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the valley of the Rhine (Route 67), a distance of 6 1/2 miles. It is a distance of nearly 6 1/2 miles S. W. from Gais to

2 Appenzell Inns: Hecht (Pike); Weisses Kreutz; respectable alehouses).

Though the chief place of the district of Inner-Roden, this is but a dull and dirty village of 1400 inhabitants, consisting of old and ill-built houses, with two convents, and a modern Church, hung with several flags; and contains nothing remarkable in it.

The Landesgemeinde, or Assembly of the canton, meets on a square, near a lime-tree, every year. In the Record Office, Archiv, are preserved a number of banners, conquered by the Appenzellers of old, and the only surviving trophies of their valour. Here are the flags of Constance, Winterthur, Feldkirch; the Tyrolese banner and free ensign, with the motto "Hundert Teufel," conquered at Landek, 1407; the Genoese banner of St. George, and two captured from the Venetians, 1516, in the battle of Agnadel.

It is stated on all hands that a remarkable change greets the traveller, on entering Catholic Inner-Rhoden, from Protestant Outer-Rhoden. He exchanges cleanliness and industry for filth and beggary. What may be the cause of this, is not a subject suitable for discussion here. The Appenzellers are passionately fond of gymnastic exercises; and a part of every holiday is devoted to wrestling and boxing matches. Hurling the stone is another frequent exercise. A mass of rock, varying in weight from a half to a whole cwt., is poised on the shoulder, and then cast forward a distance of several feet. In 1805 a man of Urnäsch hurled a stone, weighing 184 lbs., 10 ft. The Appenzellers are also capital shots: rifle-matches are held almost every summer on the Sundays, and the cracking reports resound on all sides. The laws of the canton (especially of Outer-Rhoden) restrict dancing to 3 or 4 days of the year; but, as the people are much addicted to this amusement, the law is frequently infringed, and the peasants will often cross the frontier of the canton in order to enjoy unmolested their favourite amusement.


There is a road from Appenzell to Herisau. (See Route 69.) About 2 1/2 miles S. E. of Appenzell is Weissbad, excellent boarding house and bathing establishment, situated in a beautiful and retired spot, at the foot of the Sentis, surrounded by pleasure-grounds, from which run walks leading up the mountains. The house is capable of accommodating 200 visitors. I have seen few places in the course of my travels where a person fond of exploring and desirous of traniquillity, combined with accommodation on a superior scale (to be procured without trouble or effort on his part), could spend a few days in greater enjoyment."-Dates and Distances.

In addition to the cure of goats' whey, there are also mineral springs at Weissbad, and the bath-houses contain 83 baths.

Three small torrents, issuing out of 3 Alpine valleys deeply furrowed in the sides of the Sentis, in whose glaciers they take their rise, unite at Weissbad, and form the river Sitter. About 5 miles up the middle valley is the singular hermitage and chapel of the Wildkirchlein. It is reached by crossing the Alpine pasture of the Ebenalp, which, in spite of its elevation of 5094 ft. above the sea, is in summer a perfect garden, unfolding a treasure to the botanist, and affording the sweetest herbage to the cows.

In a recess scooped out of the face of a precipice, 170 ft. above these pastures, a little chapel has been perched. It was built 1756 by a pious inhabitant of Appenzell, and dedicated to St. Michael, and on that saint's day mass is celebrated here annually. A bearded Capuchin occupies the hermitage adjoining, and will conduct strangers through the long caverns hung with stalactites, which perforate the mountain behind his dwelling. The pilgrimage will be repaid by the charming prospect from the window which he opens.

The Sentis (from Latin Sentis, a thorn ?), the highest mountain in Appenze:1, 7700 ft. above the sea level, may be ascended from Weissbad. The view from the top is much extolled, and a panorama of it has been engraved. Various paths lead up to it; the best and easiest, which is also perfectly safe in the company of a guide, leads by way of the Meggisalp (3 stunden); Wagenlucke, (2 stunden); to the summit, (1 stunden), a walk of nearly 20 miles.

In 1832, an engineer named Buchmüller, while making trigonometrical observations on the summit, accompanied by a servant, was struck by lightning. The shock took away his senses, and he remained in that state nearly an hour; when he came to himself he found his servant dead beside him, and himself so severely injured in one of his legs, that it was with the utmost difficulty and danger that he could crawl down to the nearest human habitation.

A steep and difficult path leads S. over the ridge of the Sentis from Weissbad to Wildhaus, the birthplace of Zwingli, in Toggenburg (Route 71), a distance of 20 miles.

Another path leads in about 4 hours from Weissbad to Sennwald in the valley on the Rhine. It passes over the shoulder of the Kamor, on the right hand of that mountain, whose top commands a remarkable panorama. Even from the road to Sennwald, the traveller has a delightful prospect over the Sentis and Canton Appenzell, on one side, and over the lake of Constance, Tyrol, and the Rhine on the other.



13 Stunden =

42 1/2 Eng. miles (13 1/6 Lutz). About 4 miles from St. Gall, a little beyond the village of Bruggen, the road crosses the Gorge of the Sitter, by the magnificent Krätzeren Brücke, a bridge 590 ft. long, and 85 feet above the stream. A little after we enter Canton Appenzell.

27 Herisau.— Inns: Löwe (Lion) the best; — Hecht (Brochet).

Herisau, the flourishing and industrious chief village of the Protestant district of Appenzell, called Ausser-Rhoden, contains 2200 inhabitants, and is advantageously situated at the junction of two streams, the Glatt and Brühlbach, which turn the wheels of its numerous manufactories. "It is a very singular place from its extraordinary irregularity of construction, and is quite unlike any other town in Switzerland." There are beautiful walks on the surrounding heights; two of them are topped by ruined castles, the Rosenberg and Rosenburg, which, according to the story, were once connected together by a leathern bridge. The lower part of the Church Tower, in which the Archives are deposited, is the oldest building in the Canton, dating probably from the 7th century.

