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the narrowest part, is the before-mentioned black buoy, called by some the Gaspar Buoy, bearing $, by W., nearly 2 miles from the south buoy of the Middle; its mark is, or was, Taarnbye Church in one with the S. end of the lime-kilns. The depths of water in the Gaspar Channel are regular, 5, 6, and 7 fathoms, except a knoll, lying on the eastern side, after you have passed the buoy before-mentioned, which spot has only 14 feet over it. Having reached the town of Dragoe, you approach a kind of bar, which joins the Amag and Saltholm shoals together; it is a narrow sand, over which there are seldom more than 4 fathoms found; but when the winds have been southerly for any considerable time, less water will be upon it. The distance from the Gaspar, or Middle South Buoy, to this bar, is about 5 miles. The shoals in the Grounds are all rocky; and in fine weather the water is so clear, that in 5 fathoms the bottom is perfectly visible. The current, whether north or southward, generally takes a straight course through these channels.
Dragoe Town is on the S.E. point of the Island of Amag. About 2 miles southward of Dragoe, is a black buoy, No. I., on the south-eastern edge of the reef, called Russe Ground, and has a broom-beacon near it. Besides the two beacons at Dragoe, there are two others to the northward, standing on the shore of the Island Amag; these consist each of a pole, with a white board, 6 feet square, at its summit.*
BUOYS IN THE GROUNDS.—The following alterations have taken place in the undermentioned marks and their positions, since the spring of 1841.—
1. The Dragoe Can Buoy retains its place; but the other buoy formerly at the same, has been removed, and placed in 3 fathoms water, on the west side of the Holmetunge; and the buoy at the Söndre Rysse has been placed in 3 fathoms water, due east from the latter ground; both these buoys lie out the whole year.
2. Large top-buoys, with a broom on a pole, about 9 to 10 feet long, are placed at the S.E. Hook of the Nordre Ryssegrund, in 3 fathoms water.
The N.W. side of the Lillegrund (Little Ground), in 4 to 5 fathoms water.
The East side of the Ravneungerne, in 3 to 4 fathoms water, at the Rasmus Möller Rock.
The buoy at the wreck on the Middlegrund, has been changed for the Nun Buoy, which was formerly at the Old Pröve Rock, and which has been removed to the wreck at the Middlegrund, and provided with a broom on a pole.
3. The top buoys at the Old Pröve Rock, Nordre Rysse, the Ravneungern, Söndre Rysse, and Dragoe Sand Banks, have each a broom, tied upwards on a black pole. On the other hand, the buoy at the wreck of the Frigate Kronborg, the Middlegrund and the Littlegrund, have each a broom, tied downwards, on a white pole.
The buoy at the Bredgrund remains; and to distinguish it from the one placed at the Lillegrund, it is provided with two brooms, the upper one tied upwards, and the lower one tied downwards, on a pole, painted each alternate foot white and black.
4. The North Can Buoy of the Middlegrund is removed backwards from the place of the wreck of the ship of war Infödsretten, to the northern edge of the Middlegrund, in 23 feet water; and another mark, consisting of a small green-painted Can buoy, has been placed over the wreck of the Infödsretten.
The Can buoy at the Stubben is now painted red, instead of white as hitherto.
The heads of the different Can buoys have been marked with the following numbers, viz.:-The Dragoe Buoy, I.; the Kastrup Buoy, II.; the Söndre, or South Buoy of the Middlegrund, III.; the Mellum, or Middle Buoy of the Middlegrund, IV.; the Nordre, or North Buoy, V.; the Stubben Buoy, VI.; and the buoy at the Kronen, VII.
By a notice from the Admiralty, dated the 21st May, 1845, the following buoys will be placed near the wrecks in the Grounds, viz. :-The buoy over the middlemost wreck of the Middlegrund, the colour of which has been half black and half white, will now be painted green, like that which lies over the wreck of the ship of war, Infödsretten; and furthermore, as soon as the sea-marks shall be laid out in these parts this spring, three additional green buoys, similar to the one above mentioned, will be laid down, viz. :— -One buoy off the wreck of a stykpram, in the Hollanderdyke, in 42 fathoms water; one buoy off the wreck of two merchant-vessels, in the Skudeleb, in 3 fathoms water; and one buoy off the stykpram, outside the Stubben Sand, in 5 fathoms water.
