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AARHUUS LIGHT, Belt.—On the extreme end of the still unfinished mole of the Harbour of Aarhuus, a light-tower has been erected, similar to that of Frederickshaven, and 33 feet above the level of the sea. In case pilots cannot venture to go out, the light must be neared close to the port or larboard side, in order to avoid the Northern Mole, which approaches to within 37 fathoms N.W. by N. of the said light. As soon as the light is passed, the course is to be shaped S.S.W. or S.W., and the port or larboard anchor to be kept in readiness to let go in 12 to 8 feet water. This light being considered sufficient, both the former lights, from the 5th of November, 1846, will be extinguished.
Should, however, storm and high sea prevent lighting the same during the time when the erection of the light-tower is still unaccomplished, the light on the southerly mole will exhibit, at N.E. by N., a red glare, and be visible at 32 fathoms in the direction of N.E. by N.-Shipping Gazette, November, 13th, 1846. (Page 28.)
OMOE SOUND, Great Belt.-A REVOLVING LIGHT ON VAIRO ISLAND. Hydrographic Office, Admiralty, November 2nd, 1846.-The Danish Government has given notice that, on the 15th of last month, a revolving light was established on Vairo Island, in latitude 55° 2′ 15′′ north, and longitude 11° 22′ 15′′ east. The light is 51 feet above the level of the sea, and visible every of a minute, at the distance of about 3 leagues.
At the same time, a small fixed light will also be established on Point Helholm, the south point of the Island Agerso, about 10 miles N. by W. (mag.) of Vairo, at an elevation of 25 feet above the level of the sea. By day a ball, painted red-and-white, to be seen over the lantern. This ball, seen in one with the windmill on Helholm Point, is the leading-mark for entering Omoe Sound from the northward. (Page 34.)
PILLAU.-August 19th, 1846.-The Old Pillau windmill which was used as a landmark for Pillau Harbour, has lately been destroyed by fire. (Page 52.)
BRUSTERORT.-Konigsberg, November 14th, 1846.—A lighthouse, showing a revolving light every 4 minutes, has been built at Brusterort, visible from S.W. to S.S.E., 20 miles. The two beacon-lights will be discontinued. (Page 52.)
GOTTLAND.--Elsineur September 14th, 1846.—A stone lighthouse, 58 feet high, is erected on the south point of Gottland, about a mile N.E. of Hoborg. It shows a revolving light, visible at intervals of 1 minute; it stands 170 feet above the level of the sea, and is seen from E. by N., through south to N. by E., magnetic bearings, at about the distance of 16 miles from the deck. It will be lighted on the 30th of September next, and be subject to the same regulations as the other Swedish lights. (Page 55.)
THE CATTEGAT AND BALTIC.
NOTE. Throughout the whole of these Directions, the bearings are those by Compass, and the Soundings those taken when the water is influenced, so as to occasion the least depth.—The Variation allowed in the Cattegat, Sound, and Belt, is One Point and Three Quarters Westerly.-Mariners, in navigating these Seas, should attend to the Currents, which are often strong and variable.— In sailing up the Cattegat, with Westerly Winds, the currents usually incline towards the Swedish Shore; but a general Current will be found coming through the Sound and the Belts to the Northward, and setting against the Coast of Jutland; thence it is repelled toward the Swedish Shore, at the rate sometimes of Two Knots, particularly from the Bight at the Scaw, in the Direction of Marstrand.
An order, recently issued by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, states, that in order to prevent mistakes which frequently occur from the similarity of the words "starboard" and "larboard," in future, the word PORT is to be substituted for larboard, in all H.M. ships or vessels.
DESCRIPTION OF THE SCAW, AND ENTRANCE TO
VESSELS sailing from the southward, and bound to the Cattegat, generally make Robsnout, a circular, high and bluff land, on which stands a church, with a pointed" steeple; this land may, in clear weather, be seen at the distance of 20 miles, although the shores on both sides are low. From hence the coast runs in a north-easterly direction, about 11 miles, to Hartshalls, which has the appearance of a saddle. The whole coast between is low and sandy; and the only remarkable object is a church, with a square white steeple. Directly W. by N. of Robsnout, is a rocky shoal, 4 miles in length and one in breadth, distant about 9 miles; and between Robsnout and Hartshalls, are several other detached banks, with shallow water. A dangerous rocky shoal also stretches out to the north-eastward of Hartshalls, the outer extremity of which is about 2 miles off the shore; you will do well, therefore, to give this part of the coast a wide berth.
