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this channel all day, and, unless you are well acquainted with the navigation, be obliged to lose your labour, and return back to where you started; therefore, it will always be advantageous to engage a pilot.
The former coal beacon at Lands Ort, outside the entrance to Stockholm, has been altered to a revolving light, consisting of a triangle, with 3 reflectors on each side, which, similar to the one at Utklipporna, will give 3 strong flashes, with equal long intervals of darkness, within a period of 6 minutes. The tower, which has been partially altered, is 64 feet high; and the light, being 147 feet above the level of the sea, ought, in clear weather, to be visible 16 English miles distant, or more, from a ship's deck 10 feet above the sea.
A Custom-house is established on the Island Gronsoe, below Sodertelje, about 3 leagues to the northward of Lands Ort Lighthouse, where all vessels must undergo examination before they will be allowed to proceed to Stockholm.
Stockholm is a large city, and situated at the junction of the Lake Maelar, with a branch of the river which runs into the Baltic. It is built upon three islands; the central island contains the town, while the two smaller ones are principally devoted to naval purposes. There are 12 bridges, a palace, an arsenal, and numerous churches. The trade carried on here is extensive, and consists chiefly in exporting iron, steel, copper, pitch, tar, and timber; while its imports are colonial produce, wines, fruit, salt, and British manufactured goods. The greatest impediment in the commerce with this city, arises from the delay occasioned by navigating the sinuosities of so winding a channel, between the numberless rocks and islets, in your passage from the Baltic; yet, when you have surmounted this difficulty, few harbours have greater depth or capacity, for 1000 sail may lie here in safety, and the largest of them come close to the quays. There are more than 1000 vessels averaged to enter this harbour annually.
The Swedish shores are every where encumbered with rocks and islands, having channels between them; but it would prove highly dangerous to suffer yourself to be entangled within them.
SANDHAMN INLET.-About 16 leagues from Lands Ort Light is another passage leading to Stockholm, called the Sandhamn Inlet; but not so much frequented by the English as that we have just described.
In steering for this place, you must look for the lights at the entrance, which are two; one being built on the small woody island Kitsoe, or Korssoe; this is a revolving light, making a revolution once in every 4 minutes; the other, on the Groenskar Rock, being a bright white light, distant about 3 miles E.S.E. from the former. Standing in for this latter light, you should endeavour to bring it to bear from N.N.E. to N.N.W., but not more westerly, as a sunken rock, with only a fathom over it, lies about 3 miles S.E. of Groenskar. Pilots may be obtained from the village of Sandhamn, where the Custom-house is situated. From Groenskar to Sandhamn, the course is from W. to N.W., and the distance about 4 miles.
The Groenskar Light, near Sandhamn entrance to Stockholm, is changed from a coal fire to a lentile light, of the third class, visible 4 Swedish miles (geographical). It is a bright white light, and readily distinguished from the other light.
Directions for sailing through CALMAR SOUND, from the Southward, by Lieutenant Waters, R.N.
"There is excellent anchorage in 7, 8, 9, and 10 fathoms; and good shelter from N.E. and easterly gales, under the Oland shore, distant from 1 to 2 miles, the lighthouse bearing about S., and being nearly abreast of Ottomby church and village.*
"The reef from the lighthouse runs about S. by W., 4 or 5 miles. Magö Reef, on the Swedish shore, is dangerous, and runs southerly about 3 miles from the south end of Christianopel; therefore, it is safer to keep nearer to Oland than to Sweden. Christianopel is a small town, with a large white, irregular shaped, building (a church), with red roofs at its southern extremity. Berqvara, on the Swedish side, is small and insig
*"I took shelter from a N.E. gale, in the St. George,' at night; and having run round the reef on the south end of Oland, I pushed in by my lead, and anchored, in 7 fathoms, close abreast of Ottomby."
nificant-no church, but many trees about it; it is nearly opposite to Degerhamn, on the Oland side. Soderakra is about 4 miles northward of Berqvara, on the Swedish side, and has a church and steeple.
