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two hours to Flumet, a little town of Upper Faucigny, containing about 1000 inhabitants. Here, on a rock, are the ruins of a château, in which the first baron of Faucigny resided.

Flumet is scated near the confluence of the Flon and the Arly the former river descends from the hamlet of Gietta, by which a path traverses the Col des Aravis and the Grand Borand to Bonneville.

Below Flumet the road is only practicable for mules; it is excessively hilly and wild. The valley of the Arly is a gorge, deeply seated; and bears the name of the Combe of Savoy. In two hours from Flumet, it leads to Heri, a village situated in a most agreeable spot, surrounded by high mountains covered with pine forests.

Below Heri, the path, in many places cut out in the mountain side, overhangs the deep bed of the Arly, and alternate spots of savageness and beauty are found throughout this valley. Its richness in walnut trees is celebrated, and the oil which the nuts furnish is an important article of commerce. Ugine is a large ill-built town, containing 3000 inhabitants, famous for its fairs of cattle and mules. To the north of the town, on a steep lime rock, there are the remains of a lofty square tower, flanked by other towers, which defended a château attacked in the 9th century by the Saracens. The château was destroyed in the 13th century by Humber, first dauphin of Vienna. It is situated on the right bank of the Arly, and lies in the road now opened between Faverges and Annecy, a road which will be noticed under Route 120.

From Ugine an excellent carriage road continues down the Arly to l'Hôpital Conflans, through a deep and rich valley. Before arriving at l'Hôpital, one sees on the other side of the Arly the valley of Beaufort, where the Doron, which flows through it, falls into the Arly. The valley of the Doron leads by a mountainous mule road, in about 4 hours, to Maxime de Beaufort, a town famous also for its cattle fairs. The inhabitants are rich and independent, from their commerce in cheese, butter, and cattle: their pasturages are the most vaJuable in Upper Savoy. Beaufort communicates with Megève by the valley of Haute Luce and the pass Sion, by the head of its valley with the Col de Bon-Homme, and by the valley of Roselen and the Col d'Allée with the valley of Bonnaval (Route 113.) in the Tarentaise.

Beaufort is one of those retired spots in the Alps, whence the inhabitants issue in the winter to seek employment in foreign countries. Some, periodically return, content with their gains; others realise great wealth, and remain to die where they obtained it. Among these are remembered M. Viallet, a great planter in St. Domingo, whose fortune before

the revolution was valued at a million and half francs; M. Cornu, a rich banker of Paris; Bouchage, a banker of Touhouse: Favre, a celebrated silk merchant of Lyons; and Jean Mollie, who died about 1780, and left to his descendants the énormous sum of, it is said, 400 millions of francs.

At present Beaufort is one of the most independent communities in Savoy. They were permitted by Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy, to free themselves from feudal rents by purchase; and in 1772 they paid to M. Villecardel de Fleury, marquis of Beaufort, 100,000 francs for their emancipation. The old families of Beaufort in England and France had their origin here.

Near Beaufort, on a hill at the entrance to the valley of Haute Luce, are the finely situated ruins of the chateau de la Salle. This château received Henry IV. and his courtiers in October 1600: the pranks played there by them furnished some scandalous traditions.

L'Hôpital and Conflans are divided only by the Arly: the former being situated on its right bank, the latter on the rocky slopes above it or the other side.

Conflans is an ancient little town, with about 1300 inhabitants. It was formerly surrounded by strong walls and defended by two very strong forts. It resisted the troops of Francis I. in the war of 1536, when it was partly burnt, and its two forts demolished. A little below Conflans, near the banks of the river, there is a royal smelting-house and foundry, where the silver from the ore raised in some mines in the neighbourhood is reduced: it is seldom worked, and the Fonderie Royale is a worthless appendage to Conflans,

L'Hôpital, with its wide streets and clean appearance, is one of the nicest little towns in Savoy; it has about 1500 inhabitants, and lying in the high road, by which communication is held with Ugine, Annecy, and Sallenches, with Chambery, and with Moutiers Tarentaise, it has, since the establishment of good roads, been daily increasing in importance. A diligence by Faverges to Annecy, and another between Moutiers and Chambery, which passes through l'Hôpital, have been established. The little town contains excellent inns, and that held by the frères Geny is not surpassed in comfort by the inns at Chamouny.

ROUTE 120.


A diligence goes every day from Geneva to Chambery, but on alternate days by two different routes-one by Annecy, the other by Rumilly.

On leaving Geneva, the road, common to both as far as

St. Julien, passes through the Plain Palais, crosses the Arve, and continues through Carouge and the richly cultivated plain of the Arve, until it rises to the village of St Julien, on the frontier of Savoy, where the baggage and the passports of tra vellers are examined.

Here the road continues to ascend a long hill to the Mont Sion, a ridge which runs nearly at right angles with the Mont Salve. From its height, about 3300 feet above the level of the sea, the views of the Lake of Geneva, the Jura, and the deep valley of the Rhone flowing into France form a fine pa


It is a pleasing drive, but there is nothing remarkable in the scenery. Its course is generally high, though it undulates until it rises to

Cruseilles, 2 3/4 posts, a little town possessing 1300 inhabitants, the ruins of an old castle, and a dirty inn.

From Cruseilles the road to Annecy rapidly descends to cross the stream of the Usses in a deep defile, which cau only be traversed by a considerable détour up the deep valley to rise on the other side to a level with the road from Cruseilles. A lofty bridge, built of brick, once crossed this ravine, about half-way down the valley. This has long been impassable, except to the foolhardy pedestrian: it was too narrow ever to have been safely passed in a char. The Sardinian government has, however, decided upon throwing an iron wire suspension bridge over this ravine, to carry the road directly across, where the shor test connexion will be continued; this will require as great a length and have nearly as much elevation as the suspension bridge of Freybourg in Switzerland.

