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being lit with argand lamps and reflectors: the lighthouse rises 249 feet above the level of the sea, and its light is elevated 228 feet; when the atmosphere is clear, it may be seen from a ship's deck 223 English miles. Heela Light, which was formerly from coal, is now replaced by a revolving light. The new light has 6 lamps, with reflectors, which turn once in 3 minutes, and show a light every minute. This light is elevated 113 feet above the level of the sea, and the top of the tower is 109 feet; its situation is about a cable's length to the northward of where the old light formerly stood, and 4 cables' length, N.E. E. from the point of land.
If you are coming from the north-westward, the light will be visible from the top of Grossendorff; but afterwards, only when you have it bearing south, and have passed Heisternest, at the distance of 3 miles. Still farther distant, the light will be visible earlier. One of the lights at Neufahrwasser, in the harbour, has also been altered, and a lantern shown on the bulwark of the harbour, which is intended to facilitate the entrance of boats and small craft.
The light at Razerhooft was formerly extinguished on the 15th of May, every year, and lit again on the 1st of August; and that at Neufahrwasser was extinguished on the 25th of May, and was re-lit on the 25th of September; but, by a recent regulation, both these lights, and also that at Heela, are to burn throughout the year, without intermission, from sun-set to sun-rise.
From Rezerhooft, towards Heela, a narrow isthmus, or neck of sandy land, extends S.-eastward; and at its extremity, stands the town and lighthouse of Heela; and when you get abreast of Heela, you will, in clear weather, perceive the City of Dantzick. The course from Rezerhooft, towards Heela, will be S.E. by S., the latter being distant from the former 7 leagues. From Heela, you will steer S.W. S., about 12 miles, the water shoaling all the way into the bight, from 30 fathoms near the Point of Heela, to 5 fathoms near Dantzick; and the best anchorage is, to bring Dantzick Light Tower to bear S., or S. by W.; you may then run into 6, 5, or even 4 fathoms. The opening to the S.W. of Heela Peninsula, is called Putziger Wik; it is filled with sand, and has only from 4 to 2 feet water in it. The Gulf of Dantzick, from Rezerhooft to Brusterort Lights, is 19 leagues across; and its depth about 11 leagues. On its eastern side is Konigsberg and Pillau; the latter (Pillau) being the sea-port of the former (Konigsberg).
Notice was given in June, 1838, that, for the greater safety of ships entering the Roads of Dantzick, and the Harbour of Neufahrwasser, a large beacon-buoy had been moored, as a sea-mark, to the northward of the sands, at the mouth of the Vistula, which stretch a considerable distance into the sea. The said buoy will be moored in its place every year, at the breaking up of the ice, and removed at the beginning of winter. It is painted black, with white at the top, and is furnished with a white upright staff, with a broom attached to it. This buoy lies, pointing direct to the mouth of the Vistula, in 4 fathoms water. Heela Light bearing N.E. by N., and the high lighthouse of Neufahrwasser S.W. by S.; the tower of the fortress, Weixelmunde, with the large flat tower of St. Mary's Church, in Dantzick, close together, bearing S.W. by S.; the end of the eastern mole of the harbour of Neufahrwasser, W.; and the Church, on the high ground of Oxhoft, N.N.W.
