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but to the eastward of Hielm, there is good anchorage, in 10 or 9 fathoms, sandy bottom, if you bring the island to bear W., or W. by N., or the northern telegraph in one with the small black wood to the eastward of the high cliff, bearing W.N.W. On the island is a spring of good water.

MOSEL GROUND.-South of Hielm, is the Mosel Ground, which is dangerous, having in some parts only 2 fathoms over it; between it and the island there is a narrow channel, with from 4 to 7 fathoms, and on its S.E. side, 5 fathoms near to its edge. To avoid this shoal, in sailing towards Samsoe, bring Vegeroe, or Vaero, S.W., until Rugaard Wood comes nearly in one with the east end of Hielm, when Hellesbierg Hill will bear N.W. N., and Hielm N. by E.; you may then anchor on good ground.

Four miles S. by W. from the Mosel Ground, there is a patch, with 34 fathoms upon it, called Martha's Flat, between which and the Zealand Reef, are from 15 to 5 fathoms. When Hielm Island bears W.S.W., distant 8 or 10 miles, you may shape a course for Seyer Oe, taking care not to bring Hielm to the northward of N. W., until you have passed the Hatters.

SEYER OE is a long, narrow, and hilly island, extending nearly 8 miles N.W. by N., and S.E. by S.; but its breadth is not 14 mile: its surface is uneven, and, at a distance, has the appearance of an assemblage of rocks. Near its middle, is a church; between which and the S. point, are two windmills. Reefs run from both ends of the island, composed of large stones and sand; from the north end there is a reef, extending outwardly nearly 1 mile, having at the extreme point 5 fathoms: but you ought not to venture nearer to than 9 fathoms. A small shoal, called the Monk Ground, lies about 5 miles N.W. by W. from the N.W. Reef, having 24 fathoms on it, stones; and about a mile to the southward of this, are several other patches, of 3 fathoms, called the Middle Flats. The channel between these flats and Seyer Reef, is 4 miles wide, having 22 fathoms in the middle. Reefness Lighthouse S.W. by S., will lead through in midchannel. On the extremity of the N.W. Reef are 4 fathoms, with regular depths along the northern shore; but it is not advisable to come into less than 9 fathoms. With Seyer Church on or open to the south-eastward of a round dark hill, you will be on the pitch of the N.W. Reef; and by keeping the said church in sight, or just open of this hill, you go clear of it, in from 8 to 12 fathoms. On going round the reef, the church will appear coming on with three remarkable hills, bearing nearly S.S.E.; you will then be abreast of the reef; and when the church is clear of those hills, and bears S.E., you will find yourself to the S.W. of it. Several wells, with good water, are upon this island.

Zealand Head bears from the north end of Seyer Island, nearly E.N.E., distant 84 miles, the depth between them being from 6 to 10 fathoms, generally muddy ground; with the wind from the N.N.E., round eastward, to W. by N., this place is safe riding, but open on all the other points of the compass. On the north side of Seyer there is good anchorage, with southerly winds, and better holding ground than on its southern


Zealand Head, Seyer Oe, and Reefness, form what may be called the eastern points of the entrance to the Belt; and Hielm Island, Basser and Hatter Reefs, and Samsoe, the western points.

The BOSSERNE, or BASSER and HATTER REEFS, have a narrow channel of 6 fathoms between them. The Basser is a stony island, about of a mile long, rising 6 or 7 feet above the surface of the water. Near it, to the westward, is Vaero, or Vegeroe, another small island, having a bank attached to it, consisting of hard sand and stones, with 2 and 3 fathoms water over it; it is about 2 miles broad, and extends to the northward from the island upwards of 2 miles, called Vaero Flat; on the eastern side of which is a patch, of 2 fathoms, called Flensburg Ground, on which is a broombeacon: between it and the Basser is a narrow channel, frequented by the Danish fishermen. The strength of the current here is considerably weakened by the surrounding islands and shoals; and in this narrow passage, there are 12 fathoms.

