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gerous N.E. bay, and during a west wind find it difficult to keep clear of the shore, by the assistance of this light, to seek shelter behind the beacon land. The light will be visible from sea in every direction, except when made E.S.E. by compass, when the same is concealed for some minutes of the circle, by the the Salo beacon. Towards the land, it is obscured between N.E. by E. and S.S.E. from the light.

In steering for this harbour, you should bring Salo Beacon to bear N.N.E., until you get somewhere about 2 or 2 miles from it; then steer in N.E. by E., or N.E., until you open a mill to the eastward of a small gibbet-like beacon, which stands on the south end of the Island of Halloe, bearing N.E. by N.; the entrance of the harbour will then be quite open. Steer on between this beacon and another just like it, which stands upon the Island of Stancix or Steensia: these both point to the direction of the harbour. Continue on a north-easterly course, until you bring a large red-tiled house, having white chimneys, open in a gap between the island, marked A in the engraved Plan, and the high land to the eastward (see the view on the Chart)*, bearing N.E. by N.; steer in with this mark, leaving several small islands and rocks on the port or larboard side. The first, or outermost of these, is called Rockaborn, being 2 feet above the surface of the water, and having a flat all round it, extending about 15 fathoms out, except on its S.W. side, where it runs out nearly 40 fathoms. You may anchor any where between this rock and the land to the S.S.E. or S.E. of it, in 13, 14, or 15 fathoms water, muddy bottom, and clear of danger.

But should you intend running farther up the harbour, take care to keep the redtiled house open to the eastern part of the island, marked A, in order that you may avoid a sunken rock, with only 3 feet water over it; the marks for which are, the abovementioned red-tiled house, on with the east end of the island A; Rockaborn, open of the way from the gibbet-beacon on Halloe to that of Steensia; and the west point of the island, marked B on the Plan, S.E. by E. The channel at this place is contracted to the width of 120 fathoms; but steer on with the above marks, and you will pass a small rock above water on your port or larboard side, marked C on the Plan, and may then anchor in 10 or 12 fathoms, good holding ground, the mill bearing N. by W. There is also a third anchorage farther on, and above the Town of Kingshaven, which is large enough to contain about 30 sail of small vessels. In proceeding for this anchorage, after having passed the rock C, you should haul over towards the land on which the mill stands, and steer midway between that and the island A, leaving that, and the rocky islets adjacent, on your starboard side; but when drawing near to the northern part of the island A, you should give the opposite side a good berth, in order to clear some sunken rocks, which run nearly 30 fathoms' length from the point; and when you get above these, you will be in a sort of basin, where you may safely anchor, and lie completely land-locked-so much so, that if a vessel had lost her anchors, she might run on shore, on a clean sandy beach, until she could procure others. If this harbour had been well and generally known, many a ship, which had missed getting into Wingoe or Marstrand, during southerly gales of wind, might have been saved; for the entrance is by no means difficult, and the anchorages are well sheltered and secure.


The CASTLE OF MARSTRAND is very conspicuous, standing on the summit of a mountain, about 250 feet above the surface of the water, and having a light, composed of 9 revolving mirrors, 6 large and 3 small ones; in the centre of each is a lamp. The whole machine is constructed to turn round in 5 minutes; by which means you will, in any position, see successively 6 bright flashes and 3 faint ones, while at intervals the lights are obscured.

Being within the PATERNOSTERS, and intending to go to the harbour of Klædesholm, bring the houses on it to bear N.E. by N., then steer for the Island Skærileya, which has a yellow appearance, and pass on either side: sail on for the small but high Island of Graaen, on which stands a white pyramid; leave this island on your port or larboard, and as you approach the N.E. point, steer a little more northerly, by which you will avoid the Swartskiærboen Shoal, within which you may anchor any where on good ground, and with ample room for shipping; but the most commodious anchorage is on the east side of Klædesholm, where rings are fixed on the shore for the conve

*These refer to the Chart of the Cattegat and Belts, No. 42, of NORIE & Co.'s Catalogue-1845.

nience of mooring; as there are also at Koholm, Engholm, and Skinteskiær. On the island Kalfven, there is good water.