Ships that are obliged to enter the Dantzick Roads at night, when they have reached as high as the offing of the Vistula, should bring the Neufahrwasser Light not more westerly than S.W.; and should not approach nearer than 6 fathoms, in order to remain at a proper distance from the banks at the mouth of the Vistula. In general, all ships approaching the Roads, will do well not to lie too close to the Nehrung coast, but to shape their course towards the Putziger Wik, where they can cruise, with much greater ease and safety, towards the Roads. The barrel, formerly hoisted at the point of the Eastern Mole, is now removed. But when the pilots are prevented, by severe storms or other causes, from putting out to sea, the necessary signals for ships bearing into port, will be made with a red flag, from a signal post, painted white, recently erected at the top of the Western Mole, in such manner, that the ship coming in is to steer to the side toward which the flag is inclined, and must steer right for the flag, when it is placed perpendicularly. If, however, no signals are made from this beacon with the flag, and a ball is hoisted on the flag-staff at the pilots' houses, no vessel must attempt to enter the harbour; but must anchor in the Roads, or stand out
DANTZICK LIGHTS.-Of the two standing lights at the harbour of Dantzick, at Neufahrwasser, the lesser one, which has hitherto been lighted as a beacon, a short distance from the great light tower, was discontinued on the 15th of April, 1843, and on the 16th was replaced by a light of the French invention, fixed in a small iron lighthouse, on the summit of the Eastern Harbour Mole, and, along with the large light, will be kept burning every night, from sun-set to sun-rise. This new light is situated north by compass, 4800 Rhinland feet (or 1647 yards) distant from the great light tower; it is 44 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen in all points of the compass, from W.S.W. to S.E., and from sea, in clear weather, if the eye of the observer is about 10 feet above the level of the sea, at the distance of more than 2 German, or 10 English miles.
Ships leaving Dantzick Roads in the night, and having arrived as far as Old Wiechselmunde (the mouth of the Old Vistula), must bring the higher or S.W. light not more westerly than S.W., and the light of the Eastern Mole not more northerly than west, in order to avoid the shoals and flats of the Old Vistula, which extend to a great distance at its outset. The light on the Eastern Mole, bearing S. by E., or S.S.E., with the soundings of 5 fathoms water, offers safe anchorage in the roads. Both lights, which, observed in a south direction, appear one, are at a considerable distance from each other, and the great high tower is westerly of the one at the Mole.
In laying down the bearings, the variation of the compass has not been considered. – Dantzick, February 21st, 1843.—Royal Prussian Administration.
KONIGSBERG is the capital of Eastern Prussia, and stands on the banks of the Pregel, or rather on an island in the river; the stream here dividing in two parts, and rejoining again. The houses have their foundations on piles, similar to Venice and Amsterdam. There are 7 bridges over the Pregel. This river, having united again at the city, flows, with a wide channel and full current, into the Frische Haff, which is an inland lake, of from 9 to 14 feet water, extending westward to Elbing and the Vistula; but the entrance to the Pregel River is stopped by a bar, of but 5 or 6 feet water; and only flat-bottom boats, or barges, can ascend to Konigsberg. Elbing, at the south end of the Frische Haff, is also similarly situated; and the traffic in corn, starch, linseed oil, soap, cordage, saltpetre, sail-cloth, potash, &c., which is considerable, can only be carried on by boats, and vessels drawing little water.
PILLAU. This has been already noticed, as the proper sea-port of Konigsberg, and is a place of very great commerce. The town is open, but well fortified, and considered to be the key to this part of Prussia, on the side toward the sea. Its citadel, which stands to the westward of the town, completely commands the harbour; and vessels of burthen clear out and take in their lading here, the Frische Haff not having water sufficient to admit them up to Konigsberg. Old Pillau is on the east side of the Peninsula, and is now chiefly inhabited by fishermen.
The course from Rezerhooft to the entrance of Pillau, is S.E. by E. E., distance 18 leagues; and from Dantzick Road, nearly east, 14 leagues. Having coasted along the neck of land toward Heela, you may cross the Gulf, and you will see the lighthouse standing south of the town, on rising ground. The land to the south-eastward is low, and somewhat level; but towards Pillau, it rises: and Pillau, seen at a distance, appears bluff land, somewhat more elevated than the other parts of the coast.
To distinguish the entrance of Pillau, a gothic building has been erected to the S.-eastward of the town, to serve for a land-mark; this will be visible, in clear weather, 6 or 7 miles off, appearing to seaward like a three-masted ship, which will point out the road; but at night, when neither land nor land-mark can be seen, the new lighthouse, exhibiting a fixed light from August 1st to May 15th, will sufficiently indicate the har bour. The lighthouse is 103 feet high, and stands at the S.E. part of the town.