The marks on Nörderhoi are provided with a quadrangular board, of a fathom square, and painted white; the mark is placed near the top of the Beacon, and its surface turned towards the Hollænderby.
5. The sea-marks will generally be placed out and taken in at the same time as the Floating Light-vessel at the Dragoe; but nevertheless they are not placed out before it is considered that it may be done with safety, or without the risk of being lost, or moved from their places by the drift ice.
The buoys at the sand banks of Söndre Rysse and Holmetunge will remain out the whole year. At the spot where the buoy on the Dragoe sand bank was placed, is now stationed a buoy, provided like the others which are on the west coast.
All the buoys on the west coast have black poles, with brooms fastened upwards, and those on the east coast have white poles, with brooms tied downwards, except the buoy at the Bredgrund, which has a double broom, as before mentioned.
Light-vessel off Dragoe.-By a notice, dated October 17th, 1837, a light-vessel is placed every year (unless prevented by the ice), from the 1st of March to the 21st of December, about 400 fathoms to the S.W. of the Quartus Ground; S. E., 13 mile from the little harbour of Dragoe, and E.S.E., of a mile from the Sandrev Buoy. This vessel has two masts, schooner-rigged, and is painted with red sides and a white cross. The light apparatus is placed on the after-mast, at 25 feet above the level of the sea. In hazy weather, a ship's bell will be rung, continuing for 10 minutes, after an interval of 5 minutes. A red flag will be displayed in the day-time, and in stormy weather a red jack will be hoisted at the fore-top. Dragoe pilots are stationed on board this vessel, for the purpose of piloting such ships through the Grounds, as may make the usual signals.
KIOGE BAY.-From the Island of Amag the coast turns westerly into a deep and extensive bay, named Kioge, where, with north and westerly winds, you may have good anchorage, in 6 or 7 fathoms, bringing Dragoe Wood to bear about E. by N. All along the northern shore, a flat extends, with shallow water, of 2, and in some places, 3 fathoms water, gradually deepening to 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 fathoms in the bay. Off the southern shore, distant about 2 miles, nearly S.E. by E. E., distant 4 miles from the town of Kioge, is the Agamemnon's Bank, with only 3 fathoms, discovered in 1810; it is small, and has 6 and 7 fathoms near it. The shore from hence winds round to the southward to Mande and Steffen's Head, at the former of which the sandy flat ends, and the coast becomes steep and cliffy.
STEFFEN'S HEAD, or STEFFEN'S KLINT, is the southern point of KIOGE BAY; and so soon as you have passed Dragoe Buoy, you will see the lighthouse upon this Head, which will then bear nearly S.W., about 5 leagues off. This lighthouse is erected, at the distance of 4,400 feet, N. 22° E. (true bearing) from Hoyerup Church. The light consists of revolving lamps, with 6 reflectors, which turn round in 3 minutes, so that 6 strong reflections will be seen in that space of time, the light disappearing during the intervals; yet, on approaching it sufficiently near, a gleam of light will be visible even during those intervals. This light is thereby distinguishable from the light upon Falsterbo, on the opposite coast of Sweden, which burns during the winter months only. The new light is 140 feet above the level of the sea, the bright flash being visible about 17 miles off; the lighthouse will be kept white constantly, and thereby afford a very distinguishable sea-mark by day. The light will burn from an hour after sun set to sun-rise, from Easter to Michaelmas, and from an hour after sun-set until sun-rise, from Michaelmas to Easter. You may round Steffen's Head in 8 or 9 fathoms. From Steffen's Head to Moen's Island, the course and distance will be S. W., and S. by W., nearly 7 leagues; the east end of this island presents itself in high and steep cliffs; and from Steffen's Head to the Speyl Cliffs of Moen, there is no impediment whatever, the soundings being from 8 to 12 fathoms.