From Hartshalls to the Scaw Point, the distance is 8 leagues, the land bending circuitously to the north-eastward, and the shore low and sandy. Within this space are two sand banks; the least water over the western one is 8 fathoms, and its nearest edge is 7 miles off the shore; be, therefore, careful to keep your lead going. Over this bank you will have 8, 9, 10, and 11 fathoms; and between its western end and the shore, 17, 15, and 13 fathoms, decreasing in depth as you approach the land. The eastern bank lies 5 miles from the land; its centre, in 8 fathoms, lies with the Scaw Light S.E. by S., distant 6 miles, and has 9, 8, and 6 fathoms on its eastern end, while between it and the Scaw Point, are 18 and 13 fathoms.
[CATTEGAT & BALTIC.]
The SCAW is a low sandy point, having a square white tower, 67 feet high, upon it, used as a lighthouse. It stands 5,000 ells W. by N. from the extreme point of land, and shows a fixed lamp-light, distinguishable at the distance of 4 leagues, and very easily known; this may be considered as the western point of the ENTRANCE to the CATTEGAT. Some small houses stand near the lighthouse, and a little to the southward is a sand hill; to the westward, 24 miles distant, is Skagen Church, with a square steeple; and between these appears a windmill. A village stretches along the shore, in the middle of which is a small spot, without houses.
A reef projects from the Scaw Point N.E. by E., nearly 3 miles; therefore, coming from the westward, you should keep the lead continually going, standing no nearer with the wind off-shore, than 8 or 9 fathoms; or, if from the southward, and bound outward, approaching not into less than 12 or 14 fathoms; but, in dark weather, or night time, come not into less than 18 or 20 fathoms.
In coming from the westward, observe, that when the lighthouse and old church are in one, bearing W. by S., you will be to the northward of the Scaw Reef; when the steeple and lighthouse are in one, you are abreast of the reef; and when the old church is brought to the south end of the village, you will be to the southward of the reef; or bring the lighthouse to bear west, and you will be within the reefs.
In order to mark the point of the Reef of Skagen, a beacon has already been placed on the north-easterly side of the same, being in 4 fathoms water, in the direction of the lighthouse and the old church steeple in one, bearing W. by S. This beacon is provided with three brooms. A second beacon has also been placed on the south side of the reef, in 4 fathoms water, with only two brooms; and will, as well as the former, remain the whole winter. Should they be torn away by the ice, they will, as soon as circumstances permit, be replaced by new ones.
There is anchorage on either side of the Scaw, in from 7 to 9 or 10 fathoms, coarse sandy bottom; but it is too near the land, and might prove dangerous with an on-shore wind: ships, therefore, with S.E. or southerly winds, generally keep plying off to the westward, until the wind changes. With the light bearing south, distant 6 or 7 miles, the depth is 49 fathoms, muddy ground.
ICE IN THE CATTEGAT.-The Board of Customs at Copenhagen, has issued the following notice, dated September 29, 1832.-" As it may be of importance to all Shipmasters, who, in the winter, or the early part of spring, are coming from the Sleeve to the Cattegat, to be informed if there be any drift ice in the Cattegat, it has been ordered, that a white flag, with a perpendicular blue stripe in the middle, is to be hoisted during the day-time from the lighthouse upon the Scaw Point, as often, and so long, as ice may be visible from the lighthouse to such an extent, and in such a quantity, as might be supposed to obstruct the navigation in the Cattegat."
FROM THE SCAW TO THE TRINDELEN AND LESSOE ISLAND.
S.S.E. E. from Scaw Point, distant about 8 leagues, lies the TRINDELEN, a very dangerous rock, with only 4 feet water over it. The common passage from the Scaw to the Sound, is between the Trindelen Rock and the Gothenburg Shore, or Wingoe Lighthouse, which is distant from the Trindelen about 17 miles. The Trindelen is not more than a cable's length in diameter; it is steep on all sides, except to the N.E. and West, from which a small reef runs out. From the Trindelen, in clear weather, you may see the east end of Lessoe Island, appearing like low sandy downs. 24 miles N.E. by E. of the Trindelen, is a small bank, called Tonneberg Bank, having 7 fathoms over it; and E.N.E. from the Trindelen, distant about 7 miles, are two small banks, with 10 to 15 fathoms on them. On the north and south ends of the Trindelen, broom-beacons have been lately erected, which will enable the mariner to perceive its true situation.
