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the land-mark being the very conspicuous white tower of the fort, which forms its northernmost point. Lessoe Floating Light bears from the harbour E.S.E. The Chapel and Fort at Fladstrand are white, with red tiles on the roof; these are the leading marks for the Dwale; but they are scarcely visible when length of the Dwale Shoal. The body of the fort is laid, and only the roof visible from the deck, in clear weather. The channel is good; but the lead is the best guide.
From the SCAW to REEFNESS.-The following are the direct courses and distances.-Being off the pitch of the Scaw Reef, a S.S.W. W. course, 16 miles, will bring you to the east side of Hirtsholm; then bring the lighthouse on it to bear N. E., and steering S. W., 64 miles, will take you through the Lessoe Channel, and to a fair berth off the Foreness. If in the night, and with a large ship, do not bring the revolving light on Foreness to the southward of S.S.W., to avoid the Tangen; and when the Foreness lighthouse bears W.N.W., 3 miles, a S.S.W. course, 32 miles, will bring you midway between Seyer Island and the Hatten Reef; from thence, a S.W. course, 10 miles, will bring you to Reefness.
SÆBYE.—The little town of Sæbye is farther to the southward, but has no harbour whatever, and little traffic; there is, indeed, a small river, fit only for boats. Vessels load and unload in the road, lying farther or nearer shore, as best suits their respective draughts of water. Pilots may be had here. There is safe riding, with northerly and easterly winds, on the lee side of Lessoe; also on the north side of the island a ship may occasionally stop, the holding ground being good; but those winds cause a very heavy swell of the sea.
DWALE GROUND.—Seven miles southward of Sæbye, and 15 miles from Hirtsholmen, is the Dwale Ground, lying nearly 4 miles from the shore; ships with but small draughts of water, often pass between it and the main in 4 fathoms, the bottom being fine sand. On the Dwale are 2, 3, and 34 fathoms; and between it and the shoals of Lessoe, 9, 10, 12, and 14 fathoms, the passage being 3 miles wide. The mark to carry you through the passage, mid-channel, is to keep the Chapel of Fladstrand a ship's length open to the eastward of the castle; but, to go between it and the land, bring the chapel a ship's length to the westward of the castle. In the inner channel, the current is less strong against you; but there is a shoal, called the Middle Ground, in this passage, having only 15 feet water, for which the marks are not sufficiently plain. A broom-beacon is now placed on its eastern edge. To the southward of the Middle Ground, as far as the entrance to Lim Fiorden, is a shallow, with from 2 to 3 fathoms, lying full 5 miles from the land, named Svitringen; its southern end, which forms a long narrow spit, lies S.E. by E., nearly 7 miles from the bar of Halls, having only 3 fathoms on it; between this spit and the bar, are 6 fathoms water.
On the western side of the Lessoe Channel, on the eastern edge of the Dwale Bank, two broom-beacons* are placed, about 3 miles apart, and bearing north and south of each other, bearing double brooms, pointed upwards; and on the eastern side of the channel, off the N.W. Reef of Lessoe, is a treble broom-beacon, likewise with its brooms upwards; this latter beacon lies east, 4 miles from the north beacon on the Dwale Ground. Hirtsholm Lighthouse N. E., leads through the Lessoe Channel; or, by steering S. W., will lead you to Foreness.
W.S.W. of the Dwale, 3 miles, and close to the shore, is a sand, called the Rimmen, or Asser Bank, stretching along parallel to the land, and extending from abreast of the Dwale about 9 miles; within this bank is a safe harbour for small ships, of 10 feet water; at each entrance there is a kind of bar, commonly having 12 feet over it. The pilots in general are well acquainted with this place.
HALS and AALBORG.-Six miles farther, is Lym Fiorden, a large gulf or river, within which, about 5 leagues, is the Town of Aalborg. A British Vice-Consul for North Jutland resides there. There is a bar at its entrance, which prevents vessels, drawing more than 10 feet, from going over it. Two buoys are placed at the entrance, and two beacons are erected on the southern shore. If bound to this place during a hard easterly gale, and the pilots should not be able to venture out, the ship still standing in, a flag will be hoisted on the castle, to show that the bar may be passed with a 10-feet draught; but, if otherwise, a signal will be made, by hoisting a flag with a waft,
*The broom-beacons, or top-buoys, so frequently made use of in the Cattegat, the Grounds and Belts, are conspicuous marks, being of considerable dimensions, and will be seen at a greater distance than the common can-buoys.
