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the surface of the sea; it has a fixed lamp-light, which is visible, in fine weather, at the distance of 23 miles; therefore it must prove an excellent guide for ships passing between Bornholm and the coast of Sweden, by night. The north end of Bornholm is bold, and so steep, that a first-rate man-of-war may go within a cable's length of it, without any danger. A beacon stands on a saddle-hill at this end of the island, and above it is the ruins of a castle. There is a white church near the centre of the island, visible 8 leagues off, in clear weather.
Vessels frequently ride under the northern end of the island, about a mile from the shore, in 14 fathoms; the white church, bearing S. by W., and the north point N.W. There is also tolerably good anchorage at Mollevig, in 16 or 17 fathoms; but vessels of 6 or 7 feet, may find shelter at Ronne, on its western side, and at Arnager, on its southern shore, though this latter place is open and unsafe; indeed, no vessel, unless in the greatest extremity, should anchor off this part of the island; and large ships should avoid the southern passage, on account of the many dangers said to lie thereabout; but if from necessity you are compelled to pass that way, and to anchor, seeking shelter from adverse winds, you may, with an easterly wind, ride safely on the western side of the island, 1 or 2 miles from the shore; or with the wind from south to west, run in, and anchor abreast of Sandvig, or Allinge: and should the wind change to the N.W., or N., proceed immediately to Frenne, or Nexoe; at this latter place is the best anchorage, when the flag-staff is brought on with Boels Church, in 8 and 9 fathoms; but the northern side of the island is all unsafe.
Due Odde, the southern end of Bornholm, is distant from Ronne full 5 leagues; a small reef stretches out from it about a mile, near to which are 7 and 8 fathoms water. Here begins a sandy flat, which runs towards the Isle of Rugen, in Pomerania, full 9 leagues; it then turns round, and takes a direction towards Ronne, where it joins the Hardinger Shoals, and proceeds up the western side of Bornholm, as far as Hasla. The upper part of this flat is called the Ronne Bank, having 9, 10, and 11 fathoms over it, with a bottom of sand and shingles. The lower, or S.-western part, is named the Slut Grounds, and has some dangerous spots upon it, one of which has only 14 feet water over it, another 15 feet, and others of 18 feet, with 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathoms close to and between them; the ground about them is stony, but to the southward and eastward is sand, and to the north-westward sand and shingles. The Slut Grounds are about 7 leagues S.W. of Ronne Castle; and the Ronne Stone, with only 18 feet on it, lies S. W., 6 miles from the same castle.
To the northward of Bornholm are some patches of shoal water, but none known to be dangerous, except a knoll of 9 feet, lying nearly E. and W., of a mile in length, and bearing from the lighthouse due north, distant 9 miles; this was discovered in 1817, by Captain T. Jamieson, of H.M. ship, Phoenix, who found it surrounded with deep water, and extremely dangerous for large ships passing this way; vessels, therefore, are advised to borrow towards the Bornholm side, and to pass the lighthouse at no greater distance than 2 or 3 miles; they will then avoid all hazard.*
By the testimony of Captain William Laidler, it appears that there is a very variable current on the eastern side of Bornholm, which was experienced at the distance of 6 or 8 miles from the land. He says, "that sometimes it is hardly perceptible; but at other times it is found to run at the rate of 2 miles an hour." It generally sets in a northerly or southerly direction, and occasionally prevails even against the wind. Mariners coming from the eastward, and steering for the Island of Bornholm, but not being able to make Earthholms Light, or that on the north point of Bornholm, should be careful to heave-to in time, especially in thick hazy weather, or at night when the lights may be obscured, or discovered with much difficulty, otherwise they may be drifted into danger. This is the more necessary, as your lead will afford you little dependence; for during tempestuous weather you may have 30, or even 40 fathoms, and before you can haul your vessel to the wind, she will be on shore. The Captain thinks, if two lights were to be erected on the southern part of Bornholm, it would be the means of saving many lives, and much property.