To enter Pillau by night, bring the lighthouse to bear S.E., and anchor, in 10 or 9 fathoms; you will then have good riding, and be near the entrance. Vessels that anchor in the day-time, should choose a similar depth, having the beacons in a line. But should a violent storm come on, and the sea break on the entrance, other beacons will be erected; and the mariner must not then attempt entering the harbour. The regular course in will be S.E.; this will carry you to the outer buoy (black-and-white), which lies fronting the entrance; the channel in is buoyed with 4 black buoys on the starboard side, and 3 white buoys on the port or larboard, with small flags on the latter; on the bar are 22 feet water; between the buoys are 15 and 16 feet, and opposite the
citadel and town, 26 and 30 feet; the channel then divides southward and eastward, and the edges of the channels are pointed out by broom-beacons. On the shore is a beacon, upon which a large red flag will, as you are entering, be hoisted, to point out the proper channel, and the direction you ought to steer; but pilot-boats are generally to be met with, having a red flag flying at the mast-head.
After special soundings of the channel have been taken, the buoys which mark the flats and shoals in the same, as well as those streaks running from the shore into the Haff, have been laid down; and for the information of the inexperienced navigator, the following remarks will be found very useful.-On Geersteer Point, being the most dangerous shoal in the Haff, a large buoy, painted half white and half black, is laid, which may be seen at a great distance. In the middle of the mouth of the channel there is a black buoy, with a cross broom, which, according as the wind serves, may be passed on either side. The other black buoys, in leaving the Haff, must be passed on the starboard, and the white buoys, which mark the westerly flats, on the port or larboard side. The Kohlholz Rock is marked with a black, and the flats of the Heerdes with a red buoy. For the greater security of the inland navigation, it is to be observed, that on the so-called Katzhaken, at the entrance of the Passarge, there is a black buoy; and on the Leissuhns Stones a buoy fixed on a stake-both of which, in sailing from Pillau into the Passarges, are to be passed on the left side.-Pillau, April 20th, 1841.
LIGHTS ON BRUSTERORT.-Between Pillau and Memel, the sea light exhibited at Brusterort has been improved, so, as to show two fixed lights, the position and elevation being the same as the former, and visible, in clear weather, at a distance of 23 German miles, within 101 degrees of the horizon, viz.:-W. by S. as far as N.N.E. Both lights were exhibited for the first time on the evening of the 1st of October, 1844, and are kept burning from sun-set to sun-rise.
MEMEL.-This is a large fortified town, with a fort and harbour, and 6 or 7000 inhabitants. Its principal exports are ship-timber, hemp, flax, and corn, hides, tallow, bristles, feathers, wax, and Lithuanian yarn; the imports are chiefly colonial produce, and manufactured cottons; and these are, for the most part, carried on by British vessels. There is a fair held annually. The most remarkable objects are the two arsenals, the Commandant's house, the garrison church, and the magazine for powder.
If you are bound from the Gulf of DANTZICK to MEMEL, your course from Pillau Road will be N. by E. E., 7 or 8 leagues; you will then have cleared Brusterort Point and Reef. At night, this point is distinguished by two fixed lights, which have lately been considerably improved, and are visible 2 German, or 10 English miles. Observe always to give Brusterort Point a good berth, on account of the reef which runs northward from it, close to which are 10 or 11 fathoms. With these two lights in one, you will be on the point of the reef. There are also several shoals lying southwestward of Brusterort, extending from the point full 6 miles in that direction; these shoals lie 2 miles off the land, and have only from 13 to 18 feet water on them. A rock, with 16 feet water on it, lies with Brusterort Lights bearing N.E., distant 6 miles; therefore, when rounding Brusterort from the southward, come no nearer the coast than 20 fathoms, for you will have 15 fathoms very near the outer edge of these shoals. Having, therefore, run the above distance from Pillau Road, your course, from off Brusterort to Memel, will be N.E. by E., about 20 leagues. The shore throughout is low and sandy, and the depth of water from 30 to 14 fathoms, oaze, sand, and clay. Vessels taking their departure from the North Point of Bornholm or Earthholms, must steer E. S. for Memel Road; the distance from the former being 72, and from the latter about 67 leagues. From Oland Light to Memel, the bearing is E.S.E. & S., distant 54 leagues.