[CATTEGAT & BALTIC.]
lowered to the middle of the staff. The two beacons brought in one, will lead to the first buoy. The northern reef, at the entrance, will be avoided, by bringing the two buoys in one, or a little to the westward of the Muldburg Mountain. In sailing from the southward, bring Hals Church N.N.W.; and when the northern declivity of the hill bears W.S.W., you will be close to the buoy. With adverse winds, you may anchor S.S.E. from the first buoy, in 3 fathoms, good holding ground.
NEW EASTERN ENTRANCE INTO THE CATTEGAT.-A few years ago, the sea made an irruption on the west coast of Jutland, through a narrow tract of land, which formed a barrier between the sea and the Lym Fiord, a large inland lake, which communicates on the east with the Cattegat. The aperture thus formed, called the Agger Channel (from its immediate proximity to the fishing village of Agger), is situated in latitude 56° 40′ 52" N., and establishes a junction with the Lym Fiord and the North Sea, by which the northern part of the peninsula is perfectly isolated.
In reference to the above channel, the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have received a despatch from his Majesty's Consul at Elsinore, of which the following is an
"With a view of facilitating the navigation through that (the Agger) channel, the Danish Admiralty, by an order, dated the 7th of April, have sanctioned the erection of a pilot establishment at its entrance from the North Sea. In consequence, to the south of that entrance, on a sandy eminence, and near a temporary watchhouse, has been placed a signal-post, the flag of which, hoisted at top, signifies that the vessel has been observed, and that the assistance of a pilot is offered. The said flag being lowered once, denotes 1 foot of water; twice, 2 feet; three times, 3 feet; four times, 4 feet; five times, 5 feet; six times, 6 feet; and so forth: after this, the pilots go out towards the vessel, to make the customary signals. The rate of pilotage payable, according to a tariff exhibited in the pilot office, has been fixed for the present at two rix bank dollars, silver, equal to 4s. 6d. sterling, per foot of the ship's draught of water; and in the winter season, at one-third more; which rate will be eventually reduced to one-third, should the navigation of the channel increase. Ships entering from the North Sea, may obtain pilots for the several ports and places situated in the Lym Fiord.
According to the soundings, which have been taken at different periods, the depth of the western entrance varies from 5 to 7 feet; and at the eastern entrance from 5 to 6 feet. In the channel itself, which affords good anchorage, the depth, both from the frith and the sea, increases to 18 feet; which depth, however, is subject to continual changes. The mouth of the channel, towards the sea, is about a Danish mile wide; but farther up, towards the frith, it declines from 250 to 50 fathoms: its length, from the sea to the commencement of the frith, is supposed to be of a Danish mile.
Any alteration in the course or depth of this channel, as well as the names of the vessels frequenting it, will, from time to time, be communicated in the Danish papers." -Elsinore, May 14, 1836.
The number of vessels which passed through this canal, in 1843, was as follows, viz.:-427 vessels, of 4,388 tons, chiefly from and to Norway.
The average depth of water, during the last year (1844), has been as follows, viz.: -at Havrevlen, or Kaberne, 7 feet; anchoring ground, 15 feet. The Fiord Bank, 7 feet. There has never been less than 6 feet water, either on the Fiord Bank or the Havrevlen; and it has been constantly navigable, stream and weather permitting.
Three miles S.W. by S. from the outer buoy of Hals Bar, and 2 miles from the land, is Muldburg Ground, having 8 feet water over it; and to the southward is Hurup Broe, where vessels frequently anchor, in 13 or 14 feet water; a flat, having 3 fathoms, runs off nearly 4 miles. The anchorage is rendered safe, by a singular kind of weed, which rises to the surface of the water, checking and smoothing the turbulence of the waves. In steering for this place, when coming from the northward, endeavour to make Hals Church, taking care to avoid the Svitringen, on which are only 23 fathoms on some spots. After making the Church, small vessels may cross the above sand, and steer towards it, until they see Hurup, which are the first houses to the north of Halsegaards Mill; this mill is a remarkable object, standing by itself. If you come from the south, the above church will also be your guide, being seen as far off as Staunshoved. Give the coast a berth of 5 or 6 miles, coming not into less than 3 fathoms water, until the church bears N.W.; you will then be clear of Hals Reef, and may run in by the lead. Pilots reside here.
