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Zurich to Lucerne-Cappel. between it and the lake, the vale of the Sihl intervenes. Its wooded slopes were the favourite retreat of the pastoral poet Gessner: they were occupied in 1799 by two hostile armiesthat of the French under Massena, who encamped on the slope of the Albis; and of the Russians, who occupied the right bank of the Sil. They watched each other from hence for more than three months; until Massena, by a masterly movement, crossed the Limmat, cut off part of the Russian force, and compelled the rest to a hasty retreat. On the S. are seen the little lake of Turl (Turler see), at the foot of the mountain; not far off the church of Cappel, where Zwingli died; farther off the lake of Zug, and behind it tower the Righi and Pilatus mountains, between which appears a little bit of the lake of Lucerne. The grandest feature, however of the view is the snowy chain of the Alps, from the Sentis to the Jungfrau, which fils up the horizon. The panoramic view from the Albis has been engraved by Keller.

The greatest height which the road attains is 2404 ft., after which it descends, passing on the rt. the little lake of Turl, by Rifferschwyl to

21/ Knonau. Persons bound to the Righi, and travelling on foot, or in a light char, may proceed at once from the summit of the Albis to Zug by Hausen, and Cappel (5 miles from the Albis inn), a village of 600 inhabitants, which has obtained a woeful celebrity in Swiss history as the spot where the Confederates, embittered against each other by religious discord, dyed their hands in the blood of one another, and where Zwingli the reformer fell in the midst of his flock on the 11th of October, 1531. Many of the best and bravest of the citizens of Zurich perished on that day of civil broil, overpowered by the numbers of their opponents, the men of the 4 inner cantons. Zwingli, who, in accordance with the custom of the time and country, attended his flock to the field of battle, to afford them spiritual aid and consolation, was struck down in the fight, and found by a soldier of Unterwalden, who did not know him, but who, finding that he refused to call on the Virgin and saints, despatched him with his sword as a dog and a heretic. His body, when recognised by his foes, was burnt by the common hangman, and even his ashes subjected to the vilest indignities that malice could suggest. The spot where he fell is marked by a tree, about 5 minutes' walk from the church. The Gothic church of Cappel, anciently attached to a convent suppressed soon after the commencement of the Reformation, was built in 1280.

The road from Knonau to Lucerne proceeds by Rümeltiken and

1 1/2 St. Wolfgang-where a good carriage-road turns off on the left to Zug and the Righi-Thence it proceeds along the banks of the Reuss to

2 Gysliker-Brücke, Dierikon, Ebikon, and passing, near the monument of the Swiss Guards (p. 52), enters

2 1/4 LUCERNE. Inns: Schwan-a new house, in the best situation, and good; in 1837, complaints were made that it was dear; Balances (Waage)-an old established house, good, clean, and moderate charges. The four daughters of the late host take the management of the establishment, and the traveller will find in it extreme civility and most excellent attendance. Rössli (Cheval). There is a good pension, overlooking the lake close to the Kapel Brücke.

Lucerne, chief town of the canton, and one of the three Vororter, or alternate seats of the Diet, lies at the N.W extremity of the Lake of Lucerne, and is divided into two parts by the river Reuss, which here issues out of it. Its population is about 7500, all Catholics, except about 180 Protestants. Lucerne is the residence of the Papal Nuncio.