By order of the Royal Marine Authorities of Denmark, a light-vessel has been placed to the S.E. of the Trindelen Rock. This vessel has two masts, is schoonerrigged, and painted with red sides, and a white cross. She is moored at about a mile to the S.E. of the Trindelen Ground, and N.E. by N., 6 miles from the N.E. point of Lessoe, called Syrodden.
The light consists of nine lamps with reflectors, placed round the after-mast, and generally hoisted to the height of 20 Danish feet; but, in an unusually heavy sea, to 30 feet above the level of the sea.
The light will be kept burning in the same manner as the other lights on the Danish Coasts, viz.:-before Easter and after Michaelmas, from half-an-hour after sunset to sunrise; after Easter and to Michaelmas, from one hour after sunset to sunrise.
A red ball, 5 feet in diameter, will be shown in the day-time; and, in stormy weather, a red jack hoisted on the vessel's foremast. In heavy and foggy weather, the ship's bell will be rung in continuance for 10 minutes, after an interval of 5 minutes.
The vessel, unless compelled by the severity of the winter, or by some accident, will remain at her moorings until the 21st of December, when she returns to port. She resumes her station on the 1st of March, unless prevented by the severity of the preceding winter.
No communication is allowed with the light-vessel, unless in cases of distress, or - immediate relief being required; when such will, if possible, be rendered.
LESSOE ISLAND is low and flat, being nearly 11 miles in length, and 4 miles in breadth, and having several windmills upon it. It is almost surrounded with reefs of sand, one of which stretches out from the eastern end of the island, in the direction of the Trindelen Rock; over this reef are 3 and 4 fathoms; and between it and the Trindelen, is a channel, above 2 miles wide, with 12 and 19 fathoms water in it. There is no harbour on this island, and the landing is every where difficult, on account of the prodigious surf; yet small vessels will sometimes stop among the banks at the southern part of the island, in shallow water, or off the northern part, in 6 or 7 fathoms water. The holding ground is good: but with easterly and northerly winds, there is always a heavy sea. The North Ronner is a rock, always above water, lying off the N. Western part of Lessoe, from which it is distant about 3 miles; to the southward of it is a small swashway, of 7 feet, fit only for boats. There is a sandy spit, commonly called the N.W. Reef, stretching off the west end of Lessoe, from which it runs out nearly 3 miles towards the Jutland shore, having 3 fathoms at its extremity. The passage between that and the Dwale Ground, on the opposite coast of Jutland, is 4 miles wide; and the Scaw Lighthouse brought N. by E., will carry you clear through it, in 8, 10, 12, and
14 fathoms water.
By a notice issued from the Admiralty Office, dated May 10th, 1828, we are informed, that the Board of Customs at Copenhagen, has placed a sea-mark somewhat more than a mile N. by E. from the most northerly of the four sea-marks which are kept on the east coast of the Isle of Lessoe. This sea-mark will, together with the other ones on the coast of Lessoe and on the Trindelen, be kept on the spot where pointed out on the charts. It stands on the N.E. point of the Grounds, coming out of the Syrode, the most easterly Naes of Lessoe, in 6 fathoms water, a Danish mile, S. by W. W. by compass, from the S. Easterly mark on the Trindelen. It consists of a pitched beam, with a large broom at the top, about 5 feet above the surface of the water. Another broom-beacon is placed on the south end of the eastern bank, called the Ny Vager.
