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the progress of the Norman arms. In the same year Gruffudd ap Cynan returned from Ireland, where he had taken refuge, and concluded a truce with Earl Hugh of Chester. The valuable life of Gruffudd, printed in the Myvyrian Archaiology, has a difficult passage upon this period of its hero's career. "Having sent emissaries (cennadeu) to Earl Hugh, a truce was concluded between them, and there was given to him three trevs in that cantref. And there he dwelt for a year in disheartening poverty." The name of the cantref in which these possessions were situate does not appear, but the general tenor of circumstances makes it highly probable that it was cantref Tegeingl, or Englefield. Previously to this peace, Gruffudd had taken to wife Angharad, said, by Welsh genealogists, to be the daughter of Owain ab Edwin, lord of Tegeingl, and head of one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales. He probably lived at the place called Llys Edwin, in the parish of Northop, but that he had patrimonial property in the parish of Caerwys may, after the analogous construction of many Welsh place-names, be considered certain, from the fact that one of the townships of the parish of Caerwys is known as Trev Edwin. How a personage with so Northumbrian a name became the chief of a Welsh district, I will not stay to speculate. Nor will I do more than advert to the difficulties caused by the confusion which undoubtedly exists between Edwin, King of Tegeingl, and Ednowain Bendew, Prince of Tegeingl, from one or other of whom many Flintshire families trace their descent. It probably is a case of one single gentleman rolled out into two."
It may, however, be pretty safely conjectured that
"Oddyna ydd anfones cennadeu hyt at yr Iarl Hu, ac i tangnefeddws ac ef, ac yn y cantref hwnnw i rhoddet teir tref iddaw ef yno. Ac yno i dwg ei fuchedd flwyddynedd yn dlawt ofidus gan obeithiaw wrth weledigaeth Duw rhagllaw."
2 Mr. H. F. J. Vaughan, in Y Cymmrodor, vol. x, has made an exhaustive critical examination of the early Welsh pedigrees, to which I would refer you for further information upon this difficult point.
Angharad brought considerable property in the district of Tegeingl into the family of the North Wales princes, and from this time dates its close connection with the fortunes of the line of Gruffudd ab Cynan. Within a few yards of the bounds of the parish of Caerwys stands the house of Maesmynan, said-and no doubt correctly—to be one of the llysoedd, or halls, of Llywelyn ab Gruffydd, the last Prince of North Wales. Caerwys, in the language of feudalism, was his caput baroniæ, the head of his Flintshire barony; but the application of that term, which belongs to one form of society, to an outwardly similar feature of a society based upon diametrically opposite conceptions, would, of course, be misleading and unscientific.
In A.D. 1137, upon the death of Gruffudd ap Cynan, and the advance to the front of his son Owain, the district of Tegeingl became still more closely united to the fortunes of the North Welsh princes. Owain is said to have married Christian, a daughter of Gronw ap Owain ap Edwin, and this alliance may probably be regarded as marking an increase in his Flintshire landed possessions. His successful resistance to Henry II in 1157, and again in 1165, and the capture and destruction of the castles of Basingwerk, Rhuddlan, and Prestatyn (Mold had been taken in 1144, and had probably not been rebuilt), extended the confines of Gwynedd farther to the east than they had reached since the days of Offa. How the Welsh princes dealt with the districts that came spasmodically into their power is a difficult question to answer. Did Owain look upon his newly conquered territory in Cantrev Tegeingl as his, to dispose of according to his pleasure, as the Conqueror had regarded England after Senlac? Probably not; for we have no evidence, direct or indirect, whereby we can infer the expulsion of Norman settlers, the importation of Welsh tribesmen, or even of a change of tenure.1 Yet that Owain had con
1 It will be seen that upon this point I differ from Mr. A. N. Palmer, at any rate so far as his arguments for the eastward extension
siderably extended the possessions which he held by descent is proved by a document now in the Record Office, the gist of which is as follows, though how he had obtained his new lands, whether by conquest or marriage, is unfortunately not specified.