MALMO and FLINT CHANNELS.-There is a large and extensive opening to the eastward of the Saltholms, running up to Malmo. Should a vessel be bound to Malmo, the course towards it, from the Island of Huen, will be about S. by E.; keep mid-channel, for the Saltholms is surrounded by a dangerous reef, stretching eastward and northward from the island full 2 miles into the channel, and having many rocks and spots of shallow water within it; on your port or larboard side also, is a small knoll, with 23 feet over it, called the Pinhatten; it lies about 2 miles off Barseback, a point of land on the Swedish shore: of a mile within this, is another knoll, of only 15 feet
water; and between the latter and the Barseback shore, are the Kullarne Rocks; between the knolls are 14, 16, and 17 fathoms water; between the Pinhatten and the edge of the Saltholms Reef, are 8, 9, and 10 fathoms, stony ground; give, therefore, the Pinhatten a good berth; steer mid-channel, as before directed, about S. by E., or bring the town of Malmo, as you advance, S.S.E., and you will go in safely. As you approach Malmo Bay, the bottom becomes soft and oazy.
MALMO BAY is clear of danger, and you may anchor to the northward of the town, in 6, 63, and 7 fathoms. The town has a small harbour, which will accommodate vessels drawing 9 feet water, in safety: it is formed by a series of bulwarks extending out northward. Opposite is a Duc d'albe, serving to fasten warps, either to haul in or out of the harbour: and on the western head is a lighthouse, bearing a fixed light, and burning throughout the year from sun-set to sun-rise.
When anchored in Malmo Road, should your cable part during a gale from the N.W., it will be best to run before the wind for the strand, about a mile to the eastward of the harbour bulwark; by doing so, your vessel will, in all probability, be saved, the ground being soft mud; but you must run on with a press of sail, in order that your ship may strand as fast as possible.
Vessels not intending to anchor before the town of Malmo, and only wishing to effect a passage to the eastward of the Saltholms, must be aware of the Sjollan, a shoal lying midway of the channel, with only 10, 14, and 16 feet over it; a buoy is now placed on the S.E. edge of this shoal, with Malmo Church bearing S.E. S., nearly 34 miles. For this purpose, you must endeavour to keep Malmo Church S.S.E., until you make the buoy on Sjollan; and rounding this buoy to the southward, within a mile, a W. by S. course will take you clear through the channel, to the southward of Dragoe Light-vessel. In steering the latter course, you will leave the North and South Flint Rocks on your starboard, and Kalk and Trindelen Shoals on your port or larboard hand. On the south side of the Kalk, on which is only 10 feet, a red flag is placed; and on the north side of the Trindelen, a broom-beacon, in 3 fathoms. The marks for the Kalk are, Hyllie Church on with the beacon east of the lime-kilns; and the marks for the South Flint are, Hollanderby Church between the two beacons at Dragoe. There is a channel to the southward, between them and the Little Ground; but, by keeping the above course, you will be most free from danger. The mark to go to the northward of the Sjollan Shoal, into Malmo Bay, is Lomma House, which stands at the bottom of Malmo Bay, in one with Lund Church; and the best mark to go to the southward of it, is to bring Upakra Church between the two woods near Alnerup. S.S.W. of the Sjollan, distant 11⁄2 mile, is the Kalk Ground; the above mark will carry you directly between these shoals; and Bunkelflod Church, open to the southward of the lime-kilns, will take you clear to the southward of the Kalk.*
TRINDELEN.-S.E. by S. of the South Flint, distant 2 miles, is a dangerous bank and spit, called the Trindelen, running out from the Swedish shore full 15 mile, with only 14 feet water over it; there are also several knolls, of 31⁄2 fathoms, not far from the Trindelen, on the north side of which is a broom-beacon; therefore it is not advisable to go near it, but rather borrow on the Saltholms side; indeed, you must be very careful to keep a good distance from the Swedish shores at this part, in order to avoid the ledges and sands with which it is encumbered all the way to Falsterbo. The passage is between the Saltholms and the Little Ground, a space of about a league wide; at this part the Saltholms Reef extends from the island about a league; but almost midway of the channel, is a little knoll, with 31⁄2 fathoms water; in the channels are 4 fathoms. This knoll lies S.W. by W., distant 3 miles from the South Flint, and nearly in a S.E. by E. direction from the Dragoe Buoy, distant 2 miles. About 2 of a mile E.S.E. from the same buoy, is a knoll, having 20 feet on it, called the Quartus Ground; this latter is in the fair-way from the Gaspar channel.
