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These remarks are especially valuable, inasmuch as this distinction of tenure has not been commented upon by Mr. A. N. Palmer in his History of Ancient Tenures. Mr. Palmer does, indeed, conjecture (p. 101) that in a maenol originally containing no freemen at all, and about to be erected into a manor, under an English lord, a certain number of bond-tenants would possibly be enfranchised in order to supply the necessary attendance of free tenants at the court baron of the new manor. This hypothesis we consider to be rather far-fetched.

Upon several other important points which crop up in an examination of the Welsh laws, we have no further space to dwell. In concluding our notice of Mr. Lewis' book we must draw attention to an important corrigendum inserted by Professor Lloyd. The MS. forming the basis of the Venedotian Code in Mr. Aneurin Owen's edition of the Laws is assigned by that scholar to the "early part of the twelfth century". We are now assured, upon the authority of Mr. Gwenogvryn Evans, that it cannot be referred back

farther than A.D. 1200.


Cambrian Archaeological Association.











THE REV. R. O. WILLIAMS, Holywell Vicarage, Chairman.

J. Scott Bankes, Esq., Soughton Hall,

T. Bate, Esq., Kelsterston, Flint
Chas. Brown, Esq., The Folly, Chester
E. Bryan, Esq., Holywell

W.H. Buddicom, Esq., Penbedw Hall,

J. Carman, Esq., Gerddi Beuno, Holy-

P. B. Davies-Cooke, Esq., Gwysaney,

A. H. Spencer Cooper, Esq., Spring-
field, Holywell

H. A. Cope, Esq., Saithaelwyd, Holy-

C. J. Croudace, Esq., Pendre House,

Samuel Davies, Esq., Bagillt
The Rev. T. Z. Davies, Whitford
Vicarage, Holywell

J. P. Earwaker, Esq., Pensarn, Aber-

J. Kerfoot Evans, Esq., The Strand,

J. Prys Eyton, Esq., Coed Mawr,

J. Garner, Esq., Holywell

The Rev. Stephen E. Gladstone,
Hawarden Rectory

Ll. J. Henry, Esq., Lygen y Wern,

Thomas Hughes, Esq., Greenfield,

T.Vaughan Hughes, Esq.,Greenfield,

The Rev. Griffith Jones, Mostyn Vicar-
age, Holywell

A. T. Keene, Esq., Mold
J. Herbert Lewis, Esq., Vaynol, Liver-

E. B. Marsden, Esq., Holywell
The Rev. D. Morgan, Ysceifiog Rec-
tory, Holywell

J. L. Muspratt, Esq., Rhyl
P. P. Pennant, Esq., Nantlys, St.

W. C. Pickering, Esq., Mostyn, Holy.

H. D. Pochin, Esq., Bodnant Hall,

J. Lloyd Price, Esq., Mertyn Hall,

S. L. Revis, Esq., Holywell
R. Sankey, Esq., Holywell
G. W. Shrubsole, Esq., Chester
Samuel Smith, Esq., M. P.

W. J. P. Storey, Esq., Mostyn, Holy-

Henry Taylor, Esq., Curzon Park,

James Williams, Esq., Castle Hill,

Local Treasurer.

H. A. Cope, Esq.

Local Secretary.

Rev. Walter Evans, Halkyn Rectory, Holywell.



THE first evening meeting took place in the Assembly Rooms at 8.30 P.M. The proceedings commenced by the General Secretary for North Wales reading the following letter from the late President, M. le Dr. de Closmadeuc, who was unable to be present on this occasion to resign the presidential chair to his successor, Lord Mostyn :

"Cher Monsieur,

"Ile d'Arz, le 19 Août, 1890.

"En ce moment je ne suis plus à Vannes, mais en villégiature dans une des Iles du Morbihan (Ile d'Arz); ce qui vous explique le retard que je mets à repondre à votre aimable lettre d'invitation au Meeting Annual de la Société Cambrienne.

"C'eut été un grand plaisir que j'aurais passé la Manche pour faire connaissance à la fois avec le beau pays de Galles, et avec les honorables membres de votre Association; mais ce m'est absolument impossible de quitter, cette année, la Bretagne.

"Veuillez, je vous prie, en exprimer tous mes regrets à tous vos collègues, qui sont aussi les miens, puisque vous m'avez gratifié de l'insigne honneur d'une présidence annuelle. Transmettez le même regret à notre nouveau Président, Lord Mostyn, et dites lui que j'aurais été bien heureux de lui adresser mes compliments de vive voix.

"Avec l'assurance de mes meilleurs sentiments,


The President having taken the chair, then proceeded to deliver the following inaugural address:

"Ladies and Gentlemen,

"It gives me great pleasure to take the chair here this evening, and in the name of the people of Holywell to offer a hearty and cordial welcome to the Cambrian Archeological Association. I feel it a great honour to be called upon to preside here to-night at this the forty-fifth Annual Meeting of When I saw it Association. your announced in the papers that I was to deliver the inaugural address,

I must confess I felt somewhat alarmed and puzzled, for to tell you the truth, being only a recent member of your Association, I must candidly confess I do not consider myself by any means an authority on archæological subjects; at the same time I can assure you that I take a great interest in them. I will ask you to grant me your indulgence while I make a few remarks this evening.