Being on the west side of the Paternoster Rocks, and obliged to sail in between them. the best entrance will be found by bringing Marstrand Castle to bear S.E. E., which will carry you to the Great Potten Rock. Ronshoved is nearly in the same direction. But if the wind should be from the S.W., keep as close to the wind as you can, until you approach Great Potten, which will be on your port or larboard side; pass at the distance of a cable's length, and steer for Svartskintun, a black rock, which keep in one with Little Buskiær, and the north side of Great Dyroen E. S., which appears to be the south side of the northernmost entrance to Uddevalla River, between Tiornhoved and ! Great Dyroen; continue this course, until the islands to the starboard, Sostrene and Kyrhællen, are brought in one with the castle, bearing S.E.; you will then see the top of Great Aastaol, a white mountain in the middle of the hollow, on the south side of Blaaekul, E.S.E. E.; taking care, by passing the shoal on the S.E. side, to keep a little more southerly, so that the white hill goes more on Blaaekul; continue this course, until you have passed a black rock lying to the south of Little Buskiær. Having cleared the Paternosters, take which harbour you judge most convenient; or, with a more westerly wind, you may, after having passed Great Potten, steer S.S.E. for the passage between Alnon and Hamskiar, taking care of the current, which commonly sets to the southward: leave Alnestue and Alnen on the port or larboard, and Strumpfluen, Strumpen, and Hamskiær, on the starboard.

On the east side of Little Potten, the channel is good. Coming from the north, and entering this passage, keep the castle open on the east side of Little Potten; you will then avoid the Great Pottenboen Shoal, which has 3 fathoms water over it; keep Little Potten about a cable's length to the starboard, then steer S.S.E., midway between Alnon and Skethasa, taking care not to bring the castle to the eastward of the hollow of Raven. When abreast of Skethasa, the castle will be on with Ronshoved; and as soon as the northern entrance to Marstrand comes open of Ronshoved, you will be clear of the S.W. reef of Skethasa; but if you are too much over to the starboard side in the narrow, keep toward Ronshoved, in order to avoid the east reef by Alnon.

Coming from the north-west for Teste Sound, bring Marstrand Castle S.S.E. E., and keep this course until the entrance is clearly discerned; the castle is then to be kept on the west side of it, until you reach Lerskiær; then bring the castle in one with Testehoved, or the west point of Syd Test, in order to clear Svartflue; leave Guildskiær, the Tests, and Humleskiær on the port or larboard, and Svartflue, Trainkuk, and Buskiær on the starboard; the course through this channel is S.S.E. You may also pass Svartflue, at the distance of a cable's length on the port or larboard side, after having brought the castle S.E. by S.; it will then appear over Great Buskiær and Skutskiær; the latter may be known by its grotto or black hole, called Skutan: keep this course, until Swarten comes to the port or larboard, then steer eastward until the castle appears to the eastward of Skutskiær; you will thereby clear the Breaugen ground: sail on for the castle, leaving Skutskiær and Buskiær to your starboard, and pass Skerileya on either side. But, if from within or the south side, you wish to pass out through Teste Sound, having made the north point of Buskiær, steer W.N.W. until Skutskiær comes on the port or larboard side; then sail N.N.W. half-way toward Swarten, and N.W. by N., leaving. Swarten a cable's length to the starboard; or steer N. by W., leaving it at the same distance on the port or larboard side: you may then direct your course more westerly, observing not to steer too northerly, until you have cleared the Bredflaget ground.

To sail through Wanholmsound from the northward, bring the castle to bear S.S.E.; or, touching the western Point of Wanholmerne, keep this course, and pass Backshiær, a low black rock, on your port or larboard; Utryggen's Flue will be to the starboard: pass close to Wanholmerne, then steer a little easterly, going midway between Wanholm's Flues' breakers and Stallerne; this you will do, by steering directly for Skiærileya, and leaving Hulmeskiær to the starboard.

To sail through Wanholm's Renden, for the Harbour of Klædesholm, bring Tiornshoved, which is lofty, E.S.E. E.; this will carry you to Lerskiær, a cable's length to the starboard; pass between that and Bredflaget; sail on, leaving Wanholmerne, Danielsboen, Alkraaken, and Smackskiær to the starboard, and Utryggen, Bloteboen, Skaboholmen, and Klubholmen on the port or larboard; then anchor. There are good pilots at Klædesholm.

