracking or coming off. And in further compliance with the said proviso, we, the said Thomas Clark and Charles Clark, do hereby describe the manner in which our said invention is to be performed by the following statement thereof with reference to vessels such as cast iron saucepans (that is 10 say) :

Preparation for the Vessels.-Before the application of the enamel, the vessel of cast iron must be well cleaned in the following manner: mix with sixteen or twenty gallons of water, as much sulphuric acid as will render the water sensibly acid to the taste ; put ihe vessel in and let it remain three hours, or even inore; then take it out and scour it with sand, wash it twice in clear spring water, and lastly immerse it for five minntes in boiling water; take it out and wipe it perfectly dry, and it is then fit for the application of the enamel, which is composed of two coatings, first a composition for the body, and secondly a composition for the glaze. The first composition is made as follows: one hundred pounds of flint, calcined and ground fine, added to fifty pounds of borax, ground fine also; calcine ihese together will they are perfectly fused, let them cool, and then jake forty pounds of the above, and five pounds of potter's clay, and grind them in water together, and bring them to such a consistence as when the vessel is washedwith it that a coating of about one sixteenth of an inch is left in it, forming the first coating, or body, to support the glaze ; let this set, which it will do sufficiently in from five to ten minutes, if kept in a warm room. And then the following, or second composition, must be very evenly sisted over it whilst it is yet moist: one hundred and twenty-five pounds of white glass, made without lead, twenty-five pounds of borax, twenty pounds of soda; these must be pounded fine together, and then perfectly vitrified in a crucible, then cooled and ground very fine in water, and afterwards dried; then take thereof forty-five rounds and one pound of soda, mix them together well in hot water, stirring them well; then dry them in a stove, and a fine powder will be produced ; when this powder has been very evenly sifted over the firsi composition, the vessel must be put in a stove at a temperature of two hundred and twelve degrees of Fahrenheit to dry it, after which the composition is fired, by placing the vessel in a kiln, or moufle, such as the China manufacturers use for firing enamel colors; the kiln is brought to a sufficient heat to fuse the glaze, the vessel must then be first heated gradually at the mouth of the kiln, and then put in the full heat till the glaze is fused; it is then taken out to cool gradually. Now, whereas we claim as our invention, the enamelling and glazing of cast iron, as hereinbefore described, so as to enable vessels, so enanielled, to bear the heat to which saucepans, and such like cooking vessels, are ordinarily subjected without cracking or splitting off.-In witness, &c.

Enrolled November 25, 1839. Disclaimer.- Entered by the said Thomas Clark and Charles Clark,

pursuant to the provisions of an Act passed in the 5th and 6th years of the reign of his late Majesty King William the Fourth, entitled, “An Act to amend the law touching Letters Patent for Inventions:”

We, the said Thomas Clark and Charles Clark, do hereby declare that since the granting of the said letters patent and the enrolment of the specification thereof, we have been advised that it is doubtful whether the said invention is applicable to other metallic substances than cast-iron, and for this reason we, the said Thomas Clark and Charles Clark, do hereby disclaim the words, “and other metallic substances,” in the said title of the said patent.-In witness,

&c. Rep. Pat. Inv.

Specification of the Patent granted to John SWINDELLS, of Man

chester, in the County of Lancaster, for several Improvements in the Preparation of various Substances for the purpose of Dyeing und Producing Color, also Improvements in the Application and Use of several Chemical Compounds for the Purpose of Dyeing and Producing Color not hitherto made use of.-Sealed June 12, 1844.

To all to whom these presents shall come, &c., &c. One part of my improvements in dyeing and producing color consists, when madder, madder-root, or munjeet, is made use of to produce some given color, in preparing the madder as follows:- I take any given weight of my madder, and, when reduced to a fine powder, I mix the same with as much of a solution of caustic ammonia, potash, or soda, as will thoroughly carbonize the yellow or fawn coloring matter therein. Different kinds of madder require different proportions. What is called best French madder requires one-eighth part of its weight of caustic alkali, or of ammonia, as much of the solution as will be equivalent in saturating a given weight of an acid, as the one-eighth of potash. I thoroughly mix any of these solutions with the powdered madder, and expose them to heat not exceeding 175° Fahrenheit: this, when dissolved in water, will be ready to operate with in dyeing or forming madder, lakes, or pinks; or the madder may be first treated with sulphuric acid, as in making guarancine, and the alkali afterwards applied, which will not then require to be operated on by heat, but simply dissolved in a solution of any of the alkalies, or their carbonates, or other salts thereof; but I prefer, for any of these purposes, caustic solution of ammonia as producing the best effects. In dyeing cottons or linens with this prepared madder, or with the common kinds, as also with other vegetable matter, I prepare the cotton for receiving the color as follows:--After it has been bleached or thoroughly cleansed from impurities, I steep it for some hours in a solution of gelatine or albumen (the strength of solution which I prefer is

I a specific gravity of 1.04.) After removing from this, I pass the goods into a strong solution of tannin for twelve hours. I then wring them out, and dry thoroughly, either in the air or a stove. This process may be repeated or not, according to the depth of color required.

I then go through the remainder of the processes of dyeing in the usual manner.