MARIAGER FIORD.-Hals Reef stretches from the northern point of the entrance to Mariager Fiord, running nearly 2 miles into the sea, in some parts. The southern point is also encumbered with a bank, called Bols Reef, making the channel extremely narrow and difficult, admitting only small craft drawing 6 or 7 feet water. Two small towns, Mariager and Hobroe, are situated on the banks of this inlet, but their trade is trivial. Pilots also may be had here.
RANDER'S FIORD.-To the southward is Rander's Fiord, a place of considerable commerce; here, ships drawing 10 feet, may find a safe harbour within the mouth of the river; and such as only draw 7 feet, may proceed to the town. The river is regularly buoyed the whole distance. You will be careful, when opposite its entrance, to come no nearer than 3 fathoms water, which is within a mile of the outer buoy; there is a shoal of hard sand lying 3 miles east of the outer buoy, with only 2 fathoms on it. When making your signal for a pilot, one will immediately attend; but if the weather should be too tempestuous for them to reach you, a flag will be hoisted on the staff at Udbyehoy, when à vessel, drawing 9 feet, may safely enter; but, if it should only be practicable for 7 feet, then a blue flag will be raised; and, if unsafe and unfit to enter, both flags will be shown. The best anchorage on the outside, is at a mile N.E. of the first buoy, in 3 fathoms. Between Rander's Fiord and Staunshoved, is the Tangen Shoal, or Fortang Ground, running nearly W.N.W. and E.S.E., being in length 11, and in breadth 4 miles; its distance from the shore is about 2 miles; upon it are from 1 to 4 fathoms, the shoal part extending 4 miles from its west end; between it and the land are 4, 44, 5, and 6 fathoms. The bottom is a loose kind of sand, where the anchor would drag; even small ships hazard much by venturing upon it, especially with easterly winds.
GIERILD'S BAY.-To the southward of Staunshoved is Gierild's Bay. In rounding Staunshoved, approach not too near the shore, for there is a dangerous rock, with only 7 feet on it, lying a full mile from the shore, called Gierild's Klint, having a patch of 2 fathoms, close to, outside of it. Gierild's Bay is only adapted for westerly winds; with them, a vessel may stop in 4 fathoms, the Church bearing W.N.W.; but the current is strong, and if an easterly wind should come on, it will be difficult to get away. The safest anchorage is by Treaae Mill.
On the point of land, called Foreness, which forms the southern extremity of Gierild's Bay, is a lighthouse, built in the form of a quadrangular tower, having a dwellinghouse, with a roof of red tiles, annexed to it. It shows a revolving light, at 67 feet above the level of the sea, making a complete revolution once in every 3 minutes, and exhibiting, each minute, a strong light for about 6 seconds, which disappears for 24 seconds before it again returns. The light, at its fullest lustre, may be seen at the distance of 13 miles, in clear weather. The buildings are covered with white plastering, so as to afford a good sea-mark by day-time; and situated 24 miles N.E. E. from the entrance of Grenaae Haven. The shore, from Gierild's Bight, to round Foreness, is bold, 4, 5, and 6 fathoms close in.
GRENAAE.-Beyond Foreness, the coast bends S. westward, where is situated the small town of Grenaae. Vessels lie in the road for their cargoes, bringing the church midway between two houses, close to the shore on each side of a small river; but they must always hold themselves in readiness to weigh anchor, should the wind chop round to the eastward. Here are two shoals, the Kalkgrunden and Naveren, one on the north, and the other on the south side of the entrance to the river, having 5 to 6 fathoms near them; to avoid the former, you must not bring Foreness in one with Gierild's Klint, before you perceive Grenaae Church almost close to the above-mentioned houses; and in coming from the southward, it is advisable not to get into less than 7 fathoms, but to keep the point, called Jernhatten, outside of Hafsknude, until Grenaae Church is hid behind the northern high land. A vessel may stop on either side of Hafsknude Reef; but must be ready to quit, should the wind shift to the eastward. Near Jernhatten Point is a telegraph.
The harbour, which hitherto has had only 6 feet water in it, and which, with sand banks in it, has prevented large ships entering, will, by the consent of Government, be considerably improved by the formation of a commodious basin, which will admit all vessels under the draught of 10 feet, and shelter about 40 vessels.
