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The celebrated wooden bridge over the Rhine, of a single arch, 365 feet in span, was burnt by the French in 1799, and is replaced by one of the most ordinary construction. A model of the original may be seen in the town library; the architect was a carpenter from Appenzell, named Grubenman. The Town Library contains the collection of books of the celebrated Swiss historian Müller, who was born here.
Diligences go daily from hence to Zurich and Offenburg (on the road to Strasburg and Frankfort), three times a-week to Constance.
A steamer runs twice a week between Schaffhausen and Constance.
THE FALLS OF THE RHINE.
The Falls are about 3 miles below Schaffhausen; the road to Zurich passes within a quarter of a mile of them. At the village of Neuhausen, 10 minutes' walk from the fall, there is a clean and moderate small inn, Zum Rheinfall: chargesbeds 2 fr.; dinners 3 fr.; breakfast 1 1/2 f.
These quarters are convenient for those who would enjoy the aspect of the cataract at various hours, at sunrise and by moonlight. It will take at least 2 hours to see the falls thoroughly and return to Neuhausen, including the time occupied in crossing and re-crossing the river. Close to the fall is an iron furnace; the wheels of the hammers are turned by the fall, and the draught caused by the rush of the water supplies the place of bellows.
The best mode of visiting the falls from Schaffhausen is to hire a boat from thence (costs 48 fr.), and descend the river, which already forms a succession of rapids, by no means dangerous under the guidance of a boatman accustomed to the river. When the increased celerity of the current and the audible roar announce that the skiff is approaching the falls, the steersman makes for the 1. bank, and lands his passengers under the picturesque castle of Lauffen, situated on a high rock overlooking the fall, within the Canton of Zurich. It is occupied and rented by an artist who speaks English and charges 1 franc admission for each person.
The advantage of approaching the fall on this side is, that nothing is seen of it until it is at once presented in its most magnificent point of view, from the little pavilion perched on the edge of the cliff immediately above it. Its appearance from the opposite side of the river is tame in comparison, and the first impression from thence, made by the finest cataract in Europe, will most probably prove disappointing. Several flights of very rude and slippery wooden steps conduct from this pavilion to a projecting stage, or rude balcony, of stout timbers, thrown out, like the bowsprit of a ship, from the
vertical cliff to within a few feet of the fall. It actually overhangs the roaring shoot, and, though perfectly secure, seems to tremble under the impulse of the water. Here, covered with the spray, the traveller may enjoy the full grandeur of this hell of waters; and it is only by this close proximity, amidst the tremendous roar and the uninterrupted rush of the river, passing with the swiftness of an arrow above his head and beneath his feet, that a true notion can be formed of the stupendous nature of this cataract. The best time for seeing the fall is about 8 in the morning, when the Iris floats within the spray (provided the sun shines), and by moon-light. The river is usually most full in the month of July. The Rhine, above the fall, is about 300 feet broad; the height of the fall is reduced to 70 feet. isolated pillars of rock standing in the middle of the stream divide the fall into 3 shoots. Seen from behind, these pinnacles seem eaten away by the constant friction of the water, and tottering to their fall; indeed, as the rock is soft, the waste of it within the memory of man must be considerable.
The river, after its leap, forms a large semicircular bay, as it were to rest itself; the sides of which are perpetually chafed by the heaving billows. Here, in front of the fall, on the rt. bank, stands the Castle of Worth, a square tower, containing a camera obscura, which shows the fall in another and a very singular point of view. From this tower to the foot of the rock on which the castle of Lauffen stands, several ferryboats ply, to convey visitors across; charging 4 batz each. The boats are much tossed about in their passage, but sometimes approach the base of the pinnacles above-mentioned without risk, provided they keep clear of the eddies.
The walk from the Falls to Schaffhausen is very pleasant, and commands (as you approach) several pleasant landscapes, of which the town is the principal object.
Schaffhausen to Constance.
9 stunde 29 1/2 English miles.
A diligence goes 3 times a-week in 5 hours.
A steamer goes twice a-week, but, in ascending the Rhine to Constance, it is necessarily a tedious conveyance, owing to the force of the current against which it has to contend.
The journey may be made more expeditiously by following the road through Baden, on the N. of the Rhine, than along the Swiss side of the river, because it is provided with posthorses. The cost of posting is not so great as that of Vetturin horses.
The relays are
2 1/2 Singen. Near this place you pass at the foot of Hohentwiel. The castle is now dismantled. The lofty rock
upon which it stands gives it the appearance of an Indian hill fort
1 1/2 Rudolfszell. A desolate town, with a fine church, in the true German-Gothic style.
The scenery throughout the whole of this road is exceedingly agreeable, often striking. The woods abound in most splendid butterflies. Collections of these insects may be bought at Singen, and also at Rudolfszell.
The inn at Rudolfszell, the "Posthaus," is very good; that at Singen poor and extortionate.
The Rhine here, suddenly contracted from a lake to a river, is crossed by a wooden bridge, in order to reach Constance.
The Swiss road runs along the 1. bank of the Rhine past the Nunneries of Paradies and Katherinethal, the former belonging to the order of St. Clara, the latter of St. Dominic; but the revenues and the number of sisters in both are now much reduced. The Austrian army under the Archduke Charles crossed the Rhine at Paradies 1799.
1 3/4 Diessenhofen.
2 Stein (Inns: Schwan; Krone)-a town of 1270 inhabitants, on the rt. bank of the Rhine, belonging to Schaffhausen, united by a wooden bridge with a suburb on the 1. bank. The Abbey of St. George is a very ancient ecclesiastical foundation. The owners of the ruined castle of Hohenklingen, situated on the rocky height, were originally the feudal seigneurs of the town, but the citizens obtained independence from their masters by purchase.