Nearly south of the west point of Lessoe, distant about 5 miles, are the South Ronner Rocks, some parts of which are always above water. There is no passage between them and the island; but from them extends a bank to the southward, which has latterly become much enlarged, and is now said to stretch out full 17 miles from Lessoe Island, making the passage between it and Anholt Reef not more than 12 miles wide. On the south part of this bank, are 3 fathoms; and farther in, the water deepens to 4 fathoms, and again shoals to 3 fathoms as you approach the Silderon Rocks, which lie near the centre of the bank, on which is placed a broom-beacon, and in this part is nearly 15 miles broad from east to west. Near to Lessoe, are several small islands. From the east end of Lessoe, a reef extends nearly south, 12 miles, on the edge of which are not more than 4 fathoms; 6 broom-beacons are now fixed upon it, nearly equidistant from each other; they are about 2 miles apart, and must prove particularly useful in pointing out its direction. But no vessel, when near this reef, ought to approach it nearer than 7 fathoms, as it is very steep all along the eastern side; in thick weather, come no nearer than 20 fathoms; and nearer to the island, other knolls are also scattered about.*
* April 25, 1832, Captain R. W. Peacock touched ground in 14 feet water, on a shoal, between Lessoe and Anholt. As the vessel's place, by dead reckoning, reduced from the bearings the evening before, as well as from those of the next noon, was not near any shoal
GENERAL REMARK.-Vessels taking their departure from the Scaw, and bound to the Sound, should, when abreast of the former, with an offing of about 5 miles, and the Scaw light bearing due west, steer S.E. by S., about 9 leagues, then S. E., about 20 leagues, continuing on in a southerly direction for 6 leagues more, until they make the Kull or Koll light; but when bound for Marstrand or Uddevalla, they will, after passing the Scaw, steer for the Paternosters, a distance of about 9 or 10 leagues; and, if intending to enter at Marstrand, bring the castle to bear east, or E. 4 N., or in one with the remarkable mountain of Blaatskul; this will keep them clear toward Marstrand, where they may enter on either side, and be accommodated with pilots; but, if desirous of going to Uddevalla, make for the Island Hættan, where the pilots for Uddevalla may always be found. Should they, in making the Paternosters, find themselves becalmed, and the current be drifting the vessel toward them, it will be advisable to anchor in about 30 fathoms water, because the current runs here at the rate of 2 miles an hour to the north-eastward, and sets directly among the Paternosters.
CHRISTIANIA TO MARSTRAND.
N.N.E., distant about 25 leagues from the Scaw Point, is the entrance to the Gulf or Fiord of Christiania; at the further end of which, is the city of Christiania. This Gulf is enclosed on both sides by lofty mountains, interspersed with numerous rocky islands. On the west side of the entrance is Færder Island, which is remarkably high and conical, with a lighthouse on its summit; the light is fixed, and surrounded with windows, 216 feet above the level of the sea, and visible 7 leagues off in clear weather. Here you take a pilot, if you have not previously got one, who will conduct you to Frederickshall, Christiania, Dram, or any other adjacent port. About N.E.3 N. from Færder Island, distant 7 miles, are Fuglehuk Rocks, on one of which is a lighthouse, exhibiting a revolving light, eclipsed every minute, to distinguish it from Færder Island Light, being visible about 8 miles. Near the light, at Fuglehuk, at the entrance of Christiania Fiord, since the 1st of June, 1841, a bell has been suspended; with which, in foggy weather, when the light cannot be seen at the distance of or a league, 10 or 12 strokes will be given; at night every hour, and during the day every hour. A N. by E. course from the Fuglehuk Light, will carry you up the Fiord, in mid-channel. In case the wind and sea should be so high that a vessel cannot beat up for the coast, which will be very difficult, as the current sets on the shore with heavy gales, and having no pilot on board, she may with safety run in for Færder Light, and from thence steer for the Fuglehuk Light, when, in tolerably smooth water, she can keep cruising in sight of the light until the morning; she can always keep her position, as the current from the Dram and Christiania will be under her lee side; or, should a pilot be on board, he will from thence readily run her, at any time, to a good anchorage.
SALO SOUND.-The entrance to Salo Sound lies about 17 leagues S. E. from Færder Light, and 14 leagues N.E. from the Scaw Light. It may readily be known by a beacon, somewhat resembling that at Wingoe, and is visible nearly at a similar distance.
HALLOE LIGHT. The revolving light at Halloe, situate about of a mile S.E. of Salo beacon, is in latitude 58° 20' 30" N., and longitude 11° 16′ 45′′ E. of Greenwich. It was first lighted on 1st November, 1842, and will continue to be lighted at such periods of the day and night, as is appointed by law. This light, the flame of which is 116 feet above the level of the sea, will revolve, and consist of 9 polished reflectors, so placed that, during the period occupied by each revolution, which is 6 minutes, they will show 9 flames, of short duration, with dark intervals. This light, therefore, cannot be mistaken for that of Marstrand, which shows only 4 lights, of longer duration, during each revolution of 8 minutes. The tower is of stone, coloured white; it is 44 feet from the ground to the light, and is built upon the south-eastern side of Halloe, about the centre of the island, near the principal entrance to Kongsham; by which means, it will be possible for vessels which may have entered into the dan
laid down upon the charts, Captain Zurhtman was sent to explore the danger; and after a search of 10 days, he discovered a shoal, of 18 feet, in latitude 57° 4' N., and longitude 11°26′ W. It is probable still less water may be found thereabout, for a shoal in the old charts is laid down in nearly that position, with only 10 feet water.