The HATTER is a low stony reef, or ridge, extending N.W. by W. and S.E. by E., about 2 miles, having very shoal water around it, in some places not more than 4 feet; the water gradually deepens to the N.-eastward, and, in the direction of Seyer Oe, to 3 and 4 fathoms; to the northward, this shoal, and the Basser, extend about 34 miles, having 3 fathoms upon it in some places, and other parts foul and rocky. On the east


end of Hatter Reef is a broom-beacon. Between the Reef and Basser Island, is a pit of deep water, with 6 fathoms. About 1 mile to the southward of Hatter Reef, is a small knoll of sand, called Hatter Barn, having on its middle only 2 fathoms; its direction is nearly E. and W., with 6 and 7 fathoms on its extremities; between it and the Hatter Reef Shoal, are from 10 to 20 fathoms. The sea frequently breaks over these reefs. By bringing Reefness to bear S.W. by S., you will go to the eastward

of them.

Between Seyer Island and Reefness is a wide, open place, very good for anchorage, and clear ground in general; but there are several patches of shoal water scattered about. Nearly in the middle of the bay, or rather inclined towards Seyer Island, is a shoal, called the Leveret, having 20 feet upon it, while close around it are 5 fathoms, deepening on every side as you increase your distance from it; this lies nearly S.W. S. from the N.W. end of Seyer Oe, from which it is distant 5 miles: between this shoal and Seyer Island, you will find 10, 11, and 15 fathoms, where, on a bottom of sand and mud, there is good anchorage. S.E. from the Leveret, distant 1 mile, is the Campbell's Shoal, of 17 feet, with deep water around it. W.S.W., nearly 2 miles from the Campbell, is a spot, with only 5 fathoms; and between the Leveret Shoal and the Reefs of Seyer Oe, before-mentioned, is the Defiance Shoal, of 41 and 42 fathoms. Some others are scattered about to the westward, but with not less than 5 and 6 fathoms over them. H.M.S. Antelope, in 1813, passed over a bank in 33 fathoms, lying on the south side of the island; this appeared to be a new discovery. The bearings taken were as follow:

The N.W. part of Seyer

The S.E. part of ditto

Seyer Church...

Reefness Point


N. by E.
E. S.
W. by S. S.

The depth of water was 51, 54, 5, 5, 32, 4, and 5 fathoms, sandy ground. We anchored, says Mr. Clering (the master), in lat 55° 48′ N.

The N.W. point of Seyer bearing
The S.E. point of ditto

The Church...

And Reefness


N. by E. E.
E. by N.

W. S.

The above bank was examined afterwards, and the soundings were 52, 53, 5, 43, 44, 4, 33, 4, 41, 5, 5, and 6 fathoms, sand and weeds: its extent, from N.W. to S.E., is 2 miles; and its breadth, from S.W. to N.E., about a mile: its distance from Seyer Island is between 2 and 3 miles.

Vessels proceeding between Hatter and Basser Reefs and Seyer Island, should keep Reefness S.W. by S.; and when Seyerbye Church comes E. by S., or when Seyer North Point is to the northward of east, you will then find yourself south of the Hatter Reef, and may bear away S.W. for the Point of Reefness.

A fixed light has been established on the westernmost point of Zealand, called Reefness, at the northern entrance of the Great Belt. The light stands on a tower, at the height of 70 feet above the level of the sea, and is visible to the distance of 3 leagues on all bearings, except those between W. N. and N.N.W. On the point of the reef, off Reefness, a broom-beacon is placed.

From the Point of Reefness, a shoal runs out W.N.W., nearly a mile. Give this point a berth, approaching no nearer than 8 fathoms water; and when Callundburg Town comes well open of the land, you will be to the southward of it, and may steer S.S.W. for Romsoe; or, being abreast of Reefness, in 10 fathoms water, you may proceed until you bring a square-steepled church, on the Island of Fyen, in one with the red-and-white cliff; you will then deepen your water from 16 to 22 fathoms, muddy ground.

In this passage are several shoals. The first lies on the western side, and almost opposite Reefness Point; it is named the Bolsakken Shoal, and lies nearly E.N.E. and W.S.W.; it is dangerous, and chiefly composed of stones; it is nearly 3 miles long, and 1 broad; on the shallowest part are only 4 feet water, although close to it are 9, 17, and 18 fathoms. You will go clear to the eastward of it by attending to the foregoing direction, or by bringing Fyen Mill open of Bogebierg Church.

