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library, journal, and committees; these, we fear not, will always have the popular sympathies and support; but it is my painful duty to tell you that our Institution is laboring under the weight of a debt contracted under the most flattering hopes, but made a grievous burthen by a disastrous change of times. Anxious to meet the wishes of its members for enlarged accommodations, the Society was induced to purchase a valuable property in the city at what was considered a reasonable price.
Payments to the amount of about forty thousand dollars for account of the principal and interest of the sum thus contracted for had been made, when, owing to our inability to meet the interest, and maintain our organization, we were compelled to give up the property, and sacrifice, totally, this great amount. By the liberality of several of our citizens, we have been released from portions of the indebtedness represented by this loss; but there still remains enough to crush us utterly if we cannot, in some way, obtain the surrender of the certificate of debt. In addition to this, we owe still a part of the debt contracted in the year 1824, for the purchase of the site, and the erection of our Hall, so that with these obligations, our path for the last five years has been beset with difficulty and trouble. A generous, active sympathy, on the part of our members and fellow citizens, would soon relieve iis, and we now make an appeal for it. Cannot five hundred men be found in this city and state, who feel a sufficient interest in the success of the Franklin Institute, who are willing to give one hundred dollars each to such an object. Relieved from the pressure of debt, we could repay such an outlay thrice over, by enlarging our plans for giving instruction ; and who is there among us, elevated as he may be by the possession of wealth and station, who can look far enough into futurity, to say, neither my son, nor my son's son, will ever be an apprentice, or need the aid of such an institution as our own. The last sixty years have taught us many emphatic lessons on this head. The present king of the French has within that period supported himself by the labor of his own hands; the rich and noble of Europe, driven from their homes and possessions by the arms of a successful soldier of fortune, have become artizans, agriculturists, and manufacturers, while men like the merchant and mariner of our own city, have, during the same eventful period, risen from obscurity, and stamped their names indelibly on the page of history. I, therefore, earnestly press the claim of the Institute upon the rich and liberal, and trust that it will not be received with cold indifference. But we part from this theme to turn our attention to a more pleasing one in the displays with which we have been periodically greeted at our exhibitions, we have recognized the fruits of our labors and efforts to diffuse useful knowledge among our mechanics and manufacturers. Year after year we have wimessed the march of improvement, and the collection of useful and ornamental articles by which we are surrounded, compared with the humble collection that we first displayed in the Carpenters' Hall, furnishes us with just cause for present gratulation. We must not, however, be satisfied with what we have attained; we are almost annually reminded, in
tones from abroad that cannot be unheeded, of what is doing there. Many of you have douþtless read the graphic accounts from the French press, of the great exposition of arts and manufactures lately held in the city of Paris, at which the hands of royalty itself distributed the prizes, and proclaimed the honorable distinctions that had been earned by the citizens of the great empire. There the display was measured by miles, here we feel content to estimate it by feet, and although the republican simplicity of our manners and customs may not seem in harmony with such magnificence, yet our proper feelings, as part of a nation that yields to none in the world in natural advantages, would suffer no very severe trial if such a record could pass to our posterity as part of the history of the nineteenth century. If the proper spirit be once aroused among us, the accomplishment of this would not be difficult ; in works of internal improvement, and the mechanics connected with them, we are perhaps in advance of Europe ; in the possession of popular government, regulated by the will of the people, and in the regulating and controlling that will, we are · doubtless more highly favored than they. We fail, however, in a comparison with them in the monuments and associations of ancient times, which engender a patriotic spirit of a peculiar cast, and lead them to undervalue that which is new and rapidly progressive.Watched as we are by such jealous eyes, and viewed from abroad with more suspicion than favor, let us put off the self-satisfied spirit which is too often the stumbling block in the path of improvement and happiness. While we have youth and energy as a nation, let us lay broad and deep the foundations for social happiness and national independence and honor. Let us cherish those institutions, which, founded npon an equal regard to the rights and necessities of all, are attending to the great work of educating our people; not educating them in narrow and imperfect views of their duty to God, their neighbors, and themselves, but in a noble and catholic spirit, fitting them for any emergency that may arise in the republic.
As we have regard to such principles in what we are doing in our day, so will our career as a nation be distinguished. The false distinctions that ignorance makes between individuals, will disappear, and instead of the sneer of the miscalled practical man at the philosopher, we shall find philosophy and practice so intimately blended in ihe same man, as to cause the mind to doubt whether the prejudice to which we have referred could have ever really existed. The philosopher whose name distinguishes our institution, was a noble example of the union at which we aim; unaided by such lights as now shine upon the pathway of the student, he may be said to have first formed the tools, and then with them wronght himself up to the stature of immortality.
To the youth of our day we recommend the example of Franklin, in fitting himself by study and self-discipline to be a teacher and model for the world. To the rich we point his admirable practice of the lessons he had learned; and to all we say in the language of the great and learned teacher of wisdom,—“Happy is the man that findeth wisdom, and the man that getteth understanding, for the merchandize of it is better than the merchandize of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold.”