* Of this knoll, Lieut. Waters says, "The spot marked 9 feet on the chart, about 8 miles to the northward of the north point of Bornholm, is correct; its existence is denied and ridiculed by many Swedish Captains and Finlanders; yet we saw, in the 'St. George,' 23rd May, 1837, a schooner strike on it. It is not marked on any Swedish chart; but, as it was reported to Admiral Klint, at Stockholm, it is to be in his forthcoming edition of his Baltic Charts."
EARTHHOLMS. From the north end of Bornholm to Earthholms Light, the bearing is E. & S., and the distance 5 leagues. The Earthholms are a cluster of rocks, enclosing an excellent harbour, which it is of the utmost consequence mariners should be acquainted with, as it affords a safe shelter from contrary winds, assistance to ships in distress, and the necessary provisions for wintering. On the principal rock or island, called Christiansoe, stands a castle. In entering the harbour, you should hoist your colours on the fore-top in good time; this signal will be answered by a flag mounted upon the castle; and, unless the harbour should be filled with shipping, a pilot will come and conduct your vessel in. It is computed this harbour will contain from 30 to 40 sail.
Should the weather be too bad for a pilot to reach and assist you, observe the following directions:-With the wind from the north to the E.S.E., you should stand for the southern passage, and, in case you come to the eastward of the island, steer close round the southern point of Christiansoe, and as you open the mouth of the harbour, haul up to the wind, and a pilot will directly attend you. Should the wind prove so much to the north, that you cannot at once make the harbour, the pilot will furnish you with a hawser, which you must lay hold of quickly, its other end being made fast on the shore; your sails must then be furled, and the ship towed farther in. If from the westward, go close round the Snarken Shoal, which you will know by the beacon upon it.
On the S.W. part of the Island of Christiansoe, are two beacons, or barrels, painted white, and fixed on two poles; bring them in one, and you clear the Snarken Shoal, which having passed, haul into the harbour. But only vessels of 12 or 13 feet can enter on this side at present; while the northern passage will admit large ships, and is always to be preferred, especially when it blows hard from the S.E. or south.
In approaching the eastern side, you should keep close to the Gyldenloveshoved, which having passed, a pilot will attend you. Your anchor must be dropped on your port or larboard side, so soon as you have made the harbour. At a small distance north of the island, is the Kullen Shoal, on which a beacon is erected; a passage is between it and the island. With the wind at west, or with a southerly gale, you should sail through Taarn Renden, and when abreast of the Jomfrue Ringen Shoal, anchor to the port or larboard, paying away your cable until you are abreast of Sproe Ringen; when the ship is brought-up, and afterwards towed in, the pilot will attend you with hawsers.
With the wind from west to north, you should go to the eastward of Tat and Grosholmen; your anchor should be dropped on the starboard as you enter the harbour. In hard northerly gales, it will be proper to stand for the southern passage, and with southerly winds for the northern channel. You will then be empowered to stop the course of your ship, and not injure your own or other vessels which may be in the harbour.
The majority of vessels bound for the Baltic, pass the Island of Christiansoe, and formerly often ran much risk of being wrecked, either on this island, or some of its surrounding dangers; a light has therefore been erected on the Tower of Christiansoe, consisting of nine revolving plates, turning round every 3 minutes, during which time nine strong flashes will appear in every direction, having an interval of 20 seconds between each flash. If you should not be far off, a sort of reflection from the lamps will be continual; but this revolution of the lights will be sufficient to distinguish it from any other, and particularly from the Bornholm Light, which burns with a steady and uninterrupted blaze. The light at Christiansoe is computed to be 94 feet above the level of the sea, and visible at the distance of 14 miles, in clear weather.
BORNHOLM TO CARLSCRONA, &c.
IN sailing from the Bornholm Light, your direct course toward Oland South Point will be about N.E. by E. E., distant 26 leagues; and from the Earthholms the bearing of Oland Point will be nearly N.E. & E., distant 22 leagues; but having passed the northern point of Bornholm Island, it will be advisable to steer more easterly-say E. by N., for 14 or 15 leagues, and then bear-up for the Oland Light, by which you will clear all the dangers lying off the Carlscrona shore; for from Sandhammers Reef the coast of Sweden takes a circular direction to Torum Head, having numerous shoals and dangers lying off the land, at a considerble distance; of these, the outer rocks off the [CATTEGAT & BALTIC.]