The articles chiefly manufactured here are muslins, cottons and silk, the last, a recent introduction: 10,200 persons are employed in Ausser-Rhoden, in weaving muslins, and a very large number in embroidering them.

There is a direct road from Heris u to Appenzell (Route 68), by Waldstadt, (1 3/4 stunden); Urnäsch, (1 1/4), and Gonten, (1) in all 5 stunden 16 1/4 miles.

About a mile to the E. of Herisau is the watering-place called Heinrichsbad. The Badhaus is the most elegant establishment of the sort in Switzerland, after Schintznach, surrounded by agreeable pleasure grounds, the creation of one Heinrich Steiger, a rich manufacturer. Two springs rising out of gravel, and variously impregnated with iron, carbonic acid, etc., are used for drinking, and to supply the baths. Goats' whey and asses' milk are also furnished to those invalids for whom they are prescribed. Accommodation in a cowhouse is provided for invalids suffering from diseases of the chest. The neighbourhood is exceedingly picturesque.

Through an undulating country, we reach the frontier of

Appenzell, and re-enter that of its grasping neighbour, St. Gall, before arriving at

2 Peterzell: 3 miles beyond the ruined Castle of NeuToggenburg, lies

2 Lichtensteig, (Inn: Krone,) a town of 700 inhabitants on the right bank of the Thur, in the ancient county of Toggenburg.

Opposite Wattweil, a pretty manufacturing village about 1 1/2 mile farther, stand the convent of Santa Maria and the Castle of Iberg.-(Inns: Rössli; Löwe.)

The road soon after surmounts the steep ascent of the ridge of Himmelwald. From its top a beautiful prospect expands to view; in front the lake of Zurich, with the castle, town, and bridge of Rapperschwyl, in full relief on its margin; behind it the pine-clad and snow-topped Alps of Schwytz and Glarus; on the E. the remarkable peaks of the Sieben Kühfirsten, and behind the fertile vale of Toggenburg. The road divides on the opposite side of the hill; those bound for Glarus or Wallenstadt, take its 1. branch, leading to Utznach:-we follow the rt. to Eschenbach, and 7 Rapperschwyl. Route 14.



A good carriage-road leads through Schlatt and Neusom to 5 Frauenfeld, in Route 9.

31/4 Wyl, a little town of 1064 inhabitants in the valley of the Thur, distant about a mile from its 1. bank. We here leave on the 1. the road to St. Gall, and continue up the 1. bank of the Thur, as far as Dietfurth, where we cross to

3 3/4 Lichtensteig (in Route 69).

1 1/2 Ebnat.-Toggenburg, as the long and fertile valley of the Thur is called, extends for nearly 40 miles, from Wyl up to the source of that river. It is bounded by high mountains; on the N. by the Sentis, and on the S by the peaks of the Kühfirsten. It was anciently governed by counts of its own. When their line became extinct, 1436, the district was claimed by canton Zurich. In the feud which ensued, the Zurichers were worsted; it fell to the Abbot of St. Gall; and, since 1805, forms part of canton St. Gall. It is thickly peopled; its inhabitants, an industrious race, are chiefly occupied with the manufacture of muslin and cotton.

31/2 Alt. St. Johann.-The inn is said to be good here. Upon the high ground, dividing the valley of the Thur from that of the Rhine, stands the remote village, Wildhaus, 3450 ft. above the level of the sea, and at the S. base of the

Sentis. It is remarkable as the birth-place of the Swiss refor mer, Ulrich Zwingli. The house in which he first saw the light (Jan. 1,1484) still exists: it is a humble cottage of wood; its walls formed of the stems of trees-its roof weighed down by stones to protect it from the wind. It has resisted the inroads of time for more than 350 years; and the beams and trunks which compose it are black with age. Zwingli's family were humble peasants; he quitted home when 10 years old, to go to school at Bâle.

The road descends into the Valley of the Rhine, near Grabs, and soon after reaches

3 1/2 Werdenberg, which, with the following stations, is described in Route 67.


11/2 Ragatz.

1 1/4 Coire, in page 244.



A diligence goes 4 times a-week from Zurich to Glarus. It is a drive of 2 hours from Wesen thither-2 hours more to Lintthal-and again 2 hours on foot to the Pantenbrücke.

The canton of Glarus consists of one great Alpine valley, and of several secondary or tributary valleys, branching off from it, and penetrating deep into the high Alps. There is but one carriage road into it, which terminates, after a distance of 26 miles, at the baths of Stachelberg; and, except for pedestrians, there is no egress save the portal which has admitted the traveller. It is a truly Alpine district, abounding in very wild scenery.

The road from Wesen crosses the Linth canal (Route 14, p. 43) by the Ziegelbrücke, and passes the jaws of the valley of Glarus, flanked by precipices almost perpendicular, and backed by the vast mass and snowy head of the Glärnisch Mountain.

The road from Zurich and Rapperschwyl to Glarus passes through Lachen on the S. side of the Lake of Zurich, and along the 1. bank of the Linth canal to Neider-Urnen, where that from Wesen joins it.

1 1/2 Nofels, in the gorge of the valley, a village of 1700 inhabitants, and the chief place in the Catholic division of the canton, is a Swiss battle-field of some celebrity. 11 simple stones, set up on the meadow of Reuti, hard by, mark the spot where, in 1388, 1300 men of Glarus met a force of 6000 Austrians, who, having taken Wesen by treachery, had burst

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