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to get worship by force of arms. The Earl of Mare challenged the Earl of Nottingham to joust with him; and so they rode together certain course, but not the full challenged, for the Earl of Mare was cast, both horse and man, and two of his ribs were broken with the fall; so that he was conveyed out of Smithfield, and so towards Scotland, but died by the way at Yorke. Sir William Darell, Knight, the King's banner-bearer of Scotland, challenged Sir Pierce (Peter) Courtnay, the King's banner-bearer of England, and when they had run certain courses, gave over without conclusion of victory. Then Cookeborne, Esquire of Scotland, challenged Sir Nicholas Hauberk, Knight, and rode five courses; but Cookeborne was borne over horse and man,' etc.

"In Cobham Church chancel still hang two fine specimens of tilting helmets of this time, and it can scarcely be doubted that they belonged to Sir Reginald Braybrooke and Sir Nicholas Hauberk. Hauberk's helmet may be identified, as his peculiar crest, a a fish within a ring or garland (as shown in the drawing), required special means of attachment, which may be seen in the four staples in the apex.

"Sir Nicholas was twice married, his first wife's name being Matilda. She was living Henry IV (1390-1400), but nothing is known of her parentage. He died at Cowling Castle, October 9th, 1407, leaving, by a deed made on the 6th, all his goods and chattels, excepting one hundred shillings of silver, which he reserved, to Sir Hugh Lutterel, Sir Arnold Savage, William Cobham, Esq., and John Giffard, as it would appear in trust, by whom they were confirmed to Joan Lady Cobham, his widow, the same year. His son by her, named John (perhaps after Lord Cobham), died an


"The brass to Sir Nicholas may be considered as about the finest of English military brasses of the time. It is similar in design to that of Sir Reginald Braybrooke, who died 20th September 1405 (he was with Richard II in Ireland in 1399, and perhaps also at Flint Castle), last described, excepting that his has in addition figures of the Virgin and Child on the right side of the Trinity, and St. George on the left. At his feet is a small figure on a pedestal, on which is inscribed 'Hic jacet Johñes fil's eor'.' The arms are pendent on the shafts of the canopy. His own are of an unusual and remarkable blazon, namely, checky argent and gules, a chief chapourné gules and or; i.e., a silver and red check having the part of the shields red, edged with gold. On the sinister side the same coat impales that of Cobham. His arms had in both shields been wilfully defaced, as if by heralds in officious exercise of their craft. Hauberk by them was evidently not considered entitled to bear them. His head lies on a helmet and crest, as above described, which was destroyed. The Latin inscription, translated into English, runs thus: Here lies [the body of] Lord Nicholas Hauberk, Knight, formerly the husband of the Lady Ioan, Lady of Cobham, heiress of Lord John of Cobham, founder of this College; which


certain Nicholas died at Cowling Castle on the 9th day of October A.D. 1407. To whose soul may God be gracious. Amen.'

"This handsome present, as a work of art, as a historical subject connected with Flint, is a distinct and valuable addition to the collection. Mr. Davies-Cooke is a member of an old Flintshire family of ancient Welsh descent, the members of which have for several hundred years taken a prominent part in the affairs of the county; and we are sure it is very pleasing to the inhabitants of Flint Borough to find that the members of the real old Flintshire families recognise that the old county and borough town is the right place to be the depository of these works of art and reminders of the traditions and past history of the county. This is the second gift Mr. Davies-Cooke has made to the borough, Mr. Davies-Cooke having previously presented the case of official seals, in connection with Flint now hung on the walls of this room."

The improvements in the decoration of the Council Chamber, projected by Mr. H. Taylor, were completed in 1886. The stained glass windows were designed by Mr. Drewitt, and executed by Messrs. Shrigley and Hunt of Lancaster, the subjects being

First window,-arms of Edward I, Sept. VIII, MCCLXXXIV (the date of the first charter to the borough). George Roskell, Mayor, 1836-7. By his daughter, Elizabeth Harnett.

Second window,-Edward III, Dec. VII, MCCCXXVII (the date of the second charter). James Eyton, Town Clerk, 1836-54; P. Ellis Eyton, Town Clerk, 1854-74; M.P., 1874-78. By their daughter and sister, Anne Parry Charles.

Third window,-Edward the Black Prince, Earl of Chester and Fflynt, xxth Sept. MCCCLXI (the date of the third charter). Arms of the Prince as Prince of Wales at this date. Henry Taylor appointed Town Clerk, 1874.