S.E. extremity of Blekinge, called Torum Head, are the most within the course of your passage. They are more than 2 leagues from the land, and are very dangerous, one of them having no more than 10 feet water over it. This bears from Torum Head S.S.W. W., nearly.
Within the circular space before mentioned, are the towns of Cambrishamn, Ahus, Carlshamn, and CARLSCRONA, the latter being the Royal Dock-yard and Arsenal of Sweden.
CAMBRISHAMN is a town on the eastern shores of Skania, where some trade is carried on; but it has no harbour, and vessels ride in the offing, opposite the town, in 8 and 10 fathoms water. In running for this place, you must beware of the Long Ground and Stone, lying about 5 miles from the shore, and having only 16 feet over it. Another rock, with only 9 feet over it, lies within a mile of the land, and is called the Nedian. A little to the northward of this is Cambrishamn, from which two piers or jetties run out.
AHUS is the sea-port of Christianstad, a town which is the capital of the district, and stands at least 10 miles farther inland. The Aston and other sand banks lie about the entrance, and the river is only navigable by boats. Vessels, therefore, having any commerce at this place, are compelled to anchor off the entrance, behind these sands, in 7 or 8 fathoms water.
HANO ISLAND.-This island lies about 14 leagues N. by E. E. from the north end of Bornholm, and 6 leagues E. N. from Ahus. It is rather more than 3 miles off the land, having good anchorage between it and Lister Head. On the port or larboard side of the channel is a sand bank, of 2, 3, and 4 fathoms. The eastern edge of this bank has 3 buoys upon it, which sufficiently mark out the passage in the day-time. The Island Hano is steep-to, having 4, 5, and 6 fathoms close to it, with 14 and 15 fathoms midchannel; there is also a narrow channel between this sand bank and the shore, but it is rocky and dangerous. Off Lister Head a reef runs out N.-easterly, at the extremity of which a buoy is placed; near this is a rocky shoal, called the Lux Ground, very dangerous; midway between Hano and the Lux Ground is good anchorage, with 13, 14, and 15 fathoms water. The Malquarn Rock lies to the N.-eastward, having a passage on each side. To clear the Lux Ground, and pass to the northward, between it and the Malquarn, steer northward; and when you have passed Hano Island, open the white tower of Carlshamn. Should you run for this place in the night, so soon as you can discern Hano Island, you must steer to the northward, bringing Lister Head to bear W. by N., and keeping it so, until the eastern part of Hano bears S.S.W., you will then have passed the Malquarn Rock, and, by hauling to the southward, bring Lister Head W.N.W.; anchor with this bearing, and the west of Hano S.S.W., in 12 or 14 fathoms water. The northern side of Malquarn is so steep, that you may near it to within a cable's length. Good water can be had at Horewik, a small town to the northward of Lister Head, about 2 miles from the anchorage; but if there should be much sea, you will obtain it with difficulty.
CARLSHAMN is the royal staple town of Sweden, and has a dock-yard, fortress, and harbour. Having cleared Hano Island, steer to the northward, and you will see the town and port before you.
From the Island of Hano, to the entrance of the Harbour of Carlscrona, the course is E. by S., and the distance about 7 or 8 leagues.
CARLSCRONA.-This is the third city in Sweden, and the principal station for the Swedish navy; it is built upon several rocky islands, and remarkable for its fine docks. The entrance to the harbour, which is capable of holding 1000 vessels, is between two forts, one on each side. Its commerce is chiefly in timber, tar, tallow, potash, and marble. And here is an anchor foundry. There are several islands lying about this part, with channels of deep water between them; and vessels can proceed for Carlscrona through most of these.
The ULTKLIPPORNA, or Outer Barren Rocks, lie S. by E., 11 miles from the entrance to Carlscrona, and will easily be distinguished by the light-tower by day, and revolving light by night. If you are close to the Ultklipporna, a N. W. or N. course, will bring you in between the islands of Aspo and Tjurko; the channel has from 6 to 10 fathoms within it—that is, between the beacon and the Point of Aspo; but between the forts are 8, 9, 10, 12, and 13 fathoms, decreasing to 10 in the road, and shoaling towards the shore; for this passage, a pilot will always be required.
