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has been built over it. The water is heated to supply the baths.

The village contains but 160 inhabitants. Its situation is really delightful, overlooking the Inn, and several beautiful green lakes which that river forms in this part of its course. The climate is too cold to allow even barley to flourish; the surrounding land is chiefly laid out in pastures, which are let to Bergamasque shepherds; and there are some forests of larch on the neighbouring mountains. The little lake, close to the village which is generally frozen over from St. Andrew'sday (the end of November) to the beginning of May, furnishes capital trout.

In one of the most recent descriptions of the Engadine, the author mentions that, on repairing to church on a Sunday, at St. Mauritz, he found the parish fire-engine drawn up by the side of the pulpit-the church, in this and other villages, being somewhat profanely used as an engine-house. He found the office of watchman filled, and its duties discharged, by a woman, and a female also occupied the situation of baker, the bakehouse being the property of the parish.

The principal Excursions to be made from St. Mauritz are up the valley to the Lugni See, the source of the Inn (Route 89); to the great Bernina glacier (Route 85) and, down the valley, to the pass of Finstermünz (Route 84).



14 1/2 stunden-47 1/2 Eng. miles.

As far as

A bridle-path, barely practicable for light carts. 4 1/2 Lenz, it is identical with the preceding route, but at Lenz it turns round the shoulder of the mountain to the E., leaving Tiefenkasten on the right, and, passing the village of Brienz, ascends the vale of Albula. On the left towers the Castle of Belfort, on an almost inaccessible rock. In about 3 miles more we reach the Baths of Alveneu, on the rt. bank of the Albula, and, crossing the mouth of the Davos Thal and the stream running out of it, follow the Albula, ascending, in á S.E. direction, to

2 3/4 Filisur, a village on its rt. bank. Near it stand the ruins of Schloss-Greifenstein. The inhabitants of this and the adjoining valley emigrate from home to various parts of Europe, where they exercise the craft of pastry-cooks, frequently returning hither to end their days in opulence earned by industry. Two miles above Filisur are the abandoned silver mines of Bonacelsa, and 4 miles from hence the

path enters the narrow ravine called Berguner-Stein, which, like that near Tiefenkasten (p. 278), has been compared with the Via Mala. For a distance of more than 1000 ft. the path is hewn, or blasted, out of the face of the rock, and the Albula roars at a depth of 500 or 600 ft. below.

2 Bergün (Rom. Bergogn), a village of about 600 inhabitants, chiefly Protestants, speaking Romansch, and muleteers or carters by profession. A Protestant synod was held here


A steep ascent leads to the inn, or chalet, of

2 Weissenstein, 4900 ft. above the sea, in the vicinity of a small lake, the fountain head of the Albula. "A few stunted firs are scattered about the lower end, where the water is shallow; on all other sides the lake lies dark and treeless, beneath the frightful precipices that tower above." The ascent from this point is very rapid, the path lies along the N. side of the lake; traces of the Roman road may be discovered near this. A savage ravine, called Trümmer-thal, because filled with fragments of broken rocks, hurled down from the heights above, along with the avalanches, which render this part of the pass dangerous in spring, brings the traveller to

1 1/4 the summit of the pass of the Albula. The culminating point, marked by a cross, is 6980 feet above the sea level: near it is another small lake. It is a scene of complete desolation. On the N. of the path rise the two peaks of the AlBula-Crap Alv, or White Rock, 7560 ft.; and on the S.E. that of Piz Err, 8770 ft. high.

The descent into the Ober-Engadine is also at times exposed to avalanches.

2 Pont, or Punt, in Route 84.




15 stunden 49 Eng. miles.

A tolerable char-road, traverses the Engadine.

The Engadine, or Valley of the Upper Inn, is nearly 60 miles long, and is one of the highest inhabited valleys among the Alps, varying between an elevation of 5600 ft. above the sea, at Sils, the highest village, and 3234 ft. at Martinsbrück, the lowest. It has at least 20 tributary valleys. Owing to this high elevation, and the icy barrier of enormous glaciers which separates it from Italy on the S., it possesses a most ungenial, nay, severe climate. In the language of its inhabitants it has 9 months of winter and 3 of cold weather. The only grain grown in it is rye and barley, a stunted crop; and,

in the upper portion, potatoès rarely come to maturity; yet it is one of the most opulent valleys among the Alps, though the source of its wealth must be sought for in another theatre than the valley itself. Its inhabitants, aware of the inclemency of their climate and of the barrenness of its soil, are but little addicted to agriculture. The surface, where not actually bare rock, is either covered with forests or converted to pasture, with the exception of small patches on the lower grounds, set apart for the plough or spade. Yet even of this the natives appear to take small account; they let their pastures annually to the Bergamasque shepherds, and intrust the mowing of their meadows and the gathering of the hay harvest to Tyrolese haymakers, who resort to the valley at the season when their labour is required. The sons of the valley, for the most part, emigrate at an early age, scatter themselves over all parts of the Continent, and may be found in most of the great capitals exercising the professions of pastrycooks, confectioners, distillers of liqueurs, keepers of cafés, and sellers of chocolate. Many of them in the exercise of their calling acquire considerable wealth, and become millionnaires in florins, with which they retire to end their days by the side of the stream of their native valley. They display their wealth especially in the architecture of their houses, which are distinguished by their large dimensions, by their decorations of whitewash and fresh paint. They are usually decked out with fresco frieses, and pillars, reminding one of the pretension to taste of a cockney citizen's box near London, combined with the studied neatness of a Dutchman's country house, both equally unexpected and out of place, amidst the savage landscape of a Grison valley. Some of the buildings really may be called splendid, though few are in good taste. The windows are few and small, to guard against admitting the cold. Poverty is rare, beggary almost unknown, and the people, who are, with the exception of one or two parishes, Protestants, are creditably distinguished for their morality, and are exempt from the vices common in other parts of Switzerland. Their pastors are held in great respect, but their pay is miserable, affording a striking proof of the working of a voluntary system. The sabbath is strictly observed; strangers only are allowed on that day to ride or drive until after church-time.

