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this is not all; the feeling with which all around Clarens, and the opposite rocks of Meillerie, is invested, is of a still higher and more comprehensive order than the mere sympathy with individual passion; it is a sense of the existence of love in its most extended and sublime capacity, and of our own participation of its good and of its glory; it is the great principle of the universe, which is there more condensed, but not less manifested, and of which, though knowing ourselves a part, we lose our individuality, and mingle in the beauty of the whole. If Rousseau had never written nor lived, the same associations would not less have belonged to such scenes. He has added to the interest of his works by their adoption; he has shown his sense of their beauty by the selection; but they have done that for him which no human being could do for them. I had the fortune (good or evil as it might be) to sail from Meillerie (where we landed for some time) to St. Gingo during a lake storm, which added to the magnificence of all around, although occasionally accompanied by danger to the boat, which was small and overloaded. It was over this very part of the lake that Rousseau has driven the boat of St. Preux and Madame Wolmar to Meillerie for shelter during a tempest. On gaining the shore at St. Gingo I found that the wind had been sufficiently strong to blow down some fine old chestnut-trees on the lower part of the mountains."-Byron.
Chailly, the residence of Rousseau's friend Madame de Warens, lies above Clarens, at some distance from the road. The house still exists.
The swelling hills and vine-clad slopes which form the banks of the lake nearly all the way from Geneva here give place to beetling crags and lofty precipices rising abruptly from the water's edge. The road sweeps in curves round the retired bays at their feet.
The village of Montreux is prettier in itself and in its situation than even Clarens. It lies at the foot of the Dent de Jaman, across which runs a path into the Simmenthal (Route 41).
"It is celebrated as the most sheltered spot on the banks of the Lake of Geneva, and the remarkable salubrity of its climate renders it desirable winter-quarters for invalids who cannot cross the Alps. Very good accommodation may be had in the village inn. Boarding and lodging houses are also to be met with there. The traveller who turns aside from the high-road to the church-yard of Montreux will carry away from that enchanting spot one of the sweetest impressions of his life. The statistical researches of Sir F. d'Ivernois have shown that Montreux is the place in the world where there is the smallest proportion of deaths and of
imprudent marriages. The old pastor Bridel, the head of this happy community, is a hale mountaineer, full of the legends and beauties of the country he has wandered over for nearly 80 years, and will give a hearty welcome to the traveller."-R.
About 2 miles from Montreux stands the picturesque and renowned Castle of Chillon, on an isolated rock surrounded by deep water, but within a stone's throw of the shore and of the road, with which it communicates by a wooden bridge. It was built in 1238 by Amadeus IV. of Savoy, and was long used as a state prison, where, among other victims, many of the early reformers were immured. When Byron, in the Prisoner of Chillon, described the sufferings of an imaginary captive, he was not acquainted with the history of the real prisoner, Bonnivard, prior of St. Victor, who having rendered himself obnoxious to the Duke of Savoy by his exertions to free the Genevese from the Savoyard yoke, was seized by the duke's emissaries, and secretly carried off to this castle. For 6 long years he was buried in its deepest dungeon, on a level with the surface of the lake. The ring by which he was attached to one of the pillars still remains, and the stone floor at its base is worn by his constant pacing to and fro. Byron afterwards wrote the sonnet on Bonnivard, from which the following lines are taken :
"Chillon! thy prison is a holy place,
And thy sad floor an altar; for 'twas trod
Wern, as if thy cold pavement were a sod,
At length, in 1536, the Swiss wrested the Pays de Vaud from the hands of Charles V. of Savoy. Chillon was the last place which held out for him; but an army of 7000 Bernese besieging it by land, while the gallies of the Genevese assaulted it by water, soon compelled it to surrender, and Bonnivard, with other captives, was set free. The changes which had occurred during the years of his emprisonment almost realised the legend of the Seven Sleepers. He had left Geneva a Catholic state, and dependent on the Duke of Savoy; he found here free, and a republic, publicly professing the reform> ed faith.
The castle is now converted into a magazine for military stores. A curious old chapel serves as a powder-magazine, and is not shown. Strangers are readily conducted over other parts of it, and (independent of the associations connected with the building) may find something to interest them in its "potence et cachots. The former is a beam, black with age, extended across one of the vaults, to which
the condemned were formerly hung. The cachot is an
A thousand feet in depth below
From Chillon's snow-white battlement (??),.
A double dungeon-wall and wave
Byron has exaggerated the depth of the lake, which near the castle does not exceed 280 ft. "It is by this castle that Rousseau has fixed the catastrophe of his Héloïse, in the rescue of one of her children by Julie from the water; the shock of which, and the illness produced by the immersion, is the cause of her death."