Degerhamn, on the Oland side, is very remarkable, and has a number of flues, rising from an alum factory, which have the appearance of many vessels' masts crowded together in dock. The little. town stands on a cliff; and there is a small boat harbour, with only 4 feet water.
"The shoals of Kirk-ground, 14 Swedish feet, and Lang-ground, 12 and 15 feet, are marked, on the Swedish large chart of Admiral Klint, as lying off Degerhamn; but, though I passed over the bearings given in the chart, and sounded regularly along, I got nothing less than 8 fathoms; and a fisherman, whom I questioned on the subject, gave me to understand, that these banks were farther over on the Swedish side. Therefore, I think, keeping along the Oland shore, distant from 1 to 2 miles, until you get to the northward of Hagby, which is to the northward of Soderakra; or until you get within 5 miles of Calmar, will carry you up safely, and clear of a dangerous 9-feet shoal, which lies off Hagby. When you get within a mile of the old castle of Calmar, by making signals, you will get a pilot to take you through the narrows, which are very dangerous, and are marked by twigs, or poles, stuck on end on different points of danger. The narrows continue beyond the town of Calmar, as far as the Island of Skaggenas. You change your pilot at Calmar, for one to take you from thence to Skaggenas. Keep the same distance (13 to 2 miles) from the Oland shore, and it will carry you from Skaggenas up to the Castle of Borkholm, a ruin on a cliff. About 1 or 13 mile north of this cliff, is a shoal, with only 4 feet water; it lies nearly abreast of a little village and boat harbour, and you must give it a corresponding berth; having done which, bring Borkholm Castle to bear S.S.W., and steer Ñ.E. ¿ Ñ., and you will go clear of the dangerous 5-feet shoal, called the Damman, which lies nearly midway between Borkholm and the Jungfrun, a rocky island, with deep water all round it. Pass the Jungfrun on your port or larboard side, and keep about 2 miles off the Oland shore, until you clear the North Head. The whole run is about 80 miles; and the least water we got, sounding through the narrows, was less 3 fathoms. It is a fine passage in clear weather, and in foggy weather the anchorage is very good; and it will, most likely, become a thoroughfare for steam-vessels."
THE COAST OF PRUSSIA.
HAVING now described the Coast of Sweden, which forms the western side of the Baltic, we shall return to Prussian Pomerania, and carry the mariner along the southern and eastern shores, from thence to the entrance of the Gulf of Finland.
The Isle of Rugen, which is now part of the Prussian territories, consists of irregular land, forming three peninsulas-Wittow, Jasmund, and Monkguth. Wittow, or Vittoo, terminates in a high promontory, called Arcona, which is elevated above the sea full 200 feet. Jasmund ends also in a similar promontory, or chalky cliffs, much resembling the ruins of an extensive building, interspersed with trees, and from which a torrent tumbles impetuously into the sea; above this, is Kongstolarne Head, whose summit is 450 feet high. Monkguth is to the S.-eastward, and is neither so high or so remarkable as either of the foregoing.
A new Lighthouse has been erected near Arcona, on the Peninsula of Wittow, otherwise Wittmund, adjoining the Island of Rugen, which was first lighted in the beginning of January, 1828, and is to be continued from an hour before sun-set, until an hour before sun-rise, during the whole year.
The light is placed 197 Prussian feet above the level of the sea; it is formed by 17 lamps, with parabolic reflectors, and is visible from 20 to 24 miles distance, to ships coming from the quarter of Lubeck and Rostock, from the Belts, the Sound, as well as those coming from the different ports in the Baltic. For the information of the latter, it is made known, that they will see this light as soon as they reach the Point of Jasmund, bearing N.N.W. W.
* Several new buoys have lately been placed in Calmar Sound, where the poles were formerly stuck up.
This light illumines three-fourths of the horizon, from S.S.E. E., to W.S.W. S. The lighthouse is situated about 8 cables' length, north-westerly, from the highest point of Arcona, 54° 41′ 12′′ N. latitude; and with its Tower, of plain bricks, 52 feet high, serves as a day-mark to ships coming from the Baltic.
