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and toward its northern edge 15; while toward its southern end are 18, 21, 17, and 16 fathoms. Your approach to this bank may very readily be known, either in coming from the northward or from the southward, as your soundings lessen remarkably, your lead bringing up shells and small black pebbles; and on its eastern side particularly, the soundings are very irregular. When on the north-easternmost part of the Middle Ground, you will meet with large black stones, and have 13, 14, and 15 fathoms water. N.N.E. of the bank, is the Rhode Bank, with a bottom of coarse red sand, and from 15 to 18 fathoms; a little to the westward of the Rhode Bank, are 18, 19, 20, and 23 fathoms, fine sand and clay. Near the south end of the Little Middle Ground, are 18 and 25 fathoms, mud; and a little to the N.W. of the Great Middle, are 16 fathoms, coarse sand.
LYSE BANK.-S.W. from the body of the Great Middle Ground, just described, is the Lyse Bank or Ground, about 5 miles long and 3 broad. This is very shallow, having on its western end only 13 fathom. It is quite out of the fair-way of your passage to the Sound; but if cruising about this part, you should keep a good lookout, as the soundings shoal suddenly; in clear weather Hassel Island will be sufficient to put you on your guard; but the neighbouring coast of Zealand cannot be seen, unless in very fine weather. At that time the most remarkable objects are the churches of Blidstrup and Soeborg, both standing on high land; the first appears longer in extent, and stands alone; the other shorter, having trees on the western side; but the bearings of the Nakkehead Lights, particularly the westernmost, will prove, at night, a sure leading-mark, as they can be seen from this bank. When this light bears nearly S.E., it will lead on to the S.W. end of this bank, in 4 fathoms water; when the eastern light bears S.E. by S., it will lead on to the northern part of the bank, and near a shallow spot of 2 fathoms; and when the light bears N.W. W., it will lead midway between the Lyse Ground and Hassel Island: by day the Lyse Ground will be discoverable from the mast-head, at the distance of 2 miles, by the greenish colour of the water, and, on a nearer approach, dark spots will be perceptible upon it. Between it and Hassel Island, is a channel, having 10 and 13 fathoms midway, commonly hard sand; and between Hassel Island and the shores of Zealand, the passage is 11 or 12 miles wide, having midway 10, 12, and 14 fathoms.
Two beacons have been laid down at the Lyse Ground in the Cattegat, N.E. of the Island of Hassel, viz.:-A beacon, with 2 brooms at the top, at the N.E. end of the aforesaid ground, in 43 fathoms water, and by bearings, Hassel Lighthouse S.W. S.; the Koll E.S.E. E. A beacon, with a broom at the top, at the S.W. end of the Ground, in 4 fathoms water, and by bearings, Hassel Lighthouse S.W. by S., and the Koll E. by S. The beacons will remain at their stations throughout the year.
HASSEL is a small low island, with a reef running out from each end: that towards the coast of Zealand extends S. by E., full 13 mile, and occasionally becomes dry; that on the other side of the island runs out N.W. by N., nearly 2 miles, having some rocks upon it, visible at times, and with 2 fathoms at its extremity; there is a good depth of water all round the island; and vessels frequently anchor both on its north and southern sides, in from 6 to 10 fathoms, on a bottom of sand and shells.
On the small Islet of Hassel, situated in latitude 56° 11′ N, and longitude 11° 42′ E. of Greenwich, a new lighthouse has been erected, of which the light is a moveable one, and turns in one minute in such a direction, that during 19 seconds it appears a fixed light, and after that a strong glaring one, for 11 seconds; then a fixed light, for 19 seconds, re-appears, and at last the light disappears during 11 seconds; after which, light and darkness alternate in the same rotation. This light is 85 feet above the level of the sea; so that, from the deck of a ship, it may be seen at a distance of 14 miles, though perhaps only when the atmosphere is clear.
The lighthouse, the height of which from its base is 32 feet, is painted white, and is to be continually kept so, that during day-time it may serve as a distinct sea-mark. The moveable light will, in future, throughout the whole of the year, be lighted every night from Easter to Michaelmas an hour, and from Michaelmas to Easter an hour, before sun-set.
NOTICE TO MARINERS.-The General Customs and Commercial Department at Copenhagen has, under date of August 30th, 1844, given notice, that the fishermen of Lynas have obtained permission to erect a lamp-light at Spotsberg, at the mouth of the Isefjord, and to keep the same burning from 1st of September to 1st November. This
lamp-light, which will be visible in the direction from E. S. E. to W.S. W., at the distance of about 2 leagues, was lighted for the first time, on September 1st, 1844, and during the period before stated, to be kept burning the same as all other lights of the kingdom.