Villeneuve-(Inns: Croix Blanche; Lion d'Or, both indifferent) is a small and ancient walled town of 1480 inhabitants (Penniculus of the Romans), situated at the E, extremity of the lake, where the road quits its borders to enter the valley of the Rhone. A diligence awaits the arrival of the steamers to convey passengers on to Bex, where there are good sleeping-quarters.
About a mile from Villeneuve lies a small island, the only one in the lake: it is thus mentioned by Byron in the Prisoner of Chillon:
"And then there was a little isle,
A small green isle, it seem'd no more,
But in it there were three tall trees,
The commencement of the valley of the Rhone is dreary and uninteresting. The low ground is a flat alluvial deposit, formed by mud brought down by the river, and still remaining in the state of a barren and unwholesome morass. The encroachments of the land upon the lake even within the period of historical record have been very great. Port Vallais, Portus Vallesiæ of the Romans, in their time stood on the margin of the lake, but is now more than a mile and a half inland; the intervening tract has been gained since. The Rhone itself creeps slowly along, impeded by its windings, and as it were burdened with mud very unlike the torrent of azure and crystal which bursts out of the lake at Geneva. Upon this plain, at the mouth of the valley of the Rhone, Divico, the first Helvetian chief mentioned in history, defeated, B.C. 107 (the 646th year of Rome), the Roman forces under Lucius Cassius, slaying their general and compelling his army to pass under the yoke.
The top of the mountain above Yvorne was thrown down by an earthquake, 1584. A good wine now grows on the slope.
23/4 L'Aigle (Inn: La Croix Blanche)-a village of 1650 inhabitants (Aquileia). Black marble is quarried near
1 Bex-(Inns: L'Union, good. It comprises a boardinghouse and an establishment of baths, supplied from a sulphureous spring rising in the vicinity, which causes Bex to be resorted to as a watering-place in summer. Guides, horses, and chars-à-banc for excursions among the mountains may be hired here.-L'Ours.)
Bex, a village of 3000 inhabitants, situated on the high road to the Simplon, is chiefly remarkable for its Salt-Mines and Salt-Works. Salt has been obtained from brine-springs here since the middle of the 16th century. For a long time they belonged to a merchant family of Augsburg named Zobel, but they are now property of the government of the canton. Down to 1823 the brine-springs alone furnished the salt, and they were gradually failing, when M. Charpentier suggested the plan of driving shafts and galleries into the mountain in search of rock-salt. The result was the discovery of a large and rich vein of the mineral, which has been traced for a distance of 4000 ft. and for a height of 600
feet, varying in thickness from 2 ft. to 50 ft.; and the annual produce of salt is now augmented to 20,000 or 30,000 quintals. Strangers visiting Bex commonly pay a visit to the mines, which are situated about 2 miles off, in the valley of La Gryonne. A steep road, but practicable for chars-à-banc, leads through most beautiful scenery to the entrance of the nines. The salt is obtained either from the brine-springs, six or seven of which, of various degrees of strength, burst forth in different parts of the interior of the mountain, or from the rock-salt, which, after being extracted by the help of gunpowder, is broken into pieces, thrown into large reservoirs, called dessaloirs, cut in the anhydrite rock (sulphate of lime without water) in the interior of the mountain, and there dissolved in water. Each reservoir is usually filled with water 3 times. The 2 first solutions (lessivages) furnish a liquor with 25 or 26 per cent. of salt; the 3rd is much weaker, having only 5 or 6 per cent. The brine, either from the sources or from these reservoirs, containing above 20 per cent. of salt, is conveyed in pipes made of fir-wood at once to the boiling-house (maison de cuite); that which is less strong must be subjected to the process of graduation in the long buildings or sheds, open at the sides, which are passed at Bexvieux and Devins, between Bex and the mines. These evaporating-houses, or maisons de graduation, are filled up to the roof with stacks of fagots of thorn-wood, over which the salt water, after being raised to the roof by pumps, is allowed to trickle drop by drop. The separation of the water in passing through colanders, and its exposure to the atmosphere as it falls, produce rapid and considerable evaporation of the watery particles, while the gypsum dissolved in it adheres, in passing, to the twigs, and crystalizes around them. The water is thus made to ascend and descend several times; it becomes stronger each time, and at length is brought to the condition of saturated brine, fit for boiling in the salt-pans. It will easily be perceived how much fuel is thus spared by not subjecting the weak solution to the fire at first.
This short explanation may enable the visitor to understand the process pursued in the mines. The principal mines are those called Du Fondement and Du Bouillet; the latter contains a gallery driven horizontally into the bowels of the mountain for a distance of 6636 ft., 7 1/2 ft. high and 5 ft. wide. At 400 ft. from its entrance is the round reservoir, 80 ft. in diameter and 10 ft. deep, excavated in the rock, without any support to its roof. In it the weak water is collected, which requires to undergo the process of graduation. A little farther on is another irregular reservoir, 7933 feet in extent, supported by pillars, and destined to hold the