But if more convenient to go through Bratthullet Channel, you must bring Tiornshoved S.E. E., steering directly for which, the N.E. Point of Egskiær will come into the same direction; edge off a little easterly, and steer mid-channel between Skaboholmen and Smackskiær into the harbour.

A ship that, with a westerly wind, has got a lee shore, may find a good shelter by attempting the inlet through Dalhullet to Backkeroe Gulf. For this purpose, you are to bring the hollow seen to the northward of Smeden Mountain, to bear E. † S., keeping on till you get sight of the north point of Great Smuggen, called Swartnæsan, which is low, black, and bold-to. Pass on close to the point, and steer for Stockvigros, leaving the Silboen Shoal, on which are only 3 feet water, to the starboard; and having cleared this shoal, you may anchor in 12 fathoms, good holding ground. The course through Dalhullet, is east; and having passed through Great Smuggen, it is E. by S. In cases when a ship has lost her anchor, she may safely run aground, on soft mud, in Hummer Sound.


About 16 miles to the southward of the Paternosters, is the small island of WINGOE; upon which stands a beacon, one of the most remarkable objects in the Cattegat; it is red, with a ball on its summit, and visible about 13 or 14 miles: near it are the pilots' houses. A flag at your fore-top-mast head is the signal for them to come to your assistance.

A lighthouse of stone has been erected at Wingoe, at the entrance of Gothenburg Inlet, which was lighted for the first time on the 1st of November, 1841, and which will continue throughout the year, similar to the other lights on the coast within the kingdom. It will show a fixed light of the third order, and visible from all parts of the horizon, at the distance of 12 miles. The lighthouse stands in latitude 57°‍37′ 30′′ N. Two auxiliary channel lights, for the guidance of vessels up to Gothenburg, was also lighted from the same date; one of which is placed on Buskar, and the other on Bottoe. These two auxiliary lights will also continue to be lighted throughout the year.

If bound to GOTHENBURG, or forced to anchor within Wingoe, you may go on either side of the island; but the southern channel is the safest, keeping Kloverskar, or the S.E. rocks, with the other rocks and breakers, on the port or'larboard side: give the island of Wingoe a berth of 2 miles in passing; haul round to the eastward, and keep at nearly the same distance from the rocks on the starboard side; and as you advance, be cautious, and keep the S.E. rocks, near Wingoe, shut in with the Wingoe Isles, till Little Denmark Island, (which may be known by the green hummock at its S.E. end) comes open of the east end of Buskar. Thus you will clear the western dangers. By keeping Little Denmark open, you will avoid a shoal, which lies about a mile S.W. from Buskar; the mark for which is, a remarkable round hill, east of Warholm, on with the extreme end of the rocks east of Buskar, and the S.E. rocks of Wingoe, a sail's breadth open of the south side of Wingoe Islands.

On Buskar, you will see a beacon with an arm, or the lighthouse; and at night, the light, which you may steer towards when it bears N.N.E. You may go very near to the rocks at the east end of Buskar, if requisite, without danger; but do not bring the eastern point of Buskar southward of S.W., until Wingoe Beacon is on with the east end of Bird Island; this mark will lead clear of the 7 feet, 17 feet, and 18 feet shoals, which lie in Wingoe Sound. Anholt's Berg, with a dark, top open of the eastern rocks of Buskar, also leads clear of all the western dangers. 1 mile N.E. of Buskar, lies the Rock Bottoe, on which is fixed a pole, and a lighthouse, from which a fixed light is shown. Between Buskar and Bottoe and Little Denmark, is Wingoe Sound, an excellent road for large ships, the ground clear, and the water deep; thus, if you are provided with good anchors and cables, you may ride out a storm, even with a westerly wind; but small vessels commonly find the swell too heavy; therefore, they generally run over to Tianso, where the shelter is better, and the harbour more secure, with 7 and 8 fathoms water. The anchorage in Wingoe Sound is with Buskar Beacon S.W. or S.W. by W., and little Denmark N.E. by N. To the eastward is Rifvo Fiord, good anchorage, and from 8 to 9 fathoms. On the west side of Okaroe, are two other anchorages in Store and Little Kalf Sound, also farther north, inside of Rozo. But pilots are necessary, these places not being known to foreigners.

