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The spire was raised by means of two derricks situated on the north and south walls on the top of the tower, and placed about 18 inches behind the front posts of the spire, or about 3 feet back from the front of the tower, and were 13 ft. 6 in. apart, allowing about 6 ins. on each side between them and the spire. Their feet were made convex and fitted into corresponding concavities worked in the oak sleepers which were securely bolted down into the sills of the spire, which sills were themselves secured to the tower by 14 inch iron rods 36 feet long and built in the angles of the tower walls. To avoid all the strain being thrown on the top of the walls at these points, diagonal braces were placed, extending 40 feet down the tower, and as an additional precaution to prevent the derricks from slipping at the heels they were connected by lashings fastened to iron bolts passed through them, the heads were connected by two tackle blocks, which were only of use to keep them in their position till the spire was being raised. The guys from each of the derricks, extended in three directions over the neighbouring commons.

The spire was connected with the derricks by four double lashings, (each end of which was fastened to one of the spire posts at the foot,) and two spans; the belt which connected the spans, was 30 feet high above the base of the spire, (being about 5 feet above the centre of gravity) and passed through the straps ofthe purchase blocks. The falls from the treble blocks on the derricks to the leading blocks, were in the interior of the tower, and the two capstans used, were placed in the main story of the church and were each manned by twenty men. Attached to the base of the spire were three guys and at about 25 ft. from the head were four more guys, all secured to guy posts.

All the arrangements having been made with the greatest care, on the 10th of February, at two o'clock in the afternoon, the raising was commenced, and it was performed with the greatest ease. The spire was kept plumb by the management of the guys attached to it. As the derricks were but 42 feet high and the belt to which the purchase blocks was fastened was 30 feet from the base, (at which height the distance from each derrick head to the spire would be about 3 feet,) there would be but 6 feet between the blocks when the spire would be raised; they would thus necessarily have lain almost horizontal, and caused a great strain on them; to avoid this strain, as the raising was progressing, the north and south derrick guys were slackened to make the purchase blocks work more perpendicularly.

When the spire had been raised to its proper height in front of the tower, the two west derrick guys were worked by two crabs to draw over the derricks and swing the spire to its destined position. It had been deemed most prudent to work them in that manner, as in the hauling in of the back guys in the usual manner, an oscillatory motion might have been communicated to the spire, which would have rendered it difficult to manage at this most critical moment. The raising lasted one hour and thirty minutes, and thirty minutes was required to secure it firmly to the sills on the tower by the iron straps; -thus the whole operation occupied two hours.

On the Causes of the great Versailles Railway Accident. By J. GRAY.

From various facts and circumstances connected with the accident on the 8th of May, 1842, on the Left Bank Paris and Versailles Railway, Mr. Gray became convinced that nothing but a failure in the front axle of the Matthew Murray engine could have been the first cause of her right hand front wheel first slipping within the rail; and having the inquiry thus far concentrated, he proceeded with an examination of that axle, and of the facts and incidents connected with its failure: and he came to the conclusion that, with good materials and proportions, and the axles in a state of repose as received from the forge, or, in other words, perfectly free from the effects of cold swaging, or hammer hardening, an axle in such a state, and of ample dimensions for its intended work, will effectually resist fracture for any period the wear of the journals may enable it to run; but if the dimensions be deficient, the iron will be taxed beyond its permanent cohesive power and elasticity; and, however slight the excess of exertion and fatigue may be, a gradual and inevitable dissolution of particles must result; but, beyond this, he had not met with anything, either in print, in observation, or in the course of experience, that would at all warrant a belief in iron necessarily changing its quality, or becoming crystalized by forces within the range of its permanent cohesive force and elasticity.


List of American Patents which issued in the month of October, 1844, with Remarks and Exemplifications. By CHARLES M. KELLER, Examiner of Patents.

1. For a machine for making Bricks from Untempered Clay; Benj. H. Brown, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 3.

The clay, as it is taken from the bank, is deposited in a hopper by elevators, and from the hopper it passes between two rollers, that move with different velocities, by which it is drawn through in thin cakes, and thrown on to a set of permanent teeth, and there cut up by the action of sets of teeth on a roller that work between the permaIt is then conducted by a spout into a movable mould, which, when filled, slides under a piston, actuated by a cam, to be compressed and formed into a brick, which is then discharged by a follower, actuated by another cam that forms the bed of the mould.

Claim."I do not claim the use of the cams for operating the pistons in pressing brick, nor do I claim the manner in which the bricks are received, compressed, and delivered; but what I do claim as my invention, and which I desire to secure by letters patent, is the arrangement of the two cams for effecting the pressure and delivery of the bricks, in combination with the pistons and movable mould.

I also claim the combination of the rollers and pins for pulverizing the clay as above described."