By an official notice, in August, 1837, it was announced, that the reef, projecting from the point of the redoubt of Arcona, to 24 cables' length, in the direction of E. N., and which had been hitherto marked by a buoy, frequently disturbed, it had been determined to substitute a permanent one. This consists of two beacons, one of which is fixed on the rampart of Arcona, and the other in the place of the redoubt; these point precisely to the extremity of the reef. The inner beacon is provided with a black basket signal, of a round shape; and the outer one with a similar basket, painted red, in the form of an oblong square.
Ships entering into Tromper Vik, or which want to make for Arcona, if they draw 12 feet water, or upwards, must not approach the point any closer than when the 2 beacons are seen from the deck, in a straight line, in the direction of W. S.; in which case, the ship will be 434 fathoms distant. If the square signal is observed to be higher than the round one, it denotes that the ship has advanced too near the shore, and must immediately steer for the offing.
The Isle of Rugen should always be approached with caution, for numerous shipwrecks happen here; but, in any unfortunate occurrence of this kind, on a signal of distress being made, the inhabitants are compelled to hasten to your assistance, and always first endeavour to save the crew; those who give the earliest assistance are entitled to a preference of salvage; but no one is to enforce his services, if the crew are able to save the cargo themselves. The salvage is trivial; and the goods are placed under a magistrate's care, who conveys immediate notice to the office for shipwrecks. But the new Light at Arcona will render the approach of the Island less dangerous than formerly.
To the southward of Rugen, and between that island and Usedom, is an opening, 2 leagues wide; in the centre of which is a sandy flat, having the islands Rudoe and Griefswalde upon it. This latter island is distinguished by a lighthouse, which exhibits two fixed lights, one above the other; the upper light is about 60 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen at the distance of 8 miles. Between the sandy flat and the shores are two channels, leading to Griefswalde and Stralsund. The northern passage is to the southward of Pert Point; between which and Griefswalde Island, vessels frequently ride, in 3, 4, and 5 fathoms. In entering, you will pass very near the south point of Rugen Island (the passage is regularly buoyed and beaconed), the water becoming shallow to about 2 fathoms; but when within, the space widens, and you deepen your water to 4 fathoms: the other, or southern channel, is still narrower and shallower, and used only by small vessels; this channel is also buoyed out; but a pilot for these channels is absolutely necessary. On the southern shore of the Griefswalde Boden, stands the town of Griefswalde: the sands here shift and accumulate, occasioned by the violent influx of the sea, which at times will destroy both dykes and moles, both here and at the ports adjacent.
STETTIN.—South-eastward of Rugen are the mouths of the Oder, which are separated into 3 channels, by the islands of Usedom and Wollin. These islands are very low land, originally formed by the earth and mud brought down and deposited by the river. The town of Stettin, which lies 35 miles from the sea, is situated on the west bank of the river; and the principal entrance for vessels is at Swinemunde. This harbour is formed within the River Swine, and its entrance is protected by jetties, or piers, which run out northerly into the Baltic Sea; that on the eastern side is built in a circular direction, and extends farther than the western jetty, which is somewhat angular. Between these jetties is a good and safe channel for vessels bound to Stettin, affording shelter even during violent gales from the N.E. and E.N.E. Upon the eastern jetty stands a lighthouse, erected at the distance of one-fifth of a cable's length from the extreme point, in latitude 53° 55′ N.; this serves also for a land-mark in the day-time: the lantern is 38 feet above the level of the sea, and the light illumines the horizon to seaward, from east to west, being visible, when the atmosphere is clear, from the deck of a ship, at the distance of 10 or 12 miles, and appearing like a star of the first magnitude. It is constantly lighted every night, an hour after sun-set, and continues until an hour before sun-rise, throughout the year.