It is a pleasing drive by the villages of Alonzier, Caval, Pringy, and Metz, through a hilly country, often presenting fine points of view; at length it crosses the Mont des Bornes, and descends a hill side which overlooks the plain and lake of Annecy, and the fine mountain scenery which surrounds it. There is a singular beauty in the views thus presented, and a charm in the approach to Annecy which is likely to be long remembered. At the Pont de Brogny the river Fier, which falls into the Rhone at Seissel, is crossed, and in half an hour the traveller finds himself at

Annecy, 2 posts. Inhabitants about 6000. Inns tolerable, the best is the Hôtel de Genève. This city is in a beautiful situation at the extremity of a great plain, and on the borders of a lake, which is discharged by canals, that cross its streets, and which is led by the canal of Thiou, to fall into the Fier at Cran.

Annecy is a curious old town, the shops in many of its streets are under arcades, and there is an air of respectable

antiquity about it--though this, the ancient capital of the duchy of Geneva, is only the modern town. In the 12th century it was known as Anneciacum novum, to distinguish it from Anneciacum vetus, which formerly existed on the slopes of the beautiful hill of Annecy-le-vieux. Numerous medals of the Roman emperors of the two first centuries of the Christian era have been found here, and inscriptions sepulchres, urns, and fragments of statues, and of a temple attest the presence of this people. It rests upon little more than conjecture, that it was known to them as Civitas Bovis, or according to some bewildered antiquarians, as Dinia or Dignitia; no monument, or MS, authorises one or the other.

The earliest mention of Annecy is by the emperor Lothaire, who gave it, under the name of Annesiacum, to his wife, Tietberge, as proved by a document, bearing date January 11. 867.

In the 12th century, the present Annecy was distinguished from Annecy-le-vieux, by William I. Comte of the Genevois. When the house of Geneva became extinct, Annecy passed into that of Savoy. In 1412 it was totally burnt. To assist in restoring the inhabitants to their town, Amadcus VIII. duke of Savoy, gave them many privileges, and enabled them to establish flax spinning works, which have continued to be its principal manufacture. In 1630, the plague almost depopulated the town, and destroyed or dispersed the workmen. Victor Amadeus I. afterwards established here four silk mills; these were destroyed by fire during the war of 1691.

In 1724, during violent disputes among the different manufacturers of Annecy, a large establishment for the manufacture of hats, which had existed for a century and half, was destroyed, as well as others for the production of worsted stockings. At the same time were destroyed the manufactory of the fire arms of Collin, famous in its day, and extensive works for scythes, reaping hooks, and cutlery; perhaps there is no town in Europe whose history has been so long associated with manufactures as Annecy. The linen bleacheries established in 1650, which have always sustained a high reputation, are still flourishing. Encouraged by Napoleon, when Savoy was under the French government M. Duport, now the Baron Duport of Turin, established here the first cotton works; these still flourish. He subsequently established those at Pont in Val d'Orca. (Route 111.)

Even now the manufactures of Annecy are not all enumerated; there are others of black glass-of sulphuric acid, of printed cottons, etc., and in the neighbourhood, a fine vein of coal is worked, at Entreverne, and at the village of Crans there are oil, corn, and fulling mills on the Fier, and mills for the manufacture of paper.

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The active inhabitants of Annecy have always sought new channels for their industry-they found this to be necessary. order to procure subsistence for the population of the city, when its numerous convents were suppressed. It has now substituted industry and independence for idleness and beggary.

There are many objects of interest among the public buildings of Annecy- the ancient château, the residence of Genevois-Nemours-the old Bishop's palace-the Cathedral, with its sanctuary, where are deposited the relics of Saint Francis de Sales, and the Mere (Sainte) Chaptal: scandal has been busy with their names. The translation of the relics of the former was made on the 28th of May 1806, with great ceremony; the following day those of Sainte Jeanne-Françoise Frémiot de Chantal were transferred with equal solemnity.

"The tender friendship that long subsisted between St. Francis de Sales and la Mere Chantal, has given to their memory, and relics, with pious Catholics, a degree of interest similar to that excited by the remains of Abelard and Eloise.

"St. Francis de Sales was descended from the noble family of de Sales in Savoy; he was born in 1567, having devoted himself to the church, and evinced great zeal and eloquence in its defence. He was ordained prince and bishop of Geneva, by Pope Clement VIII., for the popes assume:1 the right to confer these titles long after the reformed religion had been established at Geneva. Annecy being made the bishop's seat when the Genevese expelled the chapter from their city, St. Francis de Sales died at Lyons in 1622, and was buried at Annecy. His canonisation took place in 1665; but before that event his remains were so highly valued by the inhabitants, that when the city was taken by the French in 1630, one of the six articles of capitulation stipulated that the body of the venerable Francis de Sales should' never be removed from the city."— Bakewell's Tour in the Tarentaise.

At the lower extremity of the lake there is a beautiful promenade, where fairs and public amusements are held. The views from it of the mountain and the lake are fine. The level of the lake is about 1400 feet above that of the sea; it abounds in fine fish; among those least known to travellers are the lotte, and a fish peculiar to this lake the vairon.

A good road carried along the south-west shores of the lake leads to Faverges. About two thirds of the distance is the Château Duing, placed on a neck of land which runs out into the lake-here many strangers come to board and lodge during the summer, and enjoy the most delightful excursions in its delicious neighbourhood.

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