The LITTLE GROUND is a square flat, of 6, 9, 12, and 13 feet; its N.-western edge lies S.W., distant 4 miles from the South Flint Rock, and nearly S.E. from the Dragoe Buoy; by bringing that rock to bear N.E. E., you may pass it in 4 fathoms. On its N.W. side, is a large top-buoy, with a broom on a pole, in 4 to 5 fathoms.
*Ships coming from the southward, and going to Malmo through the Flint Channel, will find it difficult to get a pilot from Malmo, on account of its lying so far in; but they may now be supplied with pilots, either from the Falsterbo or Dragoe vessels.
The BROAD GROUND.-The N.W. end of the Broad Ground lies about 4 miles S. by E. from the Dragoe Buoy; on this part, a large top-buoy is placed, with a double broom on a pole, painted black and white, in 4 to 5 fathoms; and the highest steeple of Copenhagen on with Dragoe Town, will carry you directly upon the body of the sand; but the same steeple, open to the westward of the wood, will lead clear of it. On the western edge of this bank are 3 fathoms; but farther in, it shoals to less than 6 feet. Having thus cleared your way through the Flint Channel, you will get Falsterbo Lighthouse to bear about S. by E., and by bringing the lighthouse on Steffen's Head to bear S.W. W., your course to Falsterbo Reef will be S.S.W., and S.S.W. W.; but when the wind blows strong from the north-westward, you must steer S.S.W. W., for then a lee current sets in the direction of the wind, which is also the case throughout the Baltic; it will, therefore, be proper to keep a point to windward of your course, by the chart, with the wind quartering.
FALSTERBO POINT, which is the southernmost Swedish limit of the Sound, is distinguished by a conspicuous lighthouse, and exhibits a fixed light, being a lentile apparatus, of the second class, at 87 feet above the sea, lit only during the winter months. This point is encumbered with reefs, which extend more than a league to seaward, and these are surrounded with shallow water, for S.S.W. W., distant 5 miles from the lighthouse point, there are but 19 feet water. Therefore, in passing Falsterbo, you must always give it a very wide berth, and rather steer towards Steffen's Head, or keep along the reef, in not less than 7 fathoms water, until you find Falterbo Church bear N.E. N.; and when the same church comes N.N.E., you may consider yourself to be in the Baltic Sea. Coming from the Baltic, if you bring Falsterbo Light to bear S. by E., you will be in the fair-way for the Dragoe Black Buoy.
FALSTERBO REEF LIGHT-VESSEL.-This light-ship is furnished with two masts, her sides painted red, marked with two large white letters, F. S., on both sides, has a red pendant hoisted on the highest or fore-top, and during the night shows two lights, which are so placed, that they cannot easily obscure each other; for, when a ship is on either side, the lights appear at a distance from each other, and when the vessel is end on, the lights will appear one above the other. The highest light is in the fore-top. These lights will be kept burning from the middle of September to the 1st of December (when the light-ship is laid up), during the period of each 24 hours fixed by the Royal Regulations respecting lights and pilots all over the kingdom.
