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5 FREYBURG. — (Inns : Zähringer Hof, close to the bridge-new and good; beds, 2 f.; breakfast, 2 f.; tea, 1 f.; —Hôlek des Marchands, near the church, of St. Nicolas also good.)

This town, the capital of Canton Freyburg, is situated on a promontory formed by the windings of the Saarine (Saane). Many of the houses stand on the very edge of the precipice overhanging the river, and their quaint architecture, the long line of embattled walls stretching up hill and down dale, varied by the chain of feudal watch-towers, and gateways of the ancient fortifications which still exist in a perfect state, together with the singular and romantic features of the gorge of the Saarine, give the distant view of the town an aspect different from that of any other in Europe, which is at once imposing and highly picturesque. The narrow dirty streets and mean buildings of the interior do not altogether correspond with these outward promises of interest.

Freyburg was founded in 1175, by Duke Berchthold, of Zähringen. The number of inhabitants at present is about 8484.

The Suspension Bridge, the longest in the world, was completed and thrown open in 1834. The engineer who constructed it is M. Chaley, of Lyons. Its dimensions, compared with those of the Menai bridge, are as follows:

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It is supported on 4 cables of iron wire, each containing 1056 wires, the united strength of which is capable of supporting times the weight which the bridge will ever be likely tobear, or times the weight of 2 rows of waggons, extending entirely across it. The cables enter the ground on each side obliquely for a considerable distance, and are then carried down vertical shafts cut in the rock, and filled with masonry, through which they pass, being attached at the extremity to enormous blocks of stone. The materials of which it is composed are almost exclusively Swiss; the iron came from Berne, the limestone masonry from the quarries of the Jura, the wood-work from the forests of Freyburg: the workmen were, with the exception of one man, natives who had never seen such a bridge before. It was completed in 3 years at an expense of about 600,000f. (25,000 7. sterling ), and in 1834, was subjected to various severe trials to prove its strength. First, 15 pieces of artillery, drawn by 50 horses and accompanied by 300 people, passed over it at one time, and were collected in as close a body as possible, first on the centre, and then at the two extremities, to try the effect of their concentrated weight.

A depression of a metre (39 1/3 inches) was thus produced in the part most weighed upon, but no sensible oscillation was produced. A few days after the bridge was opened by the bishop and authorities of the town, accompanied by about 2000 persons, who passed over it twice, in procession, preceded by a military band, and keeping step. On this occasion a slight horizontal vibration was produced, but it is very improbable that the bridge in its ordinary service will ever receive such a multitude at once. The passage of 2 or 3 heavy carriages or carts across it does not cause the slightest perceptible oscillation; and nothing is more extraordinary in this beautiful structure than the combination of stability with such apparent fragility. The bridge is well seen from the platform of the Hotel de Zähringue, from the old road below it, and from the singular gorge of Gotteron. A similar bridge is now (1837) being built over the same river at Courbiere, on the 1. of the road to Vevey.

The principal Church of St. Nicholas is rather a handsome Gothic building. The portal under the tower is surmounted by a curious bas-relief, representing the last judgment. In the centre stands St. Nicholas and above him is seated the Saviour; on the 1. an angel is weighing mankind in a huge pair of scales, not singly but by lots, and a pair of imps are maliciously endeavouring to pull down one scale, and make the other kick the beam; below is St. Peter, ushering the good into Paradise. On the rt. hand is the reverse of this picture -a devil, with a pig's head, is dragging after him, by a chain, a crowd of wicked, and carries a basket on his back, also filled with figures, apparently about to precipitate them into a vast caldron suspended over a fire, which several other imps are stirring. In the corner is Hell, represented by the jaws of a monster, filled up to the teeth with evil-doers, and above it is Satan, seated on his throne.

The Organ, built by Mooser, a native of the town, is one of the finest instruments in Europe. The organist is allowed to play on it for the gratification of travellers only at hours when the mass is not going on-in the morning at half-past nine, and in the afternoon. His fee is 11 f. for a party, and the valet de place will make an appointment with him. The performance terminates with the imitation of a storm, introducing the howling of the wind, and the roaring of the thunder, interspersed with a few flashes of lightning, from "Der Freyschütz." The instrument has 64 stops and 7800, pipes, some of them 32ft. long.

Canton Freyburg presents a remarkable instance of a state with a constitution purely democratic, in which the chief influence is exercised by the hierarchy. The town of Freyburg is a stronghold of the Romish priesthood: it is the see

of a bishop, who still styles himself Bishop of Lausanne, although since the Reformation, the Canton Vaud is cut off from his diocese: it contains no less than 9 convents (5 for monks and 4 for nuns), 12 churches, and 10 chapels. The Jesuits, still interdicted from most other states of Europe, are here openly tolerated, having been_recalled in 1818 by a decree of the Grand Council of the Canton. The Jesuits' convent, or college, was founded in 1584 by Father Canisius, who died in the odour of sanctity at the age of 77, and is interred in the Jesuits' church, awaiting the honours of canónization which have been, it is said, long promised to his remains. Henry IV. of France subscribed towards the building of the church, and presented the high altar, little aware of his coming fate from the dagger of a Jesuit. The College supports 60 brothers, chiefly teachers and professors, who instruct the pupils of the Pensionnat, and lecture at the Lyceum, a college recently erected. The building of the convent is of very humble kind, rather mean than otherwise, and contains nothing remarkable. Its walls are lined with bad portraits of the generals of the order of Jesuits, and of the rectors of the establishment.

The Pensionnat, or Jesuits' School, the most conspicious building in the town, situated on a spot over-looking the other edifices, is destined for the reception of about 400 pupils, many of them children of the Roman Catholic noblesse of France and Germany, who are sent hither for their education. The establishment is said to be very well conducted. In the summer holidays the boys, in little troops, headed by a tutor, make the tour of Switzerland.

Among the curiosities of Freyburg is the ancient trunk of a Lime-tree, planted, according to tradition, on the day of the battle of Morat, in 1476. The story relates that a young Freyburgois, who had fought in the battle, anxious to bring home the good news, ran the whole way, and arrived on this spot, bleeding, out of breath, and so exhausted by fatigue, that he fell down, and had barely time to cry "Victory!" when he expired. The branch of lime which he carried in his hand was immediately planted and grew into the tree, of which this decayed trunk, 20ft. in circumference, is the remains. Its branches are supported by stone pillars.

Near to it is the ancient Rathhaus, a building of no consequence, but standing on the site of the Duke of Zähringen's castle.

A long flight of steps leads from this down to the lower town, and river side: it is called the Rue Court Chemin, and the roofs of some of its houses serve as pavement for the street above it called Rue Grande Fontaine.

The Canton Freyburg is singularly divided between the German and French languages, and the line of separation, extending from the S.E. corner to the N. W., passes through the town of Freyburg-so that in the upper town French is spoken, and in the lower German. This distinction, however, is wearing out.

The walls and gates of the town are singularly perfect specimens of ancient fortification, and contribute, along with the general air of antiquity, to carry back the spectator to a remote state of society. One tower, near the Prefecture (thrown across the street, and now converted into a prison), has acquired the name of La Mauvaise Tour, because it contains the rack. Though the torture had been disused in the canton for many years, it was not legally abolished until 1830!

The singularly romantic character of the winding gorge of the Saarine, on whose margin Freyburg is planted, has been before alluded to. Close to the old bridge of Berne, another gorge, deep sunk between rocks of sandstone, called Gorge de Gotteron, opens into the Saarine. It is a singularly wild spot, and the wire bridge, with its web-like filainents, is well seen from it.

About three miles lower down the valley of the Saarine, is the Grotto of St. Magdalene, a hermitage and chapel cut out of the sandstone rock, by a native of Gruyères, named Dupré, between 1670 and 1680. Its wonders have been exaggerated by the guide-books, and it is scarce worth a visit.

Morat is about 10 miles from Freyburg (Route 43). Coaches run to and fro in correspondence with the steamer navigating the lake to Neuchâtel. There is a good road from Freyburg to Vevey by Bulle. (Route 41, p. 156).

The shortest way to Lausanne is by Romont, but the road is so bad that it is rarely followed. Instead of it, the circuitous route by Payerne, in Canton Vaud, is usually taken: it is hilly and not very interesting.

4 Payerne-Germ. Peterlingen-(Inns: Bär is newer, but not better than the Hôtel de Ville). There are two churches in this walled town--the one, now turned into a warehouse, is in the round style, and very ancient. Bertha, Queen of Burgundy, the founder of it, and of the adjoining Convent suppressed since the Reformation, and now a school) was buried in it. The curiosity of the place is Queen Bertha's Saddle, kept in the church, from which it appears that, in her days, it was the fashion for ladies to ride en cavalier; but Bertha spun as she rode, having a distaff planted on the tummel.

The road ascends the valley of the Broye, past Lucens and its castle to

4 Moudon-Germ. Milden-(Inn : Cerf; dirty and dear). This town was the Roman Minidunum, hence its modern name.

At the village of Carouge a road turns off on the 1. to Vevay.

The stage to Lausanne, about 13 miles, consists of nearly 7 of long and incessant ascent, and 5 of descent. Extra horses are required for the first. From the summit and S. slope of the Jorat (for that is the name of the hill) a beautiful view expands over the Leman Lake, and in clear weather the snows of Mont Blanc and the high Alps border the horizon. It is a drive of 3 hours from Moudon to

4 LAUSANNE (Route 56).



16 2/3 stunden 54 3/4 Eng. miles.

Diligence daily, in 14 hours.

A distant view of the Alps is obtained on the 1. The Saarine is crossed at

2-3/4 Allenlüfften, and a little farther on the road enters Canton Freyburg. This part of it exhibits a more industrious and thriving aspect than the rest: it is Protestant.

2 1/2 Morat Germ. Murten-(Inns: Couronne, Croix Blanche)-a thriving town of 1650 inhabitants, situated on the E. shore of the lake of Morat, on the high road from Berne, Basle, and Soleure, to Lausanne. Its narrow and somewhat dismal streets are overlooked by an old Castle; and it is still partly surrounded by feudal fortifications-the same which, for 10 days, withstood the artillery of Charles the Bold,

"There is a spot should not be pass'd in vain-
Morat! the proud, the patriot field! Where man
May gaze on ghastly trophies of the slain,
Nor blush for those who conquer'd on that plain.
Here Burgundy bequeathed his tombless host,
A bony heap through ages to remain ;
Themselves their monument."


The battle of 1476, which has rendered the name of this otherwise insignificant town famous all over the world, was fought under its walls. The Swiss were drawn up along the heights a little to the S. W., and nothing could resist their.

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