It is not a place of any considerable trade or manufactures, but their absence is more than compensated by the beautiful scenery in which it is situated on the borders of the finest and most interesting of the Swiss lakes, between the giant Pilatus and Righi, and in sight of the snowy Alps of Schwytz and Engelberg. The town is still surrounded by a very picturesque circle of feudal watch-towers, and is walled in on the land side; but its chief peculiarity is the number and length of its bridges. The lowest, or Mill-bridge, is hung with paintings of the Dance of Death; the second, or Reussbrücke, is the only one uncovered and passable for carriages; the upper, or Capel-brücke runs in a slanting direction across the mouth of the Reuss, whose clear and perllucid sea-green waters may here be surveyed to great advantage, as they rush beneath it with the swiftness of a mountain-torrent. Against the timbers supporting the roof of this bridge are suspended 77 pictures; those seen in crossing from the rt. to the I. bank represent the life and acts of St. Leger and St. Maurice, Lucerne's patron saints. The subjects of those seen in the opposite direction are taken from Swiss history, and are not without some merits. Near the middle of the Capel-brücke, rising out of the water, stands a very picturesque watchtower, called Wasserthurm, forming a link of the feudal fortifications of the town. It is said to have once served as a light-house (Lucerna) to boats entering the Reuss, and hence some have derived the present name of Lucerne. The Hofbrücke, the longest of all the bridges, was originally 1380

feet long, but has lost 300 feet since 1835. It extends across the lake, within a few feet of the shore to the church of St. Leodegar, and the Convent and Court (Hof) of its former abbots. The paintings in its roof illustrate the Scripture.

*Lessons for every heart; a Bible for all eyes."

It commands a charming view of the lake, the Alps, the Righi, and the Pilatus. Near the middle of it is an index painted on a board, the diverging lines of which point to the different mountains and peaks visible from hence, each of which is named for the convenience of strangers. A considerable portion of ground has been gained from the lake by curtailing this bridge, and throwing out a sort of quay; the new inn of the Swan stands on this space. This is also the landing-place of the steam-boat.

In churches and other public buildings Lucerne has no very prominent objects, though several which are highly pleasing as monuments of the progress of the nation, and of its manners and customs, exist. The church of St. Leger, Hof-, or Stiftskirche, is a modern building, except the two towers, which date from 1506. The adjoining church-yard is filled with quaint old monuments, and the view from the cloister windows is fine, but similar to that from the bridge.

The Arsenal, near the gate leading to Berne, is one of those venerable repositories common to the chief towns of all the cantons, in which are deposited the muskets, artillery, etc., for arming their contingent of troops. It contains some rusty suits of ancient armour and several historical relics and trophies of Swiss valour, such as the yellow Austrian banner, and many pennons of knights and nobles taken at the battle of Sempach; the coat of mail stripped from the body of Duke Leopold of Austria, who fell there; the iron cravat, lined with sharp spikes, destined for the neck of Gundoldingen, the Schultheiss and general of the men of Lucerne, who died in the hour of victory. A sword of William Tell, and a battleaxe, borne by Ulric Zwingli, at the battle of Cappel (p. 49), are of very doubtful authenticity: though the malice of the enemies of Zwingli may have led to the assertion that he took active part in the fight, it is believed that he assisted his countrymen merely with exhortations and consolations of religion. Several Turkish standards deposited here were captured at the battle of Lepanto, by a knight of Malta, who was a native of Lucerne.

The Stadthaus, on the rt. bank of the Reuss, a little below the Cappel-brücke, is the place of meeting of the Diet, whose sittings are open to the public. The Council of the canton also assembles in it.

General Pfyffer's model (in relief) of a part of Switzerland

may interest those who desire to trace on it their past or future wanderings; but it is not so extensive nor so well made as that at Zurich; besides which 1 fr. 50 c. is demanded for admission-decidedly more than it is worth. The Gothic Fountains which are to be observed in all parts of Switzerland are here of singular beauty and originality.

At Meyer's shop, near the Swan, books, prints, panoramas, and maps, relating to Switzerland, may be had in great profusion.