The light-ship is moored, in 6 fathoms water, full a mile from the outermost point of the reef, with Falsterbo Light bearing N.E., distant 6 miles, and the light on Steven's Head bearing W.N.W. W., both compass bearings. A large bell will be rung in foggy weather, in order to warn off approaching ships. The lights are situated 50 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen from 8 to 10 miles. Five pilots are stationed on board the light-ship, to supply such vessels as may want a pilot for Malmo or Dragoe, who in the day-time, as well as during the night, are watching the signals for that purpose. The light-vessel is so moored, that the largest ship may, without danger, sail round the same, to get a pilot. The ensign is always hoisted as long as there is a pilot on board, and hauled down when all are employed. In case no other regulations are adopted, or the ice does not hinder it, the light-ship will remain on the same spot till March.-Royal Swedish Administration, dated August 13th, 1844.
There being other passages into the Baltic, besides that of the Sound, which are navigable by all vessels, we shall again return to the Scaw, and describe those passages generally called the Great and Little Belts.
The BEARINGS and DISTANCES of the PRINCIPAL POINTS in the SOUND. Variation allowed is 20° West, or One Point and Three Quarters, nearly. Magnetic Bearings. Miles. South S.W. by S.
Names of Places.
From Koll Light to Cronborg Castle
Black Buoy of the Middle
.S. end of Huen to Malmo
TAKING your departure from the Scaw, which has already been described (p. 1.), and bound for the Belts, you will perceive, on the coast of Jutland, the town of Fladstrand, together with the Islands Hirtsholmen, the latter lying about 3 miles from the shore: between the Scaw and Fladstrand the anchoring ground is good in general, and vessels may there wait with a westerly wind, in any depth of water; but as some places are preferable to others, the Scaw pilots will conduct you to them, or proceed with you to Fladstrand. At Fladstrand you may obtain a pilot, who will conduct you as far as Frederica or Niborg, but there they must be relieved by other pilots; and, by a new regulation, no pilot is allowed to take a vessel farther than to the entrance of any river. AALBEC is a fishing town, lying nearly midway between the Scaw and Fladstrand. During the present year (1845), permission has been granted to the fishermen at Aalbec, to burn two red lights, from the 1st of September to the 1st of May. The lights will be 15 ells distant from each other, at an elevation of about 8 feet above the level of the sea, and be visible from a ship's deck, at sea, about 14 league.
FLADSTRAND.-The Town of Fladstrand, or Frederickshaven, will easily be known by the high land of Bangsboe, which lies about a league to the southward; and coming near, you will discern the chapel, north of Fladstrand, and the tower of the castle, to the southward, close to the sea-shore. Hirtsholmen Island is in the front of Fladstrand: you may stand in toward the shore to the distance of a mile. On Hirtsholmen Island is a quadrangular tower, exhibiting a revolving light once in 1 minute. The lantern is 43 feet above the level of the sea, and the light is visible at the distance of 10 miles. The tower being white-washed, serves also as a good sea-mark by day. The anchorage for large vessels is in not less than 5 and 6 fathoms, with the castle W.N.W., or N.W. by W. Small ships may find anchorage within the Hirtsholmen, and in the north and south roads of Fladstrand; but, should the wind change, they must hold themselves ready to alter their situations: with a N.E. wind, they must run to the southern; and with southerly winds, to the northern anchorage.
A new and capacious harbour has been formed at Frederickshaven, and piers have been built at its entrance, affording shelter to ships drawing 13 or 14 feet water, and furnished with every thing a ship may require. On the southern pier-head, a lighthouse has been erected, which exhibits a fixed light throughout the night; the lantern is 23 feet above the level of the sea.. Vessels may run close to the S.E. point of Hirtsholmen, where pilots are established, who come out at a given signal, and will conduct ships either to the Coast and Harbour of Frederickshaven, or through the Channel of Lessoe, between that island and Jutland. This track is pursued by vessels bound through the Belts into the Baltic; and it may, under many circumstances, prove the most favourable route also for ships bound to the Sound, as S.W. winds are the most prevailing, and as the whole western side of the Cattegat is a sandy flat, with only from 5 to 9 fathoms water, affording a good anchorage in every part. The entrance to the harbour, with a width of 100 feet, is from the E.N.E., in a depth of 14 or 15 feet water,