JESSEN'S GROUND, SALT'S SHOAL, and the BLACK STONE.-Following the direction of the land, about 5 miles, you will meet with the Jessen's Ground,
a small shoal, having only 9 feet water over it; it lies about a mile from the shore; and between them is a clear passage, with 5 to 6 fathoms in it. Seven miles S.W. W. from Hafsknude Point, is the Point of Jernhatten; and near it is the Black Stone, or Shoal, which stretches off from the Point, and has 5 fathoms close to it.
HIELM. To the S.W., is Hasenore Head, distant from Jernhatten Point about 7 miles. Off this head, shallow water extends to the southward, having from 9 feet to 4 fathoms upon it; and opposite to this point, is the small Island of Hielm, having several shoals and reefs about it; it is high and steep, and should not be approached without the greatest caution.
N.E.E., 3 miles from Hielm Island, is a patch, of 3 fathoms; and in the same line of bearing, distant 2 miles from the island, is another shoal, of 2 fathoms; and 2 miles W. by S. of the latter shoal, is a patch, of 33 fathoms: these shoals have from 6 to 9 fathoms between them.
The KLOKKE GROUND, on which is only 7 feet water, lies on the eastern edge of the bank that stretches off from Hasenore Head, and 2 miles W.N.W. of Hielm; between which are 12 fathoms water.
EBELTOFTE BAY.-Having rounded Hasenore Head, and the shoals lying southward of it, to the westward you will enter the Bay of Ebeltofte, which is large and extensive, but much encumbered with shoals. At its entrance is a bank, called the Skade Ground, with only 5 feet over it; on either side of this is a passage; but the anchorage in the bay is not to be commended, for the ground does not hold well, neither is the shelter good in winter.
AARHUUS is a large town, and lies farther to the westward; here the road is good, but S.E. winds raise a prodigious sea. From this place a packet-boat sails daily; and two moles have been built for the accommodation of shipping, admitting vessels drawing 7 feet; it is further intended to be deepened, so as to admit those of 12 feet. Aarhuus harbour light is a fixed light, on the pilot-house in the harbour. A lantern has also been placed on the southern mole of the harbour, visible 4 or 5 miles. Between Ebeltofte and Aarhuus, is Begtrup Vik, or Bitter Bay, and another extensive inlet, called Kalo Bay, running to the north-eastward; this latter has 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathoms within it, appearing to be a good bay, but little frequented by English vessels.
NORSMYNDE.-There is excellent anchorage to the southward at Norsmynde, where vessels sometimes take shelter with contrary winds; it is not a town, but only a few houses, so called. Opposite to this place is the Norsmynde Flak, or Flat, a long narrow bank, having 2 fathoms over it; 3 miles to the eastward of this is the Middle Ground, an extensive shoal, the western part of which nearly dries; about a mile farther eastward is the Lille Ground, joined to the Middle by a flat of 3 fathoms; on the latter ground are only 4 feet; and to the southward is Thunoe, or Tons Knob, between which and the Norsmynde Flak, are 8 fathoms water. Between Norsmynde Flak and the shore are 6 fathoms; this channel is very narrow, the Hesberg Ground stretching a full mile from the shore, and nearly across it; and between Thunoe Knob and the Island of Thunoe, is a small channel, with 10 fathoms.
The common passage to the LITTLE BELT is between the ISLANDS THUNOE and SAMSOE, the mark being the Church of Thunoe, now converted into a lighthouse. Here you may obtain pilots for the harbours of Weile, Horsens, &c.; the passages to which are difficult, and no other place being so convenient for their attendance. SAMSOE ISLAND lies to the eastward of THUNOE: it is long, and nearly divided in the middle, running almost N.N.E. and S.S.W., 14 miles, its broadest part being only about 4 miles; there is a good harbour, but difficult to enter. Little or no commerce is carried on at the island, and therefore ships do not frequent it. On the small island of Kyholm, near the N.E. part of Samsoe, is a revolving light, which gives a flash every minute; it is elevated 56 feet, and visible 3 leagues. Here is a quarantine establishment. There is a channel running in to the south-westward of the several towns of Frederica,* Middlefort, Kolding, Christiansfield, Madersleben, Apenrade, Assens, &c. &c., which is called the LITTLE BELT. Its entrance is narrow, and its navigation intricate, and never to be attempted without a pilot; a description, therefore, would be useless; suffice it to say, that it leads into the open sea, enlarging as you proceed southward, until you come south of Aeroe and Langeland.