Fourth window,-Richard II, Nov. XXIXth, MCCCXCV (the date of the fourth charter). Arms of the King at this date. Richard Muspratt, seventeen times Mayor. By his daughter, Florence F. Muspratt. Fifth window, Philip and Mary, Nov. 5th, MDLV (the date of the fifth charter). Thomas Lockwood, Architect, 1885.

Sixth window,-William III, XIX Dec. MDCC (the date of the sixth charter). Thomas Lewis, Mayor, 1857, 1866, 1867.

The Fifteen Welsh Tribes, whose arms are painted on the panelled ceiling of the Council Chamber, are—

1st.-Hwfa ap Cynddelw, the first of the Fifteen Tribes, lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, Prince of North Wales. His office of Steward, by inheritance, was to bear the Prince's coronet, and to put it upon his head when the Bishop of Bangor anointed him. Many of the gentlemen of Anglesey hold lands from him by lineal descent. Sir Howel y Pedolau was a famous man in his time, and descended from hi Sir Howel's mother was King Edward II's nurse, and he being the King's foster-brother was in great favour with him, who knighted him. He was a very strong man, and could break or straighten horse-shoes with his hands. The arms, as represented on the panel, are, gules, between three lioncels rampant, a chevron or.


2nd.-Llowarch ap Bran lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, and was the Prince's brother-in-law, both their wives being the daughters of Grono ap Owain ap Edwyn, Lord of Tegaingle. His arms are, argent, between three crows, with ermine in their bills, a chevron sable.

3rd.-Gweirydd ap Rhys Goch, of the hundred of Tal-Ebolion in Anglesey, who lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd and of his son David ap Owain, and from whom were descended the Foulkes of Gwernygron, Flintshire. His arms are, argent, on a bend sable three lions' heads cabossed of the first.

4th. Cilmin Troed-Du lived in the time of Merfyn Frych, King of Man (818-843), being his brother's son, with whom he came from the north of Britain when Merfyn married Esyllt, the daughter and heir of Conan Tidaethwy, King of the Britons. His posterity were wise and discreet men in all their ages, and many of them were learned in the laws in the times of the Kings and Princes of Wales, and were judges. From him are descended the Glynnes of Hawarden Castle. His arms are-1, quarterly, argent, an eagle displayed with two heads sable; 2, argent, three fiery, ragged sticks gules; the 3rd as the 2nd, and the 4th as the 1st; over all, upon an escutcheon of pretence, argent, a man's leg coupé à la cuisse, sable.

5th.-Collwyn ap Tangno is said to be Lord of Efionydd Ardudwy and part of Lleyn; and "it is true that his progeny have and do to this day possess and enjoy the greatest part of the said country", says Pennant. His arms were, sable, between three flower-de-luces a chevron argent. It is narrated of one of his descendants, Sir Howel y Fwyall, that he was in the battle of Poictiers with the Black Prince when the French King was taken prisoner, where with his pole-axe he behaved himself so valiantly that the Prince made him a knight, and allowed a mess of meat to be served before his axe or partizan for ever, to perpetuate the memory of his good service; which mess of meat, after his death, was carried down to be given to the poor for his soul's sake; and the mess had eight yeomen attendants found at the King's charge, who were afterwards called "Yeomen of the Crown", who had 8d. a day of standing wages, and lasted to the beginning of the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

6th.-Nefydd Hardd, of Nant Conwy, lived in the time of Owain Gwynedd, who gave Idwal, his son, to be fostered by him; but Nefydd caused Dunawt, his son, to kill the young Prince at a place called of him Cwm Idwal; wherefore Nefydd and his posterity were degraded, and of gentlemen were made bondmen of Nant Conwy. His son, Rhûn, to expiate that foul murder, gave the lands whereon the church of Llanrwst was built. The arms are, argent, three spears' heads imbrued sable, pointed upwards. From him was descended Bishop Morgan of St. Asaph, who translated the Bible into Welsh.

7th.-Maeloc Crwm, of Llechweddisaf and Creuddyn, lived in the time of Prince David ap Owain Gwynedd, about the year 1175. The most famous men descended of him were Sir Thomas Chaloner and others of that name, descended of David Chaloner of Den

bigh, whose ancestor, Trahaiarn Chaloner, was so called because his grandfather, Madoc Crwm of Chaloner, had lived in a town in France called Chaloner. His arms are, argent, on a chevron sable three angels or.