The land north of Memel may easily be known, by being woody, and by a remarkable cluster of trees, named the Dutch Cap, to the northward, which often serves for a land-mark; they grow on a sandy hillock; and the beach, all the way to the southward, is fine white sand.
Memel Lighthouse stands on the N.E. side of the entrance to the harbour, on a round eminence, about 30 feet high. The tower is 75 feet in height, and exhibits a fixed light, which may be seen from all points, between S. and N.É., at the distance of
The following Directions were issued from the Royal Prussian Harbour Police Office, at Memel, August 16th, 1818:
To find the Bay of Memel.-Vessels from the westward should, on approaching the land, look out for the Lighthouse, and endeavour to bring it to bear E.S.E., steering towards it in that direction, until they lessen the depth of their water to 10 fathoms; but not to advance into less than 9 fathoms: they will then observe,
First,―That the 3 beacons, which lead into the channel, and stand on the port or larboard shore, will appear separate; thus the largest, or more southerly beacon, will be to the westward of the others: this largest beacon has a barrel, placed above a triangle; and, quite at its top, a cross. The middle beacon has only a triangle and barrel; and the least, which is the signal, or flag-beacon, appears to be a perpendicular pole. Between the largest and middle beacons, you will observe a remarkable great tree, which seems to be equidistant from both.
Secondly, The outer buoy, which is large and black, lying in 6 fathoms water, will be nearly in a line with the ship and lighthouse; and
Thirdly,-The high wood, called the Dutch Cap, and situated about 2 leagues to the northward of Memel, will bear N.N.E. from you. When all these marks come on together, you will be assured of your true situation, and may anchor in safety.
To sail into Memel, without the assistance of a pilot, from the before-mentioned anchorage, you will continue upon the E.S.E. course, until you arrive at the outer buoy, which you may pass on either side. Should you leave the buoy on your port or larboard hand, the 3 beacons will appear in a line; which direction you must follow strictly, until you have fairly entered the harbour. The course in will be about S.E. by E., provided a southerly or northerly current does not set across the entrance of the channel; but should it do so, you must make all proper allowance.
The sea-marks, to direct you in the right passage, consists of buoys and poles; the black buoys and black poles, with brooms at their tops, lie on the starboard side; and the white buoys and white poles, with white flags, are on the port or larboard hand.
But as the channel is subject to frequent changes, both in depth and direction, whenever the two foremost beacons-that is, the lesser and central beacons, shall be struck or lowered down, no ship should attempt to enter; but beat off, and endeavour to clear the land, or take the anchorage already described. And should the pilots be unable to get out, on account of the high sea and bad weather, then a red flag will be hoisted upon the flag-beacon; according to the wavings of which, you must direct your course: for if the flag should incline to the east or to the west, you must steer your vessel on the same side as the flag, and continue so long in that direction, until the beacon with the flag is erected perpendicular; the beacon then will point out the course you should adopt.
When the red flag is placed upon the signal-beacon, it signifies there are 15 feet water on the bar; but the depth of the channel will be shown by black balls, hoisted on the central beacon, in the following manner:
When there are 14 feet water in the shallowest part of the channel, 1 ball will be placed on the western side of the beacon.
When there are only 13 feet water in the shallowest part of the channel, 2 balls will be placed on the western side of the beacon; and so on, for every additional ball shown, there will be 1 foot less water in the channel.
But if, on the other hand, 1 ball should be exhibited on the eastern side of the beacon, it will denote an increase of depth, and there will be 16 feet water in the channel. If 2 balls appear on the eastern side of the beacon, there will be 17 feet; and for every additional ball placed on the eastern side, there will be an augmentation of 1 foot. It is also recommended, that captains of vessels, when approaching the channel, do set as much sail as they can; for frequently, and particularly in spring and autumn, the freshes from the country occasion strong currents to run out of the harbour.