To the northward of Wingoe Isles, there is a channel, between them and Inholmar. To sail into this, if coming from seaward, endeavour to bring Wingoe Beacon to bear S.E. by S., until within 2 miles from it; then steer S.E. direct for the passage. N.W. from the flag-staff, about of a mile before you come to Wingoe Island, are some little rocks above water, called the N. W. rocks; give these a berth of of a mile as you pass to the port or larboard of them. There is a passage between these rocks and Wingoe; by running quickly in, mid-channel, you may go within a cable's length of Wingoe on the N.E. side, which is all clear. On the port or larboard side is a small rock, which will appear in the middle of the channel, although it lies on the northern side of it: keep at about 2 cables' length from Wingoe, and you will see a little rock nearly a-head; sail on the southern side of this rock, as close as you choose, leaving it on your port or larboard hand; and when it comes N.W., a cable's length distance, haul up gradually eastward; you will then avoid the 2-feet shoal to the port or larboard, and the islands between Wingoe and Buskar to the starboard. Farther on, is a shoal with 4 fathoms over it; this is to the southward of Bird Islands; the mark for which, is the south side of the foundation of the Wingoe flag-staff, on with the N. side of the house on the same island; and when some houses come open to the eastward of the highest part of Bird Island, you will have passed to the eastward of it; then bring the flag-staff of Wingoe on with the chimney of Wingoe House, running on to the eastward, until the northern houses of Bratteberg come in one with the first island to the N.E., bearing N.E., a little northerly; then steer E.N.E., and you will avoid the 15-feet shoal to the starboard of the channel, which here becomes dangerous and narrow, until Wargo Sound is open of Buskar E. Point; here you should anchor, if without a pilot, to avoid the 7-feet shoal, which lies N.N.E. from Buskar Beacon, & of a mile: on the port or larboard side, are two shoals stretching off Bird Island, the southernost having only 2 feet, the other 5 feet water. It is not safe to go too near Buskar Island; keep always at the distance of 7 or 8 fathoms water: the soundings in Wingoe Sound are very irregular. The channel to the northward of Wingoe should only be taken, by strangers, in cases of emergency, the channel to the southward being much safer to take without a pilot. There is good anchorage in Warholm's and Hawke's Roads.

Another passage is formed to the northward of Inholmar Island, between it and Halleskier Island; in proceeding through which, you must give the former a berth, on account of a reef extending northward. Leaving Halleskier Rocks to the port or larboard, and coming not too near them, you may pass as close as you please to Halleskier Isle, and also to the rock lying to the south-eastward: steer boldly on for an island to the eastward, the south side of which is also steep-to: and by bringing the black rock east of Denmark Island open to the southward of a little rock lying off the island west of Denmark Island, or by getting the telegraph upon the western height of Gothenburg on with the hollow part of the same island, you will safely pass the 15-feet shoal on your starboard side, in 6, 7, and 8 fathoms water; as you advance, give a small berth to the above island, and you may pass within a cable's length of the rock. To the northward are other passages for small vessels, but they are not well known, and said to be dangerous. Having advanced through any of the above passages, as far as Wingoe Sound, you must obtain a pilot, who will conduct you up the river to Gothenburg.

The establishment of the new lights at the entrance of Gothenburg, will enable a stranger to bring his vessel into an anchorage in Wingoe Sound, during the night, with safety; by keeping 2 miles to the southward of the light on Wingoe, then steer E.S.E. about 1 mile; or, as soon as the light on Buskar bears N.N.E., steer towards it, keeping it on your port or larboard bow, until within a mile of the island; a N.E. course from thence will take you to an anchorage in Wingoe Sound; or endeavour to pass the east end of Buskar, at the distance of of a mile, then a N.E. N. course, of a mile, will bring you to the anchorage, in 17 or 18 fathoms, with Buskar Light S.W., and Bottoe Light E.S.E.: at day-light you will be sure of a pilot. If approaching this anchorage from the southward, keep the Wingoe Light N.N.E., to avoid the Vanguard Shoal; and when within 2 miles of it, proceed as before directed.