SWINEMUNDE ENTRANCE.-In order to mark the vicinity of the harbour of Swinemunde, and at the same time to point out the middle of the channel, there has been laid down in its roadstead, a black-and-white circular striped buoy, with a red bottom, larger than the others, which remain unaltered. This buoy is placed in 4 fathoms water, in a line with two beacons erected on the Eastern Harbour Mole and Strand Down, N.N.W. 3 W., and at half-distance from the beacon light, on the summit of the eastern mole, and 3 cables' length S. E. distant from the outer beacon, which, on entering the harbour, must be left on the starboard of the white buoy, to be passed on either side, only taking care that, by steering S.S.E. into the harbour, the two land-marks before-mentioned must be always kept covered.-Swinemunde, July 13th,
The fairway is pointed out by black-and-white buoys. Vessels sailing inward, should be careful to leave the black ones on the port or larboard side, and the white ones on the starboard. The depth of water in the middle of the navigable track, and up to the town of Swinemunde, situate on the western side of the River Swine, in the Island of Usedom, is not less than 17 feet, Prussian measure, when at its ordinary height. The inner harbour offers to ships the most complete shelter from all storms, and possesses 3 keel-wharfs, besides several other wharfs for ship-building.
The channel, to within 9 miles of Stettin, runs through the River Swine, the Great Frische Haffe, and the Oder. There is always a depth of 12 feet in the passage, at its ordinary height: consequently, vessels drawing not above 113 feet, may proceed up to Stettin, without having occasion to employ lighters.
When coming from the Sound, or Lubeck, and bound for the harbour of Swinemunde, so soon as you have passed Griefswalde Oe, endeavour to bring the lighthouse to bear S., as shown upon the Chart, and steer boldly on in that direction, towards the road; you will thus have 10, 9, 8, and 7 fathoms water, gradually lessening your depth as you approach. But vessels from the eastward, with a southerly wind, must not bring the lighthouse more to the southward than W.S.W., by which they will clear the Wollin Flats, and have not less than 7, 6, and 5 fathoms water.
As violent storms from the E.N.E. and N.E., assisted by strong currents, may possibly prevent the pilot-boat from putting out to sea, the lighthouse is provided with a signal-staff, upon which, on such an occasion, a red flag is hoisted. By the position of this flag, and its waving either to the right or left, vessels sailing for the entrance of the harbour, will be directed in the course they ought to steer, so that they may encounter as little danger as possible.
Upon the beach, on the west side of the channel, is a Look-out, or Tower, the gallery of which is 43 feet above the level of the sea. This Tower will also serve the purpose of a land-mark; and as it will be satisfactory for the mariner to know his near approach, a beacon has been erected upon the shore of the Island of Wollin also. This stands upon a hill, to the eastward of Nuendorp, called Kiesberg, and is distant from the eastern jetty about 3 miles. The appearance of this beacon resembles a Dutch windmill without sails, and is painted white. The beacon on the Island of Usedom, is erected upon the Streckelberg, or Witteberg, and stands close to the sea-shore, being a triangular pyramid, painted black, with a red cask placed horizontally over its top: this is also distant from the entrance to Swinemunde, 3 geographical miles.
Vessels coming from the westward, and having passed Griefswalde Oe, will easily discover the above black pyramid; after which, a S.E. course will carry them directly to the jetties.
The following notice, dated Stettin, 12th November, 1835, has been issued from the Royal Prussian Government:
"To distinguish the entrance of the harbour of Swinemunde, in case pilots are prevented approaching the vessels off the port, two direction-beacons are erected there. One is a beckoning-beacon, on the eastern mole of the port, and the other on the eastern downs.
1. "When pilots cannot put to sea, a red flag will be hoisted on the direction-beacon of the eastern mole. On entering the port, all the white buoys are to be left on the starboard side of the vessel.
2. "Ships entering, will then steer until they find themselves N.W. by N., by compass, from the lighthouse on the outer end of the point of the East Mole, taking care
to keep the outermost great white buoy (situated on the western ground, in 16 feet water) on the starboard hand, and the next black buoy, in an oblique line towards the lighthouse, on the port or larboard.