One of the most interesting of the sights of Lucerne is, without doubt, the Monument to the memory of the Swiss Guards, who fell while defending the Royal Family of France in the bloody massacre of the French Revolution, August 10, 1792. It is situated in the garden of Gen. Pfyffer, about half a mile outside the Weggis gate. The design is by Thorwaldsen, executed by Ahorn, a sculptor of Constance. It represents a lion, of colossal size, wounded to death, with a spear sticking in his side, yet endeavouring in his last gasp to protect from injury a shield bearing the fleur-de-lis of the Bourbons, which he holds in his paws. The figure, hewn out of the living sand-stone rock, is 28 feet long, and 18 high, and its execution merits very great praise. Beneath it are carved the names of the soldiers and officers who fell in defending the Tuileries Aug. 10, 1702. The loyalty and fidelity of this brave band, who thus sacrificed their lives for their adopted sovereign, almost make us forget that they were mercenaries, especially standing forward, as they did, as the protectors of Louis and his family, at a moment when deserted, or attacked, by his own natural subjects. There is a quiet solitude and shade about the spot which is particularly pleasing and refreshing. The rocks around are mantled with fern and creepers, forming a natural frame-work to the monument; and a streamlet of clear water, trickling down from the top of the rock, is received into a basin-shaped hollow below it, forming a mirror in which the sculpture is reflected. One of the very few survivors of the Swiss Guard, dressed in its red uniform, now rusty and patched, resides in a cottage hard by, as guardian of the monument and cicerone to the stranger. The cloth for the altar of the little chapel adjoining was embroidered expressly for it by the Duchess d'Angoulême.

There are many pretty walks and points of view near Lucerne; one of the best is the villa called Allenwinden, perched on the top of a hill outside the Weggis gate, from which it may be reached in a walk of 15 minutes, by a path winding up the hill outside the town walls.

Gibraltar, a height on the opposite side of the Reuss, outside the Basle gate, also commands a fine prospect.

Mount Righi, so celebrated for its panoramic view, is

about 10 miles from Lucerne (i. c. the base of the mountain). To reach the summit will occupy at least 6* hours, exclusive of stoppages, from Lucerne; so that travellers will regulate their departure accordingly, remembering that it is of much consequence to arrive at the top before sunset. There are several ways to it, by land, to Küssnacht and Arth; or by water to Küssnacht and Weggis. (See Route 17.)

No one should leave Lucerne without exploring the beauties of its lake-called in German Vierwaldstädter See-the grandest in Europe, in point of scenery, particularly the farther end of it, called the bay of Uri; and much additional pleasure will be derived if the traveller who understands German will take Schiller's "Wilhelm Tell" as a pocket companion, in which admirable poem so many of the scenes are localized. (Route 18.)

Those who intend to explore the lake, and visit the Righi, and to return afterwards to Lucerne, should combine the two expeditions, which may be effected in two days, thus― go by land to Arth, or by water to Weggis, descending next day on the opposite side, and embarking on the lake, either at Weggis or Brunnen. Sail up the bay of Uri, at least as far as Tell's Chapel, and return by water to Lucerne the 2nd evening.

A Steamer was launched upon the lake of Lucerne in 1837. It plies regularly between Lucerne and Fluellen, calling at the intermediate places. Further particulars respecting it, and the hire of boats, which may be found in abundance on the shore opposite the Swan inn, are given in Route 18.

DILIGENCES go daily from Lucerne to Aarau; Bâle; Berne, by Summiswald; Berne, by Entlibuch; Soleure; Zug and Zurich; 4 times a-week to Schwytz, by Küssnacht and Arth.

Mount Pilate is sometimes ascended from Lucerne, but the journey is difficult, occupying 6 1/2 hours; the greater part must be performed on foot, and the view from the top is decidedly inferior to that from the Righi The road up it from Lucerne proceeds in a S. W. direction, by the side of a wild torrent, which, when swollen by rain, is very injurious to the habitations on its banks; and, in the last century, destroyed many houses in the town. Skirting the base of the mountain it passes through the hamlets of Krienz, Obernau, and Herrgotteswald; then, crossing a ridge covered with pasturages, descends into the Alpine valley of Eigenthal. Beyond this the path becomes steeper, and is only practicable

* N.B. The number of hours will be lessened by taking advantage of the new steamer to Weggis.

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