Three miles E. of Stein, at a height of between 500 and 600 feet above the Rhine, are situated the Quarries of OEhningen, remarkable for the vast abundance of fossil remains of terrestrial and fresh-water animals found in them, including mammalia, birds, reptiles, fishes, shells, insects, and plants, some of them identical with species now living. The most curious discovery is that of the perfect skeleton of a fossil fox, made by Mr. Murchison; a very large tortoise had previously been brought to light. The beds of rock in which the quarries are worked consist of marls, limestones, shales, and building-stone; they lie immediately above the formation called Molasse, and differ in their organic contents from all other fresh-water formations hitherto discovered.
Above Stein the Rhine expands into a lake called Untersee (lower lake), connected again by the Rhine at its upper extremit ywith the larger Lake of Constance. In the midst of it is the pretty island Reichenau; near Stein, as maller island (Werd) is passed. Feldbach, also a nunnery a belonging to sisters of the Cistercian order, is passed before reaching
Itznang, a small village on the opposite shore of the lake, within the territory of Baden, is the birth-place of Mesmer, the inventor of animal magnetism.
Near the village of Berlingen the pretty château of the Duchess of Dino appears, and a little further that of Arenaberg, the residence of the late Duchess of St. Leu (Hortense, exQueen of Holland), and of her son, who foolishly attempted a revolution at Strassburg in 1836. The death of the one and the foolish exploits of the other, will probably cause the mansion to change owners. Perviously it was the centre ofa little colony of Napoleonists;)-Salenstein, Eugensberg (from its owner Eugene Beauharnois), Wolfsberg, all belonged to friends of Napoleon. A road turns off from the lake at
12/3 Ermatingento the château of Wolfsberg, formerly celebrated as a pension, but as its owner, an old officer of Napoleon, was involved in the mad enterprise of Strassburg with the son of Hortense, it is believed that the establishment will be given up, at least by him. The following description of Wolfsberg is by a lady who resided in the house in 1835.
"Wolfsberg is a chateau 2 leagues from Constance, well situated on a height above the Untersee. The view from the house and sloping lawn of the lake, and the Isle of Reichenau, is very pleasing, though it cannot boast the grandeur of Swiss scenery in general. Col. and Mad. Parquin are its proprietors, but devolve on Madame Bénézil, a very active goodhumoured person, all the details of the establishment. The price is 10 francs a-day, and 4 for servants. The accommodation is so superior to that of Interlachen, that it cannot be considered dear. There is one private sitting-room. The salon is very large, and the society generally a mixture of French, Germans, Russians, Italians, and English, who meet in the evenings, when dancing, music, and charades amuse the younger, and chess and cards the elder part of the company. As M. and Madame Parquin are very well-educated and agreeable people, the tone of the society is particularly good, and there is very little risk of meeting objectionable persons.
"If travellers stay less than a week they pay 12 fr. a-day. Rides in the woods on donkeys, boating-parties, and excursions to the chateaux and points-de-vue in the neighbourhood, occupy the morning.
"To tourists who wish to enjoy comparative rest in cheerful society and a pleasant country, the advantages of Wolfsberg are great, and, for those who wish to leave children in a safe and healthy spot while they are making mountain excursions, no situation can be superior.-L."
The island of Reichenau formerly belonged to the rich Be
nedictine Abbey situated on it, founded 724, and sequestrated 1799. The estates belonging to it were so numerous and extensive, that it is said the Abbot, on his way to Rome, need not sleep a night out of his own domains. Within the Minster Church (founded 806) Charles the Fat is buried; he died here in want 888. The church possesses, among its treasures, one of the waterpots used at the marriage of Cana! an emerald, weighing 281b., presented by Charlemagne, now ascertained to be glass. etc.
The Castle of Gottlieben, on the 1. of the road, built by the Bishops of Constance 1250, on the Rhine, at the point where it enters the Untersee, is remarkable for having been the prison of John Huss and Jerome of Prague, who were confined within its dungeons by order of the Emperor Sigismund and Pope John XXIII. The latter was himself transferred a few months later to the same prison, by order of the Council of Constance. In 1454 Felix Hammerlin (Malleolus), the most learned and enlightened man of his time in Switzerland, was also confined here. The building is now private property.
2-1/2 CONSTANCE.—(Inns : "The Hecht, or Brocket, and the Couronne Imperiale, both good; but the latter is to be preferred as the posting-house. The other is in the voiturier connexion; and they do all they can to advise travellers to adopt that mode of transport, saying that you cannot rely upon finding horses, and the like."-P.)
Constance, a decayed city, of 4500 inhabitants, instead of 40,000, which it once possessed, is remarkable for its antiquity, since its streets and many of its buildings remain unaltered since the 15th century. Although situated on the 1. or Swiss bank of the Rhine, it belongs to Baden. It is connected with the opposite shore by a long wooden covered bridge, and occupies a projecting angle of ground at the W. extremity of the Bodensee or lake of Constance; its agreeable position and interesting historical associations make amends for the want of life perceptible within its venerable walls.
The Minster is a handsome Gothic structure, begun in 1052 the doors of the main portal, between the two towers, are of oak, curiously carved with a representation of the Passion of our Lord, executed in 1470 by one Simon Bainder. The choir is supported by 16 pillars, each of a single block, and dates from the 13th century. The pulpit is supported by a statue of the "Arch-heretic Huss;" and the spot where he stood, as sentence of death by burning was pronounced on him by his unrighteous judges, is still pointed out. Robert Hallam, Bishop of Salisbury, who presided over the English deputation to the council, is buried here, in front of the high altar, "under a tomb, which is very remarkable, as being of English brass; which is fully proved by the workmanship. It