In the 4th Edward II (i.e., 1311), an inquisition was held at Chester, upon a writ commanding the justiciar of Chester [Payne Tibetot] to certify as to the King's right to the manor of Eweloe. The finding was that Oweyn Goneith (Gwynedd), sometime Prince of Wales, was seized of the manor of Eweloe in his demesne as of fee, at whose death, David son of Oweyn entered on the said manor as Prince of Wales, held the same until Llewelyn the son of Ior(werth) overcame the said David and took from him the said Principality, together with the manor of Eweloe; that the said Llewelyn died seized of the said principality and manor, after whose death King Henry III occupied the same and four cantreds in Wales, that is to say, those between the Dee and the Conway, and made Roger de Mohaut his justice of Chester, who attached the same manor to his (the said Roger's) neighbouring lands of Haurthyn and Mauhaltesdale, to which it had never belonged, and made a park of the wood of Eweloe, and so held of the Welsh during the eleventh century relate to the district of Tegeing, and so far as they are directed to prove that any such extension was the result of an organised movement on the part of the Welsh. Mr. Palmer's evidence appears to me to go no further than to show that a considerable Welsh element continued to dwell in the districts seized upon first by the Saxons, and later by the Normans, and that the descendants of these Welsh families intermarried largely with the incomers. This resulted in the social advancement, and consequent greater prominence, of that Welsh element; but it does not prove that that prominence was due to a territorial or military forward movement. The same phenomenon is perceptible on Irish soil. The Norman nobles intermarried with the daughters of the Celtic chieftains, with the result that the descendants of such unions became more Hibernian than the Hibernians themselves; but it would be erroneous to regard this as the mark of an eastward expansion of the Irish power. The facts examined by Mr. Palmer are undoubted; but they are the results of anthropological rather than of political causes.
the said manor and park until Llewelyn, son of Griff (ith), son of Llewelyn, Prince of Wales, recovered the said four cantreds from Henry III and again attached them to the principality of Wales; that the said Llewelyn ousted the said Roger from the said manor, and attached the same to the principality as it was before, and built a castle in the corner of the wood,' which was in great part standing at the time of the inquisition, and afterwards gave the said manor to Ithel ap Blethin to hold of him; that the said Llewelyn continued seized of the said manor as Prince of Wales until overcome by Edward I, who seized the said manor not only in right of his conquest, but of the conquest by Henry III of the said four cantreds; that after the death of Roger de Mohaut, the wife of Robert, son of the said Roger, recovered dower of the said manor, as the freehold of the said Roger, Joscelyn de Badelsmere then being justice of Chester; that the King, on the recovery of the said dower against him, removed the said Joscelyn, and appointed Reginald de Grey, justice of Chester, and commanded him to inquire by what right the wife of the said Robert had recovered the said dower; that the said Reginald found that no claim of dower could be founded on the appropriation made of the manor by the said Roger whilst he was justice; upon which finding the said wife was ousted from her dower, and the same taken into the King's hands; that such was the right of the King to the said manor, which was of the yearly value of £60.2
1 This confirms the conjecture of the late Mr. H. Longueville Jones, who visited the remains of Ewloe Castle during the Rhyl Meeting of the Association in 1858, and from the architectural details inferred that the Castle was erected in the thirteenth century. (Arch. Camb., 3rd Series, vol. iv, p. 460.)
2 Plea-Rolls of the County of Chester, 4-5 Edward II, m. 48; Twenty-Seventh Report of Deputy-Keeper of the Records. The abstract of the entry upon the Plea-Roll, given in the DeputyKeeper's Twenty-Seventh Report, is so full as to be practically an entire transcript. Some of the proper names are not spelled as they appear in the Roll, but they are corrected above.
In addition to the light thrown upon the devolution of the Manor of Ewloe,' this document affords us the means of correcting some erroneous views of the history of this period. The Brut y Tywysogion states that in A.D. 1210, Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of Wales, made peace with King John. One of the conditions being his renunciation of all the land between the Dee and the Conwy, "yn dragwyddawl," for ever. But it appears that Llywelyn, at the time of his death in 1240, held the Manor of Ewloe, situate in the district which, in 1210, he is said to have definitely renounced. The explanation probably is that at some period before 1240 Llywelyn received back the lands that had been the private estate of his ancestors to hold of the King as tenant in chief. We know, from a document in Rymer, that the territory ceded to the English King in 1210, was in 1267 recovered by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, and this is borne out by the inquisition already quoted. Llywelyn, nevertheless, remained a vassal of the English Crown, subject only to the necessity of doing homage. Then came the final conquest of Edward I in 1282-3. Now, it is significant that in his claim to the Manor of Ewloe, Edward II based his title not alone upon his father's conquest but also upon that of his grandfather, showing that the tenure whereby Llywelyn ap Gruffudd received this manor and other lands in 1267 was that of the ordinary baronial ten
1 The document just given was largely quoted from by Mr. Davies Cooke in a paper upon "The Castle and Manor of Ewloe", which he read to the members of the Association upon their visit to Gwysaney, to which the reader is referred for further information upon the history of Ewloe.
2 This point is quite clear. After conceding to Llywelyn the four cantreds of the Perfeddwlad (Rhos, Rhufoniawg, Dyffryn Clwyd, and Tegeingl) "sicut ipse et prædecessores sui ipsos unquam plenius habuerunt", the treaty provides "Pro quibus principatu, terris, homagiis, et concessionibus idem princeps et successores sui fidelitatem et homagium, ac servitium consuetum et debitum domino Regi, et heredibus suis præstare et facere tenebuntur, quod ipse vel antecessores sui Regibus Angliæ consueverunt et tenebantur facere, et præstare." (Fœdera, i, p. 474, Rolls ed.)