* All vessels which pass the Little Belt, pay a toll at Frederica, equivalent to the Sound toll.
THE GREAT BELT.
VESSELS coming from the coast of Sweden, or eastward of Anholt Island, and bound through the Belts, should bring the lighthouse W. by N., or W.N.W., distant about 10 miles; they will then be clear of the Knoben, (off the eastern point of which, a floating light-vessel has been lately placed), and may steer S.W. by W. for the Belt. We have already described the Middle Grounds, Lyse Bank, and the little island of Hassel. (See pp. 15 and 16.)
JISE FIORD.-S. by W. from Hassel Island, distant 13 miles, is Jise Fiord. This is a large bay, penetrating into the interior of Zealand, in various directions, and having several towns on its borders; its entrance is shallow, and encumbered with sand banks, preventing vessels of more than 9 or 10 feet water, frequenting it; but pilots may be obtained there for the Belts, &c. At Spotsberg, near the eastern entrance, a lamp-light is erected, which is kept burning from the 1st of September to the 1st of November, and may be seen 2 leagues off.
ZEALAND REEF.-From Jise Fiord to the north-westward, a long arm of land stretches out, ending in a point, from whence several shoals extend, upward of 7 miles, into the sea; of these, the northernmost is called the Zealand Reef; it is chiefly composed of large stones, some of which, near the extremity, will occasionally appear above water; over these, with westerly winds, the sea generally breaks. The soundings will point out your approach to this reef; for, on the east side it is stony ground, and on the western side sandy. Large ships should not come nearer than 10 fathoms, on either side, before they tack.
HASTEEN'S GROUND.-Nearly N. by E., distant 7 miles from the extremity of Zealand Reef, and about S.E. from Anholt Lighthouse, distant 34 miles, lies the Hasteen's Ground, a ridge of shoal water, 13 mile long, and a mile broad; its shallowest part has 5 feet over it, the mark being Hellesbierg Mountain on with, or just touching, the point of Hasenore Head; towards its northern part is 1 fathom, and on its southern part 3 fathoms; it is rather steep on the east and west sides. If you are on the former side of it, you should tack in 9 fathoms, and if on the latter, in 7 and 8 fathoms. About 2 miles from its west side, are 12 and 13 fathoms, with stiff marl; farther west you will have mud, and clear sand as you approach the coast of Jutland: towards Hasteen's Ground, it becomes stony; but off its northern and southern ends, are clear sand. The leading mark to carry vessels between Hasteen's Ground and the Zealand Reef, is the Hellesbierg Mountain to the southward of Hielm Island. Your depth of water will be from 10 to 17 fathoms, clear sandy ground; but great attention must be given to the currents, which sometimes run with great velocity, and often bear directly on to Zealand Reefs. There is a passage between the reef and the cape, but too dangerous ever to be attempted.
BRISEIS SHOAL.-To the north-eastward of the Hasteen's Ground, about 5 miles N.W. from Hasel Oe, distant 15 miles, and S.E. by S., 13 miles from Foreness, is a shoal, of only 3 and 4 fathoms water, first discovered by H.M.S. Briseis. Near its S.W. side are 5 fathoms, and 10, 11, and 12 fathoms at every other part.
We have already stated, the Hasteen's Ground bears from Anholt Light S.W., distant about 4 miles; while Hielm Island bears S.W. by W., distant 46 miles. Your direct course therefore, between the two, is S.W. W.; and in this track you will have from 16 to 10 fathoms. In strong gales of wind the sea runs short, and in quick succession; sometimes it becomes hazardous, owing to the current invariably setting to windward at that time. The most conspicuous objects in your passage will be the lighthouse on Foreness, and Grenaae Church, which is white, and appears like a sail at a distance. The shores are woody, and to the southward of Grenaae, are some sandhills.
HIELM ISLAND lies about 2 miles from Hasenore Head, being about of a mile in length, and a mile broad, high in the middle, and low at each end; to the northward, a reef runs out almost a mile, and the eastern sides are shallow; you must not approach it nearer than 5 or 7 fathoms, coarse sandy ground. To the southward of the island, a flat, with 24 fathoms on it, extends 1 mile, having one spot with only 7 feet on it, nearly a mile from the island.
The channel between Hielm and Jutland should not be attempted; for, though there are 12 and 13 fathoms in it, some shoals lie hereabouts, making the passage dangerous: