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the tall, slender monuments at Carew and Nevern, in Pembrokeshire, than with the short, stumpy wheel-crosses which are all head and no shaft to speak of.
It will be seen that by varying the relative dimensions of the head and shaft of the wheel-cross, its character may be entirely changed. The effect of lengthening the shaft is to make the head appear smaller by comparison. The Maen y Chwyfan has the proud distinction of being the tallest of the wheel-crosses of Great Britain.
The Maen y Chwyfan is sculptured in relief on all four faces.
Front. On the head is a cross with a circular, raised boss in the centre, and four equal arms having expanded ends. The spaces between the arms are recessed, and there is a small, round pellet in each of the angles next the central boss. The lower and two sidearms are filled in with a triquetra, or three-cornered knot, distorted on the side next the centre, so as to fit into the space occupied by the arms. The top arm is filled in with a looped band.
The cross on the head is surrounded by a circular ring ornamented with a flat cable-moulding. The boss has a cross formed of incised lines upon it.
The shaft is divided into three panels containing-(1) a piece of plaitwork composed of fourteen bands interlacing correctly, but irregularly executed as regards the straightness of the bands and the distances between them; (2), a key-pattern, the setting-out lines of which form a square divided into eight similar triangles; (3), a man, undraped, holding a spear (?) in his right hand, and treading on a serpent, the whole being surrounded by a border of rude spiral ornament. The bottom of the shaft, to a height of 1 ft. 6 in. above the base, is left plain.
Back.-On the head is a design very similar to that on the front, except that the triquetra-knots on the arms of the cross are regular instead of being distorted, and there is no cable-moulding round the ring. The shaft is divided into two panels containing-(1) two separate pieces of interlaced work, the one at the top consisting of a pair of concentric circular rings interlaced with a four-cornered knot formed of four intersecting semicircles, and the pattern filling the remainder of the panel at the bottom consisting of a band looped alternately on opposite sides; (2), a piece of plait work composed of twelve bands. All the interlaced work on this face has a line along the centre of the band. The bottom of the shaft is plain to the height of 1 ft. 6 in. above the base.
Right Side.-Round the circular edge of the head is a continuous piece of plait work composed of four bands. On the shaft is a single panel containing seven separate designs: (a), a double-square, keypattern border composed of T's placed facing alternately to the right and left; (b), a chain composed of two circular rings; (c), a circular ring interlaced with a four-cornered knot, similar to the design on the top panel of the back of the cross; (d), a band making
undulating curves; (e), a band forming loops on opposite sides; (f), an animal with a man standing underneath its belly; (g), a key-pattern, the setting-out lines of which form a square divided into eight similar triangles. The bottom is plain to a height of 1 ft. 6 in. above the base.
Left Side.-Round the circular edge of the head is a piece of plaitwork of four bands, continued from the opposite side. On the shaft is a single panel containing five separate designs: (a), a chain of six circular rings; (b), a piece of plait work composed of four bands ornamented with a line along the centre of the band; (c), a man, undraped, seen in full face, standing with his two arms upraised, and his two legs apart, with an axe between them; (d), an animal (?) much defaced; (e), an animal with a long tongue, and a serpent between its legs. The bottom of the shaft is plain to a height of 1 ft. 6 in. above the base.
The following is an analysis of the ornament and figure-subjects on the Maen y Chwyfan :
Interlaced Work.-Plait of four bands, right side, head; left side, head; left side, shaft (b).
Plait of twelve bands, back-shaft-panel (2).
Band looped alternately on opposite sides, back-shaft-panel (1a).
Ditto with two concentric circular rings, back, shaft (1a).
Ditto distorted, front, head, arms of cross.
Key-Patterns.-T double border, right side, shaft (a).
Square divided into eight triangles, front, shaft (2); right side, shaft (f). Spirals.-Front, shaft (3).
Figure-Subjects.-Man with spear, front, shaft (3).
Ditto with axe, left side, shaft (c).
Ditto, under beast, right side, shaft (e).
Beast, right side, shaft (e); left side, shaft (e).
Gelli. Before leaving the neighbourhood of the Maen y Chwyfan some of the party walked half a mile south to see the farmhouse of Gelli, formerly a grange belonging to Basingwerk Abbey. From the few architectural details which remain, in the shape of windows with stone mullions, it would appear to be a building of the fifteenth century.
Not far off, at the south-west corner of a cornfield, still retaining the name of " Cae Capel", a portion of the west wall of the old chapel, about 10 ft. long, was pointed out in the hedge, together with the Monks' Walk leading towards it.
This concluded the day's excursion, and the members having rejoined the carriages returned to Holywell, a distance of four or five miles to the east.
(To be continued.)