The accommodation of travellers is not, as yet, much studied in the Engadine. The Inns (except at St. Mauritz) are very inferior, and the traveller who resorts to them must be prepared often to content himself with hard rye bread, baked only once a-quarter; eggs, cheese, and perhaps coffee. The universal language is the Ladin (see p. 245); but among the returned emigrants, in almost every village, may be found

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individuals speaking French, Italian, or even English. Many of the retired patissiers are otherwise well-informed men; so that it is seldom that the stranger will not find an interpreter. The wine of the Valteline may be had good and cheap, and pastry (made with flour imported from St. Gall) is set before the traveller in spots where wheaten bread is not to be had; indeed, some villages, which cannot boast a shoemaker or tailor, possess 10 or 15 pastry-cooks.

The higher Alpine pastures of the Engadine are let out every summer to Bergamasque shepherds, from the valleys Seriana and Brembana, on the Italian side of the Alps—a wild, dark, and scowling class of men, but hardy and honest, clad in homespun brown and white blankets, and feeding frugally on water pollenta of maize-meal, and a little cheese. They arrive about the beginning of July, with their flocks lean and meagre, after their long march, performed generally in the cool of the night. After a solitary sojourn of nearly 3 months, spending often the night as well as day in the open air among their flocks, they return home with fattened kine and long fleeces, which are sold to the wool manufacturers of Bergamo.

Just below St. Mauritz, the Inn, on quitting the small lake, forms a pretty fall. The first villages passed are Celerina and Samadan (Sommo d'On, Romansch; summum OEni), the principal and wealthiest village in the Upper Engadine, with 500 inhabitants. Opposite to it, the valley of Pontresina opens out, up which runs the road to the Bernina (Route 85). Beyond Bevers the path from the Albula (Route 83) descends into the valley.

At the foot of the Albula lie Ponte, and Madulein, and over the latter village towers the ruined Castle of Gardoval, connected with which the following story is told :-In the days of the Faustrecht, before Switzerland was free, this castle was held by a tyrannical and licentious Seigneur or Bailiff, who greatly oppressed the peasantry around, retaining in his pay a body of lawless soldiers for the purpose of overawing his neighbours. This libertine lord in an evil hour cast his eyes on the fair daughter of Adam, a farmer of the opposite village of Camogasc. The maiden was still of a tender age, but of surpassing beauty, like an opening rosebud. One morning, her father, who doated fondly on her, was surprised by a summons brought by two of the bailiff's servants, to convey his daughter to the castle. The father stifled his indignation, promised obedience, and next morning set out, conducting his daughter attired as a bride, and accompanied by a number of his friends in festive garments

as to a wedding, but with mournful mien. The lord of the castle watched the approach of his victim with impatience, and rushing down to meet her was about to clasp her, when, ere his polluting lips could touch her fair cheek, her father's dagger was buried deep in his breast, and his companions throwing off their peaceful garb, and brandishing their concealed weapons, fell upon the guards, and made themselves masters of the tyrant's stronghold. It was immediately burnt, and from that day freedom dawned upon the serfs of the Engadine.

3 Zutz, or Suoz is a village of 550 inhabitants. An old tower still remains of the Stammhaus, or original castle of the family of Planta, who, as far back as 1139, held the Engadine in feof. The climate here first becomes a little milder, Zutz being sheltered from the cold blasts descending from the Maloja. There is a path from Scanfs to Davos, over the Scaletta pass, 7820 ft., a distance of about 20 miles.

At the Ponte Alto, under the Casannaberg, is the division between Upper and Lower Engadine; the country now assumes a more romantic character, but the road is rougher and more hilly.

4 Cernetz, or Zernets, is a considerable village with a handsome church, and two feudal towers, one of which anciently belonged to a branch of the Planta family, and is called Wildenberg. Up the opposite valley of Forno runs a path into the Münster Thal, by the Buffalora Pass. 6 stunden. By the Val Forno you may reach Bormio, at the foot of the grand Pass of the Stelvio.

The names Lavin, Zutz, and Ardetz, three villages in this part of the Engadine, are said to be a Romansch corruption of the Latin Lavinium, Tutium, and Ardea.

The road winds much up and down to reach the villages, which are often perched on the top of steep heights, as in the case of Guarda. Between Ardets and Fettan, it also makes a wide sweep, away from the river Inn. Tarasp, on the rt. bank of the Inn, opposite Fettan, is the only Catholic village in the Engadine; its inhabitants differ from their neighbours in another respect, that they do not emigrate. Though less enlightened perhaps, they devote themselves to tilling their own land.

4 Schuols or Schulz, the most populous place in the valley, contains 1143 inhabitants, and is prettily situated. There is much corn-land near this. Avalanches sometimes fall from the hill of Balluns behind. At Schuols, the first Romansch translation of the Bible was printed 1679. See p. 245. Perhaps the most picturesque scene in the Engadine is near Remus, where a wooden bridge, 60 feet span, is thrown over the deep gorge called Wraunka Tobel, through which a

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