A new lighthouse of stone has been erected on the Utklipporna, situate about 22 German (11 English) miles south from the Castle of Kungsholm, near Carlscrona, on which tower has been placed a revolving light, which gives three equal clear flames within a period of six minutes, with equally long intervals of darkness. The height of the tower is 32 feet above the rock, and the light is 53 feet above the level of the sea, consequently the latter ought, in clear weather, to be seen when 2 German (10 English) miles distant, or more, from a vessel whose deck is 10 feet above the
In steering for the middle channel, a direct N.E. course from Bornholm Lighthouse, will take you to the entrance between Aspo and Tjurko. In approaching Carlscrona, you will readily perceive its lofty church, situated on the highest part of the town; bring it to bear N.E. by N., and keep it in that direction, and you will come between the beacons; these are four in number-2 broom-beacons placed on sunken rocks on the eastern side, and 2 on the western side, the outermost being fixed upon Aspo, a rock above water; this is about 2 miles from the Point of Aspo. Aspo outer Point has also a beacon upon it, the top of which is painted white. From the Point of Aspo to the Fort, distant of a mile, all is foul ground for about a cable's length from the shore. When abreast of Aspo Point, your course will be N.E., and N.E. by E., for the east end of Carlscrona; the forts are about a mile distant from each other. You may stand towards Tjurko into 8 fathoms, and towards Aspo into 7 and 6; but this will be very close: mid-channel, are 12 and 13 fathoms. Within the forts, the ground is all clear, and free from shoals, on both the N. and N.W. sides. When within the roads, which are extensive, you may bring-up, with the Church bearing upon any point from the N.E. to the W.; or bring the Church N.E. by N., as before directed; the clock will then appear midway between the church and chapel. Sailing on, you will get the black and white marks on with the church; keep them so, until Aspo Stone comes W.N.W.; then draw the mark nearer to the clock, and run in with it a little to the right of the clock, until you are abreast of the Forts. Now bring it on with the clock; open it to the westward, and bring it on the chapel, which will clear the 6-feet shoal lying off Aspo. Steer E.N.E. along Tjurko, until the mark comes on with the Crane, bearing N.Ñ.W., and the Fort S.S.W. S.; this will be found to be as good anchorage as any place you can go to.
This is the usual entrance to Carlscrona; but there are others: one is to the westward of Aspo, and distinguished by a red-painted beacon; here you run in behind Hasel Oe, and other islets; but it is too intricate to venture without a pilot.
CARLSCRONA.-Suez Passage. The Royal Swedish Marine Administration has given notice, that in the course of the summer, (1843) a wooden house of 12 ells height, 32 ells long, and 15 ells broad, was erected on the Western Hartholm, near the Fairwater (canal), from Argo for Carlscrona, and which house is situated 90 ells from the Old Schanze (fort), 14 feet above the level of the sea.
As also on the east shore, two barracks, of one story high, not painted, will be finished, together 54 ells long, 8 ells broad, and 8 ells above the level of the sea, which edifices will be visible at a considerable distance, between S.S.W. and S. by W., according to compass. These buildings are but temporary, and only intended to remain standing during the erection of the fortifications; but as the time required for their building cannot be very well ascertained, and the appearance of the Hartholm and the country round will, as the works proceed and ultimately be finished, be materially changed, so as to make its recognition difficult, the said Administration hereby draw the attention of mariners to the circumstance, in order to prevent misfortunes, which might, through the altered appearance of the country, probably occur.
OLAND TO STOCKHOLM.
OELAND, or OLAND, is a long, narrow island, belonging to the district or province of Smaland, from which it is separated by a channel, usually called Calmar Sound; its length is about 24 leagues, and its breadth variable, from 4 to 9 miles; its northern part is woody, and has several stone quarries; but its southern environs are more level and fertile: an elevated ridge is distinguished throughout the interior. There is no harbour, or place of any commercial consequence, in this island, if we except
Borkholms, where an ancient castle and village stands, and near it the little roadstead of Borghamn.