List of American Patents which issued in Muy, 1844, with Re
marks and Exemplifications. By CHARLES M. KELLER, Ex
aminer of Patents. 1. For an improvement in the Horse Power ; A. D. Childs, Roches
ter, Monroe county, New York, May 6.
This horse power, like many before it, is on the general principle of the sun and planet movement; motion is communicated to a central vertical shaft provided with a mitre wheel near its lower, and a pinion near its upper end, the former driving the line shaft, and the latter receiving motion from three planet wheels arranged at equal distances around it, and each provided with a pinion on its arbor, the teeth of which take into cogs on the inner periphery of a permanent ring. The planet wheels turn on, and are carried around the central shaft by studs projecting downwards from a cap plate, (so formed as to make an entire covering to the whole machine,) which is guided and kept steady in rotating by means of rollers that embrace a flanch projecting from the outer periphery of the permanent ring, and others which bear against the inner periphery of the ring—the central shaft having its upper bearing in the centre of this cap plate.
Claim.-"What I claim as my invention, is the method of sustaining the upper end of the centre shaft, and guiding the pitch of the planet wheel pinions by means of the cap, as described, which is guided by rollers on the studs of the cap, under the planet wheels, bearing and rolling on the inner periphery of the planet ring, by means of which a stationary centre is dispensed with, and the wheels are protected.”
2. For improvements in the apparatus for manufacturing illuminat
ing Gas, and for mixing it with measured quantities of atmospheric air, 8.c.; James Crutchett, a subject of the queen of Great Britain, and now residing in Cincinnati, Ohio, May 6.
Claim.-“I claim the combining of two, or more, drums on the same shaft, so that they shall revolve together in a suitable case, or vessel, containing water, in the same way with the drum of the ordinary gas metre; one or more of which drums are so arranged and combined as to draw in atmospheric air, oxygen, or air and vapor, to be mixed, in measured proportions, with carburetted hydrogen, the proportionate quantity of each being governed by the capacity of the respective drunis, upon the principle set forth. i claim the combining with the atmospheric air, previously to its mixture with the car
buretted hydrogen, a portion of the vapor of naptha, spirits of turpentine, or other suitable inflammable liquid, whether this combination be effected by means of an apparatus constructed precisely as herein described, or in any other way in which the same end is attained ; I do not claim the combining of atmospheric air with the vapor of hydro-carbons, when such combination is intended to be applied immediately to the purpose of illumination, without a subsequent combination thereof with carburetted hydrogen: my claim in this particular having reference solely to the production of a triple compound of air, vapor, and gas, with which to supply the burners; by which combination also I effect great economy in the production of artificial light. It is here to be clearly understood, that I do not claim as of my invention, the case furnished with trays to contain naptha, or other volatile liquid, for, although I have introduced some improvements therein, it is not new in its general arrangement. I claim the manner described of regulating the supply of oil, or other fluid, or fused matter, from which gas is to be made; the rising of the gasometer being made to close, and its descent to open, a cock, or valve, by which such supply is governed. I claim combining with the dipping box the vent tube proceeding from the cock, as set forth, for the purpose of drawing off the volatile oil, without allowing of the escape of gas."
3. For an improvement on the machine for computing Interest,
measuring Lumber, and for other similar purposes; Jehu Hatfield, Glenn's Falls, Warren county, New York, May 6.
This machine consists of a vertical revolving cylinder, having on its outer surface vertical parallel columns of figures, or signs, representing the interest on the several sums shown in a stationary column on a surrounding case. There is also a circular scale, or dial, placed in front of the case in a vertical position, to indicate the days of the month, with an index hand, or pointer, which is operated by the cylinder--the two being connected together by mitre wheels.
Claim.- In the old revolving interest tables," says the patentee, "there was a cylinder containing the interest, having the days and months stated at the head of each column, instead of a dial and pointer,) enclosed in a round paste-board case, or box, having an opening in front with the principal pasted on one side; the cylinder being made to revolve by turning the shaft at the lower end with the fingers; and, therefore, I wish it understood that I make no claim to any part of this arrangement, but what I do claim as my invention, and which I desire to secure by letters patent, is the before described combination of the revolving cylinder, containing the vertical columns of numbers indicating the interest, with the permanent vertical scale showing the principal, and the dial representing the days and months, for which the interest is to be ascertained, and the pointer operated in the manner and for the purpose set forth, or in any other mode substantially the same, by which analogous results are produced.”
4. For an improvement in the Cast-iron Plough; Aaron Smith,
Bloomfield, Oakland county, Michigan, May 6.
The accoinpanying diagram and claim will give the reader a clear idea of the improvement patented, viz.,—“What I claim as new, and desire to secure by letters patent, is the particular manner in which I
form the face of the mould-board, as set forth; that is to say, by taking a radiating point in the particular position, designated in the drawing by the letter v, in the perpendicular line o, p, and at a height above the plane of the sole of the plough, such as is herein designated, and from v, as a centre, so forming all the radiating lines between the