In 1832 it was found that the beacons, already described, were insufficient for masters of ships, when the sea was too heavy to allow the pilots to venture out. To remedy which, 2 land-marks, or beacons, have been erected on the extremity of the Curische Nehrung, or south point of the entrance of the port; and the new instructions are as follow, viz.:
So soon as the 3 beacons, already noticed, are seen, they are to be brought into a line with each other. The black-and-white buoys will then be discovered in the same line. As soon as the white buoy, which lies to the eastward, can be seen, steer in that direc
tion, until you come near to it, when the 2 land-marks on Curische Nehrung, will be observed nearly in a line. They are of pyramidal form, and lathed. The one to the southward is the highest, and is distinguished by a cross; the other, to the northward, is the lowest, and is distinguished by a quadrangle on the top.
So soon as the white buoy, which lies on the port or larboard side, is passed, the course in is S.S.E. E., along the white marks, or anchoring poles, which are all to be left on the port or larboard side; the new land-marks are to be left in a line with each other, until the 3 beacons are brought into a line. You then come to a red buoy, which may be passed on either side. From thence the course is S.E. by E., and S.E., till you come near the north, or lower ballast quay, and, consequently, into the harbour.
It is further to be observed, that the pilots are generally stationed near the red buoy, either in sailing or rowing boats, if the weather in any way permits it, and point out the proper course, to the east or to the west, by making signals with a flag. The red flag, upon the signal-beacon, points in the same direction as that in the boat. When the red buoy has been passed, the signals are no longer made by the boat; but are continued by the red flag, upon the signal-beacon, alone.
As the two pyramidal land-marks cannot be struck, the old regulation continues in force, that when the two northern beacons are struck, no vessels are allowed to enter the harbour.
We have already stated, that about 6 miles to the northward of Memel, is a high wood, known to mariners by the names of the Bramant's Hat, and Dutch Cap. Abreast of this lies a shoal, of 26 feet water: it will always be most prudent to go to the westward of this; which may readily be done, by giving the land a berth of 2 or more miles in passing it,* though there is a channel of 6 fathoms between it and the shore. From hence, the land bends out somewhat to the westward; and you will observe the Seven Hills, near which a reef stretches out; this you will pass, in 10 fathoms water, free from any danger.
LIBAU. This is a small town, in Courland, where vessels resort, for the purpose obtaining hemp, linseed, &c. In 1836 the bar had 14 feet water upon it. In the offing, you will find the ground shingly; and to the northward, opposite Stens Ort, a flat extends. The ground here is coarse sand, with stones and shingles. There is no place of any note on this part of the coast, until you reach Windau, in lat. 57° 24′ 30′′ N.
WINDAU, or WINDA, has a remarkable church, with a great body and spire, as shown on the Chart; the town lies low, and near the church you will perceive a windmill; it has no harbour, but a tolerable good roadstead; and a trade is carried on in corn, timber, hides, tallow, flax, and salt provisions.
From hence to Lyserort, the course is N.E., about 4 leagues; this is a low sandy point, having a reef stretching out 2 leagues to the northward. It forms the southern entrance to the Gulf of Livonia, or Riga, and must be navigated with extreme caution, on account of the numerous shoals and spots of shallow water which are here scattered about.
LYSERORT.-In consequence of the representation of Her Majesty's Minister at Riga, of the great importance of a light at the extreme point of Courland to the trade of that place, it has been determined by the Russian Government to erect a lighthouse at Lyserort, and measures have been adopted accordingly. This light will greatly facilitate the present dangerous navigation on that part of the Baltic, as it will lead from the N.W. angle of Courland to the lights on the northern extreme of Domesness, in the Gulf of Riga.
* Mr. Notzke, master of the Isis, in very hazy weather, mistook the Polangen Wood for the Dutch Cap; and making for Memel accordingly, his vessel struck on a ridge of stones, and became a wreck. As this danger had not been surveyed, it was examined by Mr. Schroder, Pilot Commodore of this place, who found it to be a mile in extent from N. to S., and about a mile broad, with its outer edge above a mile from the shore. From a depth of 9 feet, near the middle of the bank, the south end of Polangen Wood bore N.E. by E. E., Polangen Church S.E. by E. & E., and Immerset Wood nearly S. E. by compass. The depth, along the edge of the reef, is generally about 4 fathoms, as it also is along the Immerset Reef, which extends to the distance of a mile from the shore.