The best mark to go clear to the southward of the Bolsakken Shoal is, to bring the South Mill of Samsoe to touch the wood; and to go to the northward of it, you should bring the North Mill of Samsoe open of the north side of the wood, or of the church. This church on with each side of the wood, is the pilots' mark for clearing it each way. On the eastern side of the Bolsakken is a broom-beacon.

The Dictator's Shoal is a knoll, of 3 and 4 fathoms water, lying off Luus Harbour, at the south end of Samsoe, and out of the way of vessels passing through the Great Belt. Fyen Head is surrounded by reefs, one of which runs out above a mile from the land, and has near its extreme point a small knoll, called the Little Ground; and to the N.N.E. of it is a dangerous patch, named the Rover, with only 6 feet water. There is a passage between these, with 6 and 7 fathoms; and between the Rover and the Bolsakken are 7 and 10 fathoms. Directly east of Fyen Head, distant 23 miles, is the Ruggen Shoal, with only 10 feet over it; it bears S.W. by S. from the east part of the Bolsakken, from which it is distant 4 miles. This is dangerous, and must be carefully avoided.

About S. by E. from the Ruggen, distant 4 miles, and nearly 8 miles S. by W. of the Bolsakken, is another small knoll, with somewhat less than 4 fathoms over it, called the Polyphemus Shoal, lying directly in a line between it and Romsoe, being about from the former, and from the latter. There is also a similar knoll, lying to the eastward, named the Vengeance, with 4 and 5 fathoms over it; it is directly in the fairway, and exactly in a line between Reefness and Romsoe. Between these knolls are from 11 to 18 fathoms. A little to the N.-eastward of the Polyphemus are 24 fathoms, and near the Vengeance, 11 and 12 fathoms.

CALLUNDBORG.—This is a deep inlet of the sea, which runs in between Reefness and Asnaes or Asness. At the further end of this opening stands the Town of Callundborg, before which you may anchor, in 3, 4, and 5 fathoms. At Callundborg there is a fixed light on the pilot-house, in the harbour, visible from 1 to 1 league. This bay is bordered with rocky shores, and should not be approached too near, as there are in some places, on the N.E. side, 2 or 3 miles, 7 fathoms, and the next cast 3 fathoms. The pilots do not come off more than 1 or 2 miles below the town. Asnaes is surrounded with shallow water, and should always have a berth given to it. Ships bound to the southward, and having occasion for shelter, will find good anchorage inside of Asnaes.

LYSE GROUND.-To the south-westward of the Asnaes, and about 2 miles distant from the shore, is the Lyse Ground; this is a long narrow bank, extending 4 or 5 miles, with from 1 to 4 fathoms upon it. The mark to clear this shoal is, to keep Ulstrup Church within Reefness well open of Asnaes Point; but let your lead be kept going, and you will avoid it readily enough. In 13 fathoms, soft bottom, you will have Ulstrup Church bearing N.E., distant from the bank 1 mile; from thence, eastward, you shoal toward it gradually; and when in 10 fathoms, a large ship will have room enough to put about. A little to the southward of the south point of the Lyse Ground, is a small knoll, of 3 fathoms, the position of which is doubtful...

ELEPHANT SHOAL.-In the middle of the channel, and directly between Reisoe and Romsoe, is the Elephant Shoal, about a mile in length, and 3 of a mile broad; on its centre there are but 12 feet, round that are 4 fathoms, and farther from it the water deepens on all sides to 6, 10, 11, and 14 fathoms. A mill on Fyen, touching the northern part of Romsoe, will lead directly to the northern part of the Elephant Shoal. Kierteminde Steeple, touching the south point of Stavres Head, leads on to its southern part; and a remarkable long white-house on Zealand, bearing S. 40° E., and being open of the southern point of Musholm, will clear it to the southward.

The Roms Island is to the starboard. Between this island and the before-mentioned bank there is good anchorage, the ground holding well. You may lie on the N.E. side of the island, within 1 mile of it, in 12 fathoms, but not nearer; for off this part stretches out a reef nearly N.N.E., to keep clear of which, you will see a point of land east of Kierteminde Church, having a cluster of trees near it, a single tree being at a distance from the others, and close to the end of the point; bring this point open, and in one with the N. end of Roms Island, bearing S.W., and you will be to the northward of the reef, in 6 or 7 fathoms water, sandy ground; farther out it is muddy.