"There is little doubt the tendency of the age runs in two directions, the one in which archæology finds its principal object and scope, and the other which carries us forward with accelerated pace, whilst steam and electricity drive us all in one direction. Thoughtful attention, on the other hand, has been given to tracing back, step by step, the progress of our race from the earliest recorded times. Now this year, I think, our Association is meeting in a very interesting part of the county; in that part of the county of Flint, if I may say so, sacred to the Welsh archeologist, for we are within a very short distance of the birthplace of the immortal Pennant; that great Welsh historian whose name will ever be cherished amongst us. Living at a time when travelling was very different to what it is now, it is marvellous to think of what that man did in the way of travel, the amount of literature he wrote, and the interest he took in everything appertaining to Welsh archæology. In his history of the parishes of Whitford and Holywell there is much to be learnt, and there are so many places mentioned in connection with your week's visit that I cannot do better than recommend you to read it up if you should happen to possess the volume.

"Now I shall not attempt to describe all the interesting places you will visit, for that will be left to abler hands than mine; but I should like to call your attention to one or two places of special interest which you will be sure to visit in this neighbourhood, such as Basingwerk Abbey and St. Winifred's Well.

"Some say Basingwerk Abbey was founded in the year 1131, by Randal, second Earl of Chester, and others assert that it was built by Henry II. On looking over my old copy of the Chronicles of St. Werburg I find it stated that the Abbey was founded in 1157. The words used in the copy are, 'Hoc Anno Basiwerk Fundatus', and that a battle royal was fought at Coleshill, and King Henry fortified Rhyddlan and Basingwerk, and conquered the Welsh. Pennant goes so far as to say that the Abbey was founded by one of the Princes of Wales, and is of an earlier date. Giraldus lodged here, and calls it the "Cellula de Basingwerk". He was in the train of Archbishop Baldwin, who on his progress through Wales preached the Crusade. The architecture is a mixture of Gothic and Saxon. All the monuments seem to have been destroyed, except one to a member of the Petre family, who married a Mostyn, or rather a widow of John Mostyn of the Talacre branch.

"Of course you will visit St. Winifred's Well. The legend connected with the death of the Saint is so well known that I need not repeat it; suffice to say that after her head was cut off, St. Beuno carried it to the body, offered up a short prayer, joined it on, and it

instantly united. She is reported to have lived for fifteen years afterwards, and at her death she was buried at Gwytherin in Denbighshire; but eventually she found her resting-place in the old Abbey of Shrewsbury. The Well is wonderfully pretty, and has the arms, carved in stone, of Margaret, mother of Henry VII; and those of the Stanley family, with those of Sir William Stanley, which would prove that it was built before the year 1495; also the arms of Catherine of Arragon, Henry VII, and Henry VIII.

"The old Chapel of St. Winifred is supposed to be of the same age as the Well, and is of Gothic architecture. The Chapel was a free one, and in the gift of the Bishop. In Richard III's time the Abbot and Convent had from the Crown ten marks yearly for the sustentation and salary of the priest at the Chapel of St. Winifred.

"I now shall allude to a letter which was written by Queen Mary, wife of King James II, on the 8th of May 1687, to Sir Roger Mostyn at Mostyn. The letter runs as follows::

"Sir Roger Mostyn,

"It having pleased the King, by his royal grant, to bestow upon me the ancient Chapel adjoining to St. Winifred's Well, these are to desire you to give present possession, in my name, of the said Chapel to Mr. Thomas Roberts, who will deliver this letter unto your hands. It being also my intention to have the place decently repaired, and put to a good use. I further desire that you will afford him your favour and protection, that he may not be disturbed in the performance thereof. You may rest assured that what you do herein, according to my desire, shall be very carefully remembered by

"Your good friend,

"MARY: Regina.'

"Sir Roger Mostyn, who was a good Protestant, was placed in a very awkward position; and from his letters which I have, I find he hardly knew what to do; but such was his loyalty to the throne that he could not resist the letter he received from the Queen, and the Chapel was duly handed over to Mr. Thomas Roberts, the Jesuit priest. How long it remained in the hands of the Jesuits I do not know; but as James II lost his crown two years afterwards, it could not have been for long.

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Curiously enough, one year before the date of this letter, the King had been in Holywell, and had actually laid his hands on sick folk who thought they could be cured by him of their ailments. While he was here he was presented with the very shift in which his great-grandmother, Mary Stuart, lost her head. During his progress he gave golden rings with his hair in them. I wonder if any of these rings are still in existence.

"While I am speaking about Holywell, I should like to mention a subject which I think is not generally known; nor do I believe it has been published. It is an account of the proclamation of

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