Vessels bound for the Sound, having cleared the Great Middle Ground, and steering southerly, will soon perceive the Koll Point, on which stands the lighthouse; this may, in clear weather, be seen at the distance of 8 or 9 leagues, appearing like 3 high broken hummocks. Great care is requisite in steering from abreast of Anholt to the Koll, especially with strong westerly winds, or your vessel will be driven to leeward, and forced into the Skelder Vik; therefore, should you find yourself unable to weather the Koll, it will be most prudent to run for Vaderoe Island, and anchor there, as before directed (p. 11.)
Care also must be taken, particularly in hazy weather, that you mistake not the false Koll, lying to the eastward of Vaderoe, for the true Koll. The mountains on the former are larger, and more even at their summit than the latter. Hoff Church also, which is white, and stands high, and West Karup Church, will indicate the false Koll; but if there should still remain a doubt, the sight of Vaderoe, Toreko Town, &c., will clear it up, and the lighthouse standing on Koll Point, must effectually prevent any further mistake.
NOTE. The lights on the Koll, and other parts of the Swedish Coast, are lit only in winter; so that, from the 15th of May to the 1st of August, the mariner must not depend upon seeing them; but all those on the Danish dominions burn throughout the year; from Michaelmas to Easter, they are lit at an hour, and from Easter to Michaelmas, at an hour after sun-set, and continue burning until break of day.
The BEARINGS and DISTANCES of the PRINCIPAL PLACES in the CATTEGAT. Variation allowed is One Point and Three-quarters Westerly.
THE SOUND AND GROUNDS.
KOLL POINT may be considered the eastern boundary of the entrance to the Sound, while Nakke Head, which is on the opposite Coast of Zealand, distant about 11 miles, and bearing S.W. S., is the Western Point or boundary. The Sound may be properly considered to include all that channel between Denmark and Sweden, from the Koll to Falsterbo.
Your direct course into the Sound is about S. by E. E.; you will then have the Koll Light, distant about 4 miles, on the port or larboard, and Nakke Head Lights on your starboard side; but should you sail nearer to the Koll, your course will be more southerly; and if near the Nakke Lights, more easterly in the former case, you must give the Swedish shore a berth of more than a mile, on account of the reefs which line the whole of that coast. Vessels may find temporary anchorage about 6 miles to the southward of Koll, at a place called Hoganas; here you may ride in 3 and 4 fathoms, and be pretty well sheltered from the heavy sea occasioned by north-westerly winds. Strangers will hardly venture in without a pilot; but a pilot for the Sound is to be obtained here. To run into this place, bring the south end of the wharf on with Hoganas Steeple. There is also a red beacon, with a square white top, at Hoganas, which, kept in one with Vasby Church, will likewise lead to this anchorage. Should you find it requisite to ride off Hoganas, in the winter season, when northerly winds are most to be dreaded, bring Vik Point about S.S.E.; you will then be conveniently situated for rounding the land, either to the northward or southward, in the event of cutting or breaking adrift; but the best place of shelter will be found at Vaderoe, as described in p. 11 of this work. Near Hoganas is a a brick-kiln, the fire of which, without caution, might be mistaken for that of a lighthouse. Should you sail in on the Danish side, you must not borrow too near the land, for there also sand-banks stretch off all the way from Gilburg Head to Elsineur.* The Koll Point bearing N.N.E., distant 6 miles, will lead you mid-channel, in 13 and 14 fathoms water. When the Koll Point bears north, and Cronborg Castle south, a little easterly, the tall spire to the eastward of the short one will also conduct you into the Sound, so far as Hammer Mills, or until they bear W. by S.; but if you should not know these mills, you may observe the town of Vik on the Swedish shore, a little to the south of which are several houses near the shore, and two with red tops at the back of these; when these bear N.N.E., you will be abreast of the Hittarp Reef. A little above this reef is a mill, standing on a hill, by itself, and surrounded half-way up by a gallery; when you get opposite to this mill, you will have advanced to the Hammer Mills, and with a westerly wind, may haul over for the coast of Zealand, running along it in not less than 7, 8, 9, or 10 fathoms; but be careful not to shut Gilberg Head within the Cliff Land to the northward of the Hammer Mill, until the Island of Huen comes clear of Cronborg Castle; this mark will lead to the eastward of the Lap, or Lappen, a sand-bank, which stretches out to the northward from Cronborg Castle. On this sand are 4 broom-beacons, 3 of which are placed upon the eastern edge of the sand, and 1 upon the sand to the westward. There are also two buoys placed on the eastern edge of the Lappen, which you must pass to the eastward of. Those to the eastward have 2 brooms each, and are placed in 21 feet water; but that to the westward has only 1 broom, and is fixed on a spot of 6 feet. Between the Lappen and the shore, a sort of bay runs in, having from 5 to 3 fathoms water; here small vessels may occasionally anchor, if necessary; but if the current runs to the northward, and you are becalmed, you may anchor under the Lappen, abreast of a small thatched house, in 7, 8, 9, or 10 fathoms; this house is surrounded by trees, and stands on the beach to the northward of the mill; with a fair wind, run along the edge of the bank, as before directed, and round CRONBORG CASTLE.
