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mans, and another for the English, on the principle, that the latter have both longer purses, and also more numerous wants, and are more difficult
The servants are remunerated nearly as in Germany-1 fr., a-day is ample from each person for the whole household, including the cleaning of clothes, boots, and shoes.
It is often remarked by the English that the Germans pay very little to the servants at inns ; but they should bear in mind how much less trouble the Germans give, and how slight the attendance which they require generally speaking.
French is almost invariably spoken at the inns, even in the German cantons, except in remote parts, as in the side valleys of the Grisons. Nevertheless, the German language is a very valuable acquisition to the traveller.
Swiss inns have, in general, the reputation of being expensive, and the innkeepers of being extortionate. At recent journey through the greater part of the country has scarcely afforded an instance of either; but, where such cases have occurred, notice has been taken of them in the following pages. At minor and remote inns manœuvres are sometimes resorted to for the purpose of detaining the guests.
Among the mountains the traveller may obtain, in perfection, the small alpine trout, which are of great excellence; sometimes, also, chamois venison, which, by the way, is far inferior to park venison; wild strawberries are very abundant, and, with a copious admixture of delicious cream, the staple commodity of the Alps,—are by no means to be despised.
Those who enter a Swiss inn, tired, hot, and thirsty, after a long walk or dusty ride, may ask
for a battle of "limonade gazeuse," under which name they will recognise a drink nearly resembling ginger beer, but with more acidity, and, when good, very refreshing. It supplies here the place of hock and Seltzer-water on the Rhine.
The best Swiss wines are those of Neuchâtel and Vaud; such as they are procured at inns, they merit no great praise. An effervescing sweet Sardinian wine (vin d'Asti) is common, and may be resorted to for a change.
DIRECTIONS FOR TRAVELLERS, AND REQUI
SITES FOR A JOURNEY IN SWITZERLAND.
The best season for travelling among the Alps is the months of July, August, and September, in which may, perhaps, be included the last half of June. The higher Alpine passes are scarcely clear of snow before the second week of June; and before the middle of October, though the weather is often still serene, the nights draw in so fast as to curtail, inconveniently, the day's journey. ing the long days, one may get over a great deal of ground. The judicious traveller will economize the daylight by rising, and setting forth as soon after sun-rise as possible.
The average daily expense of living at the best inns in Switzerland will vary between 8 Fr. fr. and 10 fr. a-day, excluding all charge for conveyances, horses, and guide. The pedestrian who, with Keller in his pocket, can dispense with a guide, may travel in the remoter valleys of Switzerland at the rate of 5 to 7 fr. a-day, provided he knows German and French. The German students, who understand the art of travelling economically, always proceed in a party, and usually send on one of their number a-head, to their intended night-quarters, to make terms with the
innkeeper. There is this advantage in travelling with a party; that numbers are more welcomed at an inn and better attended than a solitary individual; on the other hand, when inns are full, few stand a better chance than many. All arrangements for the hire of carriages, horses, or guides, should be concluded over-night he that waits till the morning will generally find either the conveyances engaged by others, or the price demanded for them increased, and, at all events, his departure delayed.
Saussure recommends those who are inexperienced in Alpine travelling to accustom themselves for some time before they set out to look down from heights and over precipices, so that, when they really enter upon a dangerous path, the eye may be familiarized with the depths of the abyss, and the aspect of danger, and the head relieved from the vertigo which the sudden sight of a precipice is otherwise apt to produce.
It is scarcely necessary to repeat the caution against "drinking cold water" or cold milk, when heated; but the guides, and natives accustomed to mountain travelling, never drink before resting; exercise afterwards will render the draught harmless.
It is tiresome and unprofitable in the extreme to walk along a level road at the bottom of a valley, where conveyances are to be had, and there is a carriage-road: here it is best to ride; the expense in money is counterbalanced by the economy of time.
In crossing one of the minor passes of the Alps -those not traversed by carriage-roads, but merely by foot or bridle-paths-a guide should always be taken, as, in the upper part of the valleys, such paths almost invariably disappear, and be
come confounded with the foot-tracks of the cattle. This rule should especially be observed when the pass terminates in snow or glacier. It is also advisable to eschew short cuts, remembering the old proverb of "the longest way round."
After the middle of June, the season for travelling in Switzerland, there is little danger to be feared from avalanches, except immediately after snow-storms, which constantly occur among the high Alps, even in the height of summer. The precautions to be adopted in crossing spots exposed to avalanches are stated in § 18.
It is rash to attempt to cross a glacier without a guide, and he should always be allowed to take the lead, and the traveller follow his footsteps. The few instances of fatal accidents occurring to strangers among the Alps arise from their either not taking a guide with them, or neglecting to follow his advice. In the same way, in traversing Swiss lakes, notorious for their sudden storms, implicit reliance should be placed on the advice of the boatmen, and no attempt should be made to induce them to launch their boats when they foresee danger.
Avoid, sedulously, stopping for the night near the embouchure of a river, where it empties itself into a lake. The morasses and flat land, created by the deposits of the river, are the hotbeds of malaria, and inevitably teem with disease. To stop in such situations for the night will probably be followed by a fever; and it is even dangerous to sleep in a boat or carriage in crossing such districts. Should, however, any accident compel the traveller to take up his night-quarters in such a spot, let him choose the highest house in the village, and the loftiest room in the house the malaria does not rise above a certain height; and
let him close carefully the windows. It is, however, far better to walk on all night, should there be no other means of advancing or avoiding a spot so situated, than to run the risk. Such morasses are most dangerous in spring and autumn.
Signs of the Weather among the MountainsWhen, in the evening, the wind descends the valley, it is usually a sign of fine weather; the contrary when it ascends. The same may be said of the march of the clouds at all times of the day.
When the roar of the torrent and the knell of the church-bell reach the ear, at one time loud and clear, at another, indistinct and apparently distant, it is a warning of rain.
If, when the clouds clear off, after several days of rain, the mountain-tops appear white with fresh snow, steady fine weather will almost invariably follow.
It is a bad sign when the outline of the distant mountain-peaks appears particularly sharp and defined-cut out, as it were, against the horizon.
To cure blistered Feet-Rub the feet at going to bed with spirits, mixed with tallow dropped from a candle into the palm of the hand; on the following morning no blister will exist. The spirits seem to possess the healing power, the tallow serving only to keep the skin soft and pliant. This is Captain Cochrane's advice, and this remedy was used by him on his "Pedestrian Tour." To prevent the feet blistering, it is a good plan to soap the inside of the stocking before setting out.
At the head of the list of requisites for travelling in Switzerland may properly be placed Keller's admirable map of that country, which indicates, not only every place and every road, but distin-guishes each kind of road, whether carriage, char, bridle-road, or foot-path; marking at the same