ROMSOE ISLAND is of a round form, being nearly as broad as it is long, elevated in the middle, and covered with trees. To the westward of it is a passage, narrowed by the reef which stretches from the island, yet there will be found 6 and 7 fathoms

within it, but to the southward only 3 fathoms; and vessels using it must borrow near the Fyen shore, to avoid this reef. Romsoe has also a sandy reef on its southern side, running out S.S.E., about of a mile, the mark for the extremity of which is, Kiertemine Church, just touching the high and easternmost point of land near it on Fyen Island. The same church well open of the same high land, will clear the reef.

To the southward of Roms Island is Stavres Head, on the Island of Fyen, from whence the coast suddenly turns westerly towards Kierteminde, forming a kind of bay, having from 4 to 7 fathoms within it, every where clear, except a shoal, on which H.M. ship Leda struck, there being only 3 fathoms over it. This shoal lies about 1 mile south from Stavres Head, the channel between them having 6 fathoms water. When you have passed Roms Island, in your passage through the Belt, your course should be about S. by W. toward the Island of Sproe, where you will find all clear ground, free from danger, and with from 10 to 15 fathoms; but Sproe is encompassed with shoal water, and must have a good berth given to it.

When you approach Sproe, or are between it and Nyeborg, you will see on the coast, to the south-westward, 3 clusters of trees, with low land between, appearing like 3 small islands; on the southernmost stands two houses; and near the southern one is erected the light, to direct you to the town of Nyeborg.

SPROE is situated directly midway between Nyeborg and Corsoer, or Knude, and Halskow Heads. It is about a mile in length and very narrow,* having a channel on each side. If bound through the western one, in which are from 12 to 15 fathoms, the ground being coarse and uneven, you should, therefore, keep about mid-channel, for off Sproe Island a flat extends more than a mile; and from Knude's Head a reef also stretches out; and when you perceive the opening to the westward of Langeland, bearing from you S.S.W., while the north end of that island will bear S. by W., steer on directly south, until Vresen Island opens to the northward of the north end of Langeland. The outermost shoal from Sproe, bearing about S.W. by S. from it, has 19 feet over it, and consequently is not dangerous to small vessels.

The turning marks for the western passage are, Nyeborg Telegraph on with the northern white-house, which is rendered remarkable by its archway, bearing N.WW.; this leads on the north side of the passage. Nyeborg Telegraph and Church† in one, is the turning mark for the south side of the passage.

A good mark for the western channel, in coming from the southward, is Knude's Head Telegraph a sail's breadth open of Nyeborg Church; in turning, you may bring the telegraph between the white-house and church, and when the Island of Sproe comes to the eastward of N.N.E., or its east end N.E. by E., you should bear away to the northward; but be sure not to bring Sproe to the eastward of N.N.E. § E., until the above leading mark comes on, on account of the shoals which lie off the Island Vresen.

In sailing through the eastern channel, which is not so much used as that we have just described, you will observe that the passage is considerably narrowed by the shoals off Sproe, and those which run off Halskow Head, making it less than 2 miles broad; and in this are some small knolls: over one are 4 fathoms; and on the western side, near Sproe Sand, is another, with only 3 fathoms; but mid-channel there are from 13 to 20 fathoms.

In sailing from the northward, through the eastern channel, when you are midway between the Elephant Shoal and Romsoe, steer S. by E., or S.S.E., for Halskow Head, until you are within 3 miles distance from it; then look out for the beacon on Raersoe, and bring it just touching the western side of Musholm, which is the leading mark through the eastern channel. The telegraph on with the northern part of Bunderup Wood, will clear the shoals to the north-eastward of the Sproe.

Having sailed through the western passage, and passed Sproe, you will see the small island of Vresen a-head, very low, but with a kind of hummock at its southern

* On Knude's Head and Halskow Head, on the opposite coast, near Corsoer, are fixed lights, as also two harbour lights, at Corsoer Harbour, for the use of the packets between the two ports. On Sproe Island is a flashing light; it revolves four times in a minute, and will, in future, be shown every night.