Vessels taking their departure from the north point of Bornholm, for the south point of Oland, should steer E. by N. N., or rather more easterly, on account of the Utklipporna Rocks, which have been noticed before; the distance being nearly 26 leagues. Or, should you be situated 3 or 4 miles off the point of Bornholm, first steer E. by N., about 14 leagues, then E.N.E., 11 or 12 leagues, until you get sight of the lighthouse, and find yourself abreast of Oland.
This lighthouse is on the S. point of Oland, and erected on a white tower, exhibiting a fixed lentile light, of the second class, giving a strong light from N.W., round south, to N.E. by E. E., at 137 feet above the sea, which may be seen 6 leagues off, in clear weather. There is a shoal runs off the point, to the southward, above 3 miles, close to the extremity of which are 5 fathoms; the land itself is very low; and to the northward of the light, about 11⁄2 mile, you may see a cluster of trees.
Within Oland, and between it and the main, there is a channel, frequently used by vessels going to Stockholm; but it is, in some parts, narrow and dangerous: it is, therefore, preferable and safer to go round to the eastward of the island; in doing which, it will be proper to keep at least 3 leagues from the coast, to avoid the many patches of foul ground which lie off it. In the inner passage, and on the Smaland side, is the town and ancient castle of Calmar, with a small, but secure, harbour. It was, formerly, a place of considerable commerce in timber, alum, tar, and hemp; but, latterly, this trade has been carried to Stockholm.
CALMAR SOUND.-The Royal Swedish Administration has notified, that four buoys will be placed in Calmar Sound, at the spot where formerly stakes were driven, viz.:-Nyeket, a red buoy, E.N.E., 1300 ells west of the easterly Swinoland Point; at Oswall, a white buoy, about 1300 ells west of the northerly end of the Ship or Wharf Holms; near the Torno Cliff, a white buoy, about 1059 ells S.S.E. E. of the town rampart corner; near the Castle Ground (Skansground) a red buoy, 350 ells E. S. of the south-west rampart corner of Grinskar. On all these buoys iron poles, with names, are attached, and so painted, that where before a stake with a broom was placed, the buoys are red; and where there was only a simple stake, white.
The before-mentioned bearings are by compass. The stakes, if no contrary orders are given, will, at the close of the navigation, be removed every year, and in the spring be replaced.-Naut. Mag., vol. 12, p. 632.
OSCAR BANK.-Calmar, June 14th, 1843. In beating up the North Calmar Sound, the Master of the Galliot, Oscar Vonandez, discovered a strong shallow, on which were no more than 8 feet water. The bearings are as follow:-The Church of Alboke on Oland, E.S.E. E.; and the Castle of Borkholm, S.W. S., by compass. The above-mentioned galliot grounded on the said spot, but the weather being fair, got off again.
WESTERWICH SEA-MARK.-In order to facilitate the fairway to Westerwich, a sea-mark was erected in the summer of 1844, on the Rock Damman, in latitude 57° 41′20′′ N. and 5.8 geographical miles from Ido. It consists of an iron pole, 20 feet high, which bears a buoy, and on the top a ball. This rock may be observed on every side.
STOCKHOLM.-Being abreast of Oland Light, distant 7 or 8 miles, and sailing to the eastward for Stockholm, your course will be about N.E. by N., 25 leagues, to Engerne Point; about 6 miles N.N.E. from which, is à small shoal, with only 12 feet over it; the above course will take you to the eastward of this danger. From abreast of Engerne Point to Lands Ort, where pilots must be had to take your vessel Stockholm, the course is N.N.E. E., and the distance 29 leagues.
up to LAND'S ORT is a small island, with a lighthouse upon it, painted white, with a black hoop, or border, on the upper edge. It shows a revolving light, at the height of 147 feet. Near it is a beacon, shaped like a tent, and painted dark red. Many dangerous rocks lie outside of it, as far as a mile or more; particularly to the eastward and S.E. The best approach is, with the light N.N.E. E., if your compasses can be relied
The signals for a pilot are, a flag at the fore-top-mast head, or firing a gun. The passage to Stockholm from hence is deep, without anchorage, and full of dangers. You leave the lighthouse on the port or larboard side; to the starboard there are many shoals. The channel is between these shoals and the island. But you may warp up