The GOTA CANAL.-This extensive work is now finished, and the Cattegat and Baltic joined by an inland navigation through Sweden; by which, the circuitous and dangerous route through the Sound and Belts, may be avoided. It commences at Gothenburg, and traverses the districts of Elsbourg, Skarabourg, and Lin Koping: it consists of several canals; the first of which, on the west, follows the entire course of

the River Gota, into Lake Wener; the next commences at the eastern shore of that lake to the north-east of Mariestad, and follows a S.S.E. course to Lake Wiken, near Tatorp. At the Loch of Hairstorp, on the last canal, the highest water of the great Canal of Gota commences. Farther on, this division is formed by Lake Wiken, by a small canal which joins the lake to Billstrommen by this river itself, and by a canal which joins the Billstrommen to Lake Botten. Five canals have become necessary on the slope of the Baltic. The four first connect the Lakes Botten, Wetter, Boren, Boxen, and Aspangen; the fifth establishes the communication between this last lake and the Baltic, which it joins at 14 league below Soderkoping. The distance from the eastern shore of Lake Wener to the Baltic, is about 120 English miles; of which, more than 60 is occupied by lakes. The sluices are 56 in number. The average depth of the canal is 9 feet 7 inches, and the breadth at bottom 41 feet 6 inches. On the western shore of the Lake Wetter, is a fortress, commenced in 1820, and intended to stop the communication between the eastern and western parts of the canal, if necessary.

TISLERNE AND VANGUARD.-About 8 miles to the southward of Wingoe Island, lie the Tislerne Rocks; and 24 miles N.W. N. from the house on Tislerne Rocks, lies the Vanguard, a rocky shoal, of about of a mile in circumference, having only 22 feet water on it, deepening gradually from 9 to 15 and 18 fathoms, muddy ground, at the distance of of a mile in every direction: between it and the Tislerne Rocks, are 12, 14, 18, and 20 fathoms. This rocky patch lies with Wingoe Beacon bearing nearly N.; Buskar Beacon N.N.E., distant 6 miles; and the round hill N. 35° E.; it is directly in the fair-way of ships from the southward, bound to Wingoe Sound: to avoid it, keep Wingoe Beacon N. by E., until the house on Tislerne bears S.S.E.E., or until Carlsound Beacon comes open of the west point of Buskar Island; you may then proceed for Wingoe Sound, observing to steer for the east end of Buskar, as before directed.

To the south-eastward of Tislerne, between Okaroe and the headland Fierhals, there is good anchorage for vessels of all sizes; but the entrance to it is very intricate, and not to be attempted without an open wind. On the south side also of Okaroe, is a harbour for small vessels, at a place called Diovig; and a league north of Okaroe, is another, within some islands and rocks, but these are only fit for small ships; of the same kind is the harbour of Lerkil, about a mile farther north; a good league distant from that, is Sleeb, said to be a very commodious place of shelter; at the farther end of this, stands a church, which is conspicuous at a considerable distance. Wrengoe Knap is also a safe harbour for small vessels. But the accounts we have of these harbours, are at present but imperfect.


NIDIGEN. We have already said, that about 8 miles south, somewhat easterly, from Wingoe Island, lie the Tislerne Rocks; 13 miles farther on, and nearly the same direction, is Nidigen Island. This little island has two new lighthouses erected upon it, bearing E.N.E. and W.S.W. from each other. The towers, which are built of granite, are of a sexangular form; their elevation above the rocks, including the lantern, is 44 feet; and the rock itself 15 feet above high water mark. The lanterns are painted white, and exhibit fixed coal lights at 50 feet above the mean level of the sea. Two-thirds parts of the towers, from the rock upwards, are painted in stone joints; the upper part being whitewashed, for the better guidance of mariners. In clear weather, the lights may be seen at the distance of 4 leagues.

On the north side of the towers, a stone building has been erected, 48 feet in length and 20 feet in height, with a roof 9 feet high, covered with tiles. The building is painted in stone joints, and has three windows on one side, and two windows and a door on the other side. On the side of the western tower, a steeple is erected, in which a large bell is fixed, which will be tolled at certain short intervals, or at least every of an hour, in thick and foggy weather; but this is not of much real use, for vessels to windward can seldom hear the sound. A wooden shed for coals has also been erected close to the towers. A boat is kept in constant readiness to put off from the rock. From Nidigen, two reefs extend; the one running out south-westerly some hundred yards: the other, called Lilland, stretches out eastward about a mile, the sea breaking constantly over it.



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