† Nyeborg Church is rendered very conspicuous, by having a long spire steeple.



end, and extensive reefs surrounding it; this lies directly midway between Knude's Head and Langeland. In going to Nyeborg, Knude's Head must have a wide berth, on account of the reef before mentioned, which runs from its point. Having passed this reef, steer W., and then N.W., and you will reach Nyeborg Road, where you may anchor, in 7, 8, or 9 fathoms, clear ground. On Knude's Head there is a telegraph, and a small fort near it; behind these is a wood, and farther S.W. is another fort; this latter stands on Ship's Head, on which the harbour light is placed. into Nyeborg is narrow, but the anchorage is safe, and well sheltered.

The channel

S.E. from Knude's Head, distant 34 miles, lies a knoll, of 3 and 4 fathoms; to the westward of this there are some other shallow spots, which are connected with the reefs that run off the Vresen Island: it will always be advisable to steer clear of these, which you will readily do by attending to the turning marks already given for the western channel.

In proceeding through the Belt to the southward, and having passed the Sproe Channel, should the wind be easterly, steer S. by E., or still more easterly, until the eastern hummock on Sproe bears north; keep it in that direction, running on due south; this will be sure to carry you clear of Langeland Flat. This flat stretches about 3 miles north-easterly from Langeland North Point. Its thwart-mark is Fyen Southern Wood on with the point, bearing W. by S. You may approach the flat by the lead, as it shoals gradually; but, as before mentioned, bring the hummock on Sproe north, and steer on directly south, and you will clear all danger.

The VENGEANCE SHOAL is on the eastern side of the passage; it is a narrow ridge, of 3 and 4 fathoms water, and connects itself, by what is called the Bridge, to Langeland Flat, having 5, 6, and 7 fathoms, with two little spots of 42 and 43 fathoms upon it; Nyeborg Church on with the N.E. part of Knude's Wood, is the turning mark for the northern side of the Bridge, and leads very near the western end of the Vengeance Shoal; and the same church on with the southern part of the wood, is the turning mark for the southern side of the Bridge. The leading mark to clear the Vengeance Shoal to the eastward, is Corsoer Church, on with the telegraph which stands near it. Abreast of the Vengeance Shoal are 6, 7, and 8 fathoms; but to the northward, as well as to the southward, the water is deeper.

The Langeland shore is all clear, except the northern flat, already described; the currents off it generally set to leeward, but are considerably influenced by the wind. Upon Langeland North Point, called Frank Cape, there is a telegraph and battery.

Having run so far as to bring Langeland North Point to bear W. by S., steer on S.S.W., until it comes west; then S.W. by S. down mid-channel, in from 12 to 22 fathoms, until you reach the northern end of Laaland; but observe, that with the wind at N.W., it will be advisable to run along the coast of Langeland in 8 or 9 fathoms, lest, getting too far to leeward, the current should drive you into the opening between Zeeland and Laaland, and you then should not be able to weather the flat of Laaland, which, by some mariners, is said to extend farther from the shore than the Danish surveys lay down; however, it shoals gradually, and may be approached to 6 or 7 fathoms run safely on until Langeland Light comes about W. by N., in which situation you will presently perceive a church on Femeren Island, bearing S. by E.; but if you should be on the Laaland side of the channel, with soundings of from 7 to 8 fathoms, Langeland Light bearing W.N.W., then the church on Femeren will bear south; distant 10 miles; in this case, steer about S.E., along Laaland South Coast, in 7, 8, or 9 fathoms, or deepen your water to 15 and 16 fathoms, steering mid-channel; but take care, when passing between the south end of Langeland and Laaland, not to approach too near to Westerness, as a shallow flat runs off that shore 1 or 2 miles, shoaling in some places from 7 suddenly to 3 and 5 fathoms; therefore, bring the Lighthouse of Langeland to bear W.N.W., and you will incur no danger. Langeland Lighthouse exhibits a fixed lamp light, at the height of 125 feet, and is visible 16 miles in clear weather. This light has lately been strengthened by additional lamps, by order of the Danish Government, by which means it will be rendered visible at the distance, at which it was originally intended.

Between Laaland and Langeland the channel is wide and good; the bottom in general is sandy ground, and with from 7 to 13 fathoms water; but farther south, between Westerness and the Lighthouse of Langeland, the ground is foul and rocky, and no good anchorage. To the westward and southward of Langeland South Point,

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