8th.-Marchudd ap Cynan, Lord of Abergelau, who lived in the time of Roderic the Great, King of the Britons, about 849. Of him was Eduyfed Fychan descended, who being general of the host of Llewelyn ap Iorwerth, was sent to the Marches to defend the frontiers from the approach of the English army, which was ready to invade them, under Ranulph Earl of Chester. Ednyfed killed three of their chief captains and commanders, and a great many of the common soldiers. The rest he put to flight, and triumphantly returned to his Prince, who in recompense for his good service gave him, among other gifts and honours, a new coat of arms; for the coat which he and his ancestors had always given before was the coat of Marchudd, being gules, a Saracen's head erased proper, wreathed or. The new coat was thus displayed,-gules, between three Englishmen's heads couped a chevron ermine. From the death of the last Llewelyn, Edny fed's posterity were the greatest men of any in Wales. Of his descendants are Lord Newborough, Ffoulkes of Erriviatt, Morgan of Golden Grove, and other well known Welsh families.

9th.-Hedd Molwynog, of Uwch Aled, was Steward to Prince David ap Owain, and from him were descended Iolo Goch and Tudor Aled, the famous bards. His arms are, sable, a hart passant argent, attired or.

10th.-Braint Hir of Isdulas is said to have lived about the year 650, in the time of Cadwallon, whose nephew and chancellor he His arms are, vert, a cross flowery or.


11th.-March weithian, was called Lord of Isaled. The families and houses descended from him are many and eminent, among them being the Prices of Rhiwlas, Pantons of Coleshill, and the Parrys of Tywysog. His arms are, gules, a lion rampant argent, armed azure. 12th.-Edwin, commonly called King of Tegeingl. His son Owain had a daughter called Angharad, married to Griffith ap Cynan, King of North Wales. Many noble families of Flintshire and Denbighshire are descended from him, including, in the female line, the Mostyns of Mostyn and the Wynnes of Nerquis. Howel Gwynedd, "a very valiant and stout man", was also one of his descendants. Of the latter, Pennant says, he "siding with Owain Glyndwr against Henry the Fourth did much annoy the English; but on a time, being more secure than he ought to have been, he was taken by his adversaries in the town of Flint, who upon a place called Moel y Gaer cut off his head; and long time before, one Owain ap Uchtryd, being grandson to Edwin, kept by force of arms all Tegaingle under subjection, notwithstanding all the power of the king, lords, and country to the contrary.' His arms are, argent, between four Cornish choughs armed gules, a cross flowery engrailed sable.

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13th.-Ednowain Bendew was Lord of Tegeing in the year 1079, whose residence is supposed to have been Ty Maen in the parish of Whitford. He is said by some to have been the Chief of the Fifteen Tribes. His arms were, argent, between three boars' heads a chevron sable.

14th.-Efnydd was commonly called the son of Gwenllian, who was styled the heiress of Dyffryn Clwyd because she possessed a very great portion of it. Her husband received from the King, on his marriage, seven townships, including Lleprog Fawr and Lleprog Fechan. He bore az. a lion rampant salient, or, wherewith he quartered his mother's coat, being azure, between three nags' heads erased argent, a fesse or.

15th.-Ednowain ap Bradwen, called by some Lord of Meirionydd. He bore gules, three snakes enowed in a triangular knot argent. It was upon a descendant of this family that Henry VIII bestowed the title of "Lusty Morgan", because the latter meeting the King in the streets late at night, and neither giving way, they drew swords and fought. It was afterwards sung,


Morgan hir, mawr gan Harri,
Mae Llundain dan d'adain di."

In connection with the portrait of Sir Roger Mostyn, the following article from The Daily Telegraph cannot fail to be of interest: "BRAVE SIR ROGER MOSTYN.'

"When the will of the illustrious Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon, who died in exile in France, 1674, was opened, it was found that he had bequeathed the manuscript of his History of the Great Rebellion to the University of Oxford, stipulating, however, that a period of thirty years should elapse between his death and the publication of his book. The University observed the injunctions of the testator more scrupulously than the executors of Talleyrand, who made a similar stipulation with regard to his Memoirs. When, early in the reign of Queen Anne, the History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England at length saw the light, there was a rash among the county families to purchase the bulky tome. It was obvious that Clarendon would speak at large of the most prominent actors in the mighty struggle between Charles I and his Parliament, and that it would be replete with matter concerning Cromwell and Ireton, Fairfax and Lambert, Falkland, Montrose, and Rupert of the Rhine. The county families, however, wanted to know what their grandfathers, the doughty Cavalier baronets and squires, had been doing during the great upheaval, and probably a very large proportion of the profits derived from the sale of Clarendon's magnum opus arose from the demand for it to stock the libraries of manors and halls.

"Among the country gentlemen who fought valiantly for the 'Man Charles Stuart', and yielded up their substance for his cause, almost to the last silver flagon and the last broad piece, there are

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