2. For a mode of Marking and Lettering Packages; Wm. Francis, and Wm. Johnson, Waynesville, Haywood county, North Carolina, October 3.

The patentees say "The nature of our invention consists in running a composition of glue or molasses (with other materials if deemed necessary to elasticity and preservation) into moulds of letters, figures and devices, &c., formed on lines, upon which (while in a warm state) is applied thin slats of wood, or other substance, of the width of the lines, with beveled edges, which adhering to, is drawn with the composition from the moulds; when said composition becomes properly cooled, the moulds being previously oiled, these slats, when cut or separated between the letters, form type. The type when made are placed in the order required on a hand press formed of bars of wood or other material, with wire or other springs placed at regular distances fastened on said bars, on the top or surface of which said springs, are attached small blocks of wood, or other material, forming a smooth level surface, on which are placed the type, and fastened by means of slides, or otherwise, the springs admitting the type and blocks on which the type are placed, to play in a groove formed in the bars of the press, for the purpose of giving way when the face of the type touches an uneven surface, or until the whole surface of the type, and that of the package or article marked, come in complete contact with each other."

Claim. "What we claim as our invention, and desire to secure by letters patent, is the hand press constructed as herein described, and, in combination therewith, type formed of an elastic substance, composed of glue and molasses, or other material when deemed necessary; to be used by means of said presses, with the aid of springs or other similar means, and other fixtures, as herein described, so as to insure the successful application of the type to even or eneven surfaces, using for that purpose any material or compound that will produce the intended effect."

3. For an improved apparatus for Sepurating Liquids by Centrifugal force from Sugar and other Substances; Joseph Hurd, Shoreham, Middlesex county, Massachusetts, October 3.

Claim. "My invention, and that which I claim as an improvement, consists in the employment, in the manner set forth, of a cylinder, or other proper shaped vessel, capable of receiving and holding a mass of sugar, or other inaterial, and whose sides are composed of a porous material of such strength and character as will retain the mass of sugar, or other substance to be operated on, and at the same time permit the passage of the liquid matters (proceeding from the mass) through them, when the said vessel is put in such rapid revolution as to generate in the liquid, or liquids, a sufficient degree of centrifugal force to expel it, or them, from the mass as described. And in

combination with a vessel so arranged and operated, I claim the cistern, wholly or partially surrounding the same, or so connected with the same as to catch and retain, or suffer to escape into a proper receptable, the liquid matters as they are expelled from the mass in the vessel, and I further claim the combination with the vessel, of a means of supplying water or other cleansing liquid to the central or other suitable part of the mass of sugar, or other material to be cleansed, for the purpose of dressing, or cleansing, &c., as set forth. Also the manner of dressing or cleansing sugar, or other matters susceptible of being so dressed or cleansed, viz: by passing a current of water, or other suitable cleansing liquid, into the interior of the mass, and from thence driving it through and out of the mass by centrifugal force, substantially as explained."

4. For an improvement in Friction Matches; Elisha Smith, Erving, Franklin county, Massachusetts, October 3.

The patentee says "I do not claim the combining with phosphorus, or other inflammable substance, an earthy incombustible material mixed with it, or made by means of a glutinous substance (such as glue or gum arabic) to adhere to and surround and protect it from oxidation, or the absorption of moisture; neither do I claim the employment of glue, or a gelatinous liquid or substance, for the purpose of cementing the phosphorus and protecting material together; because I believe that such earthy and gelatinous materials, whether together, or separate from each other, have long been employed both in this and foreign countries for such purpose. But that which I do claim consists in the employment, in the manufacture of friction matches, of combustible materials, such as pulverized dried bark, wood, or other vegetable matters substantially the same in character, instead of mineral and other substances, for the purpose of protecting the phosphorus or inflammable substance, and for giving consistency or body to the paste, as above set forth. And, particularly, I claim the using of vegetable matters (such as hemlock bark, oak bark, sumach, nut-galls. &c.) containing more or less tannin, and which, when combined with the glue or gelatinous adhesive mixture, form "tanno gelatin," or an insoluble substance, which, although almost, if not entirely proof against the absorption of moisture, will readily be consumed by fire -the whole being substantially as hereinbefore explained."

5. For an improvement in the Life Preserver; Adoniram Chandler. New York city, N. Y., October 3.

This is for an improvement on the life preserver patented to Jos. Francis, as assignee of C. A. De Liancourt, on the 10th of May, 1844. and noticed in the present volume, page 51, to which the reader is referred.

It is alleged that the Liancourt life preserver is liable to collapse, in consequence of the elliptical form of its transverse section, to avoid which, under the present patent, it is composed of two helical springs placed and connected together side by side.

VOL. IX, 3RD SERIES-No. 6.-JUNE, 1845.


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