My next improvement consists in preparing, for dyeing blues and similar colors, the compounds of cyanogen and ammonia, as follows: My first improved method consists in preparing a substitute for the hoof and horn, and other animal materials usually made use of.This I accomplish by grinding to a fine powder or paste common coal, cannel coke, or charcoal, or any other carbonaceous matter, and mixing there with a solution of gelatine, albumen, or a mixture of each, and, thoroughly drying the compound, I use it in the same way as the hoof and horn is now made use of. My second improved method of producing the compounds of nitrogen, namely, cyanogen, or prussic acid, and ammonia, consists in combining nitrogen gas or the oxides of nitrogen with carbon, as follows :-If nitrogen be made use of, it may be produced from the atmosphere, or from any of its compounds or mixtures, passing it through heated carbonaceous matter of any description; but I prefer charcoal or coke, so as to form oxygen, (if it be atmospheric air,) into carbonic acid. To accelerate the process, I propel or force the mixed nitrogen and carbonic acid through lime, by means of appropriate machinery, either in a semifluid state or in the state of hydrate, or it may be passed through solutions of any alkali or alkaline earth, so as to combine the whole of the carbonic acid there with, and also condense any aqueous vapor that may be present; nitrogen gas, moderately free from other gases, will then remain.This nitrogen I then pass through charcoal, or any carbonaceous matter previously saturated with potass or soda, kept at a full red or approaching a white heat, in a perfectly close retort, or any other convenient apparatus, until the required quantity of cyanide is produced. If ammonia is to be produced, I pass the nitrogen gas, together with one-fourth its volume of steam or aqueous vapor, through charcoal or other carbonaceous matter at a red heat, and condense the ammonia so produced by the usual process or processes, or atmospheric air may be made use of along with aqueous vapor, and passed through heated carbonaceous matter at a red heat, either in close or open vessels.If the protoxide, deutoxide, or nitrous vapor be operated on for the production of cyanogen, I proceed, as before described, in operating with nitrogen gas; or the process of separating the oxygen may be dispensed with, and by making due calculation of the quantity of oxygen in the compounds of nitrogen operated on, adding potass or soda sufficient to combine with the carbonic acid which will be produced in the process when passed through the heated carbonaceous matter. In forming ammonia, or its compounds, from the oxides of nitrogen or nitrous vapor, I pass them, in conjunction with their own volume of steam, through charcoal or other carbonaceous matter at a red heat, either in close or open vessels. But if a compound of carbon and nitrogen, namely, cyanogen, is to be formed or produced, the apparatus contaiving the heated carbonaceous matter must be air-tight. I wish this to be minutely attended to, as it is necessary to the process of producing cyanogen to exclude oxygen, carbonic acid, or aqueous vapor, and constitutes the difference betwixt a process some time ago patented, for producing cyanogen by pumping atmospheric air through heated charcoal, and my process, as before described.

My improvement, in applying several chemical salts or compounds in dyeing or producing color, consists in using or operating on a class not hitherto used for these purposes. In dyeing or producing color from the cyanides, ferrocyanides, or other compounds or salts of cyanogen, I separate the acid required from its combination with barium, strontia or calcium; but of these I prefer the salt of barium, which I operate on by precipitating the barium by its equivalent quantity of sulphuric acid, diluted with as much water as may be necessary to produce the required strength of acid to be made use of. My improvements also consist in the application of the chromates and bichromates of barytes, strontia, and lime, whose bases I also separate by an equivalent proportion of sulphuric acid and water according to the strength of the solution required. In operating on manganic salts, I make use of the manganate of barytes, strontia, or lime, and separate the base by an equivalent quantity of sulphuric acid and water, as already described in preparing chromic acid. The solution of the acids of chrome and manganese, when separated from their bases, I apply in raising, dyeing, and oxydating various colored fabrics.

I claim therefore as my invention

Firstly, the use of ammonia, or other alkalies, for preparing a madder dyeing liquor.

Secondly, I claim the process of preparing cotton or linen by subjecting them to the action of gelatine or albunien and tannin.

Thirdly, 1 claim the inethod of preparing materials for the manufacture of cyanogen of prussiates by using gelatine or albumen mixed or ground together with carbonaceous matter of any description.

Fourthly, I claim the production of cyanogen and its compounds by operating on nitrogen gas, after having removed any other gas or aqueous vapor therefrom, before introducing it to the heated carbonaceous maiter.

Fisthly, I claim the production or manufacture of cyanogen or its compounds by operating on the oxides of nitrogen or nitrous vapor, however procured, hy bringing them in contact with heated carbonaceous matter, either after having separated the oxygen or without separating it.

Sixthly, 1 claim the production or manufacture of ammonia, or its salts, by operating on the nitrogen of the atmosphere or any other oxides of nitrogen, in conjunction with aqueous vapor, and passing the same through heated carbonaceous maiter.

Seventhly, I claim the application or use of the cyanide, ferrocyanide, or chlorocyanide, or any other combination of cyanogen and barium, strontia or calcium, in dyeing, printing, and producing color.

Eighthly, I claim as new the use and application of chromate or bichromate of barytes, strontia, or lime, for the purpose of dyeing, printing, and producing color.

Ninthly, I claim also the use and introduction of the manganate of. barytes, strontia, and lime for the same purposes.-- In witness, &c. Énrolled December 12, 1844.

Rep. Pat Inv.

To WILLIAM Irving, of Lambeth, engineer, for improved machi

nery and apparatus for Cutting and Carving Substances to be applied for Inlaying and other purposes.—[Sealed 25th November, 1843.]

This invention consists in certain improved constructions or arrangements of machinery, having a revolving cutter, by means of which, in conjunction with a movable table, tablets of wood and other materials can be cut away, carved, countersunk, and perforated, in various ornamental forms, with great facility, for the production of inlaid devices, gothic tracery work, and other kinds of ornaments hitherto usually wrought by hand.

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