3. "In that situation of the vessel, the two new beacons are seen on with each other, bearing S.S.E.; and this course, keeping the two beacons on, will lead into the port, up to the second landing berth of the Eastern Mole, 4 cables' length beyond the lighthouse, and a cable's length from the Mole.
4. "Should there be no pilot at sea, and no flag hoisted on the beckoning beacon, the captains must not attempt to enter the port at all; but either anchor in the road, or remain at sea.
From these marks and directions, the mariner will readily find out the Harbour of Swinemunde, and be able to discover the position of its lighthouse, buoys, and entrance. Stettin is a strongly fortified place, and carries on a considerable commerce in linen, corn, timber, soap, oil, leather, dye-woods, &c. Here ships and boats are built, and anchors are also manufactured; and more than 1000 vessels are employed in conveying its merchandise. At Damm, a little town on the eastern banks of the river, about 4 miles from Stettin, is an annual fair, for linens, &c.; and from Politz, considerable quantities of hops are imported.
Proceeding along the shores of Prussian Pomerania, to the eastward, you will pass the towns of Cammin, Treptow, Colberg, Coslin, Rugenvalde, Stolpe, and Leba; all these are destitute of harbours, or accommodation for large vessels; but carry on a traffic in corn, linen, poultry, and fish. Colberg is a large and flourishing town, with manufactories for linen and woollen; and its fishery is productive: it also is defended by a fortress, and has several churches. The interior is generally level land, with but few hills. An extensive flat stretches out from abreast of Colberg, which, taking a circular direction to the north-eastward, runs almost so far as the 55° of latitude; upon which, nearly N. by E. from Stolpemunde, distant 24 miles, is what is called the Stolpe Bank, having 8, 9, and 10 fathoms over it, while deep waetr every where surrounds it. This flat has 15, 16, 18, and 20 fathoms over it, sandy ground.
Near the village of Jershoft, between Rugenvalde and Stolpemunde, is a stone lighthouse, erected in 1838, with a circular base, and iron lantern, 165 feet above the level of the sea. It exhibits, throughout the year, a bright revolving light, making a complete revolution every 6 minutes, obtaining its greatest brilliancy once in every 10 minutes. The tower stands on a ridge of land, lying E. and W., and sloping suddenly towards the sea. The eminence on which it is erected, is 72 feet from the surface of the sea; from the base of the building, to the centre of the highest reflector, is 93 feet. The light is visible for about 70 seconds, and obscured 50 seconds; and the bright flashes may be seen from sea, every where within the bearings from the lighthouse of E.N.E. and S.W., at the distance of 16 miles.
BORNHOLM, TO DANTZICK, PILLAU, AND MEMEL.
DANTZICK.—This is an opulent and commercial city, situated in Western Prussia, about 4 miles from the sea, on the main or western branch of the Vistula. Its entrance is defended by two fortresses, the Weixelmunde and the Westerchantze, and it communicates, by a canal, with the Mottlau, one of the small rivers which traverse the town; thus the cargoes of vessels, drawing more than 8 feet water, are conveyed to the city in barks. Dantzick's chief export is corn, for the reception of which, there are large storehouses, or magazines, called by the natives the Speichers. It also exports potash, hemp, flax, linen, timber, Morocco leather, saltpetre, vitriol, steel, brandy, and liqueurs, wax, feathers, wool, horse-hair, hogs' bristles, &c., &c.; and its imports are, English manufactures, London porter, herrings, Brazil wood, oranges, lemons, and other fruits; lead, coffee, tea, sugar, indigo, wines, and furs. Amber is said to be found near Dantzick, and to form an article of export. There is an arsenal, and 4 docks for building merchantmen.
Vessels coming from the Sound, and bound to Dantzick, after having rounded the northern point of Bornholm, may proceed on a S.E. by E. course; this will carry them between Bornholm and the Earthholms, and thence towards Rezerhooft, or Rixhooft, the most northerly point of the Strand of Prussian Pomerania, on the western side of the Gulf of Dantzick. Here stands a lighthouse, which burns from sun-set to sun-rise, [CATTEGAT & BALTIC.]