* Captain Thomson, of the Guard Brig, in the Road of Elsineur, has given notice, that that vessel has been moored with chain cables, instead of hempen ones, as formerly, which are laid in the general direction of the current, S.W. by S. and N.E. by N., the anchors being 40 fathoms distant from each other. The brig rides by a chain fastened to the middle of the large chain, the two anchors of which are provided with strong buoys. Vessels must be careful, in anchoring or getting under way, to keep their anchors clear of this chain.
[CATTEGAT & BALTIC.]
Should you from the Lappen run over to the Swedish coast, you will have 12, 13, 14, 16, and 19 fathoms; in the latter soundings you should tack, for then you will be near the Hittarp Bank. This is the narrowest part of the channel; for from the Lappen to the Hittarp, the channel is not more than 1 mile wide.
The 2 lights on Nacce, or Nakke Head, the northernmost part of Zealand, are now re-lit; the north-western one is 143 feet above the level of the sea, and the eastern 95 feet; they are both fixed lamp-lights, and visible respectively 15 and 17 miles off in clear weather. In entering the Sound, you will so steer as to get these two lights in one; but do not bring the Koll Light more to the northward than N. by E. When the lights are in one, they bear W.N.W. W.
With an easterly wind, it will not be advisable to bring the lights in a line, but leave an opening to the eastward, and you will thus avoid coming too near to the Zealand shore: but with westerly winds, having brought them in one, keep them so until you perceive the lantern of the N.E. steeple of Cronborg Castle, which exhibits a fixed lamp-light, at 107 feet above the water, bearing about S. by E. E., you will then be in 14 fathoms; steer on S.S.E. E., until this light bears S. 4 W., and Nakke Head Lights N.W. W.; your course will then be S. by E. E., until Cronborg Light comes W. N.; then steer S. by W. 3 W. for Disken Road, or S.W. W. for Elsineur. Let the above courses be kept as exactly as possible, or you may otherwise run into danger. Cronborg Light is from a lantern, with lamps and reflectors, and visible from the northward at the distance of 15 miles.
So soon as you have passed Cronborg Castle, and given a small berth to the point on which it stands, haul in S.W. or S.W. W. for Elsineur, where you may anchor, in 9 or 10 fathoms.
The DISKEN is a small ground, lying to the S. of Cronborg, the northern edge of which is distant more than a mile, thence extending S. E., about 2 miles, its greatest breadth being of a mile; it lies directly midway of the channel, and ships may, and do, frequently anchor upon it, in from 4 to 5 fathoms, hard sandy ground, but not very good for holding. Between this bank and the Danish shore, are 10 and 12 fathoms, and between it and the Swedish coast, 12, 14, and 16 fathoms.
HUEN. Nearly 8 miles southward of Cronborg, is the small Island of Huen, on all sides of which is clear ground and deep water.
Vessels proceeding from Elsineur Road, commonly run along the eastern edge of the Disken, in 6 and 7 fathoms water, keeping the two highest spires of Cronborg just open, bearing N. by W.; and when the village of Tegelbruck Rya, on the Swedish shore, comes S.E. E., you will be clear of the south end of the Disken. The mark is, a large house, about 5 miles from Helsingborg, on with the middle of 7 houses upon the hill above it;* from hence you will steer towards the Danish shore, and proceed to the westward of the Island of Huene. Mrchant-vessels also pass westward of the Disken.
ASTREA SHOAL.-This is a small shoal, discovered by H. M. ship, Astrea, lying directly midway between Huen and the Danish shore, and having 4, 43, and 5 fathoms over it, while adjacent to it are 8, 9, and 11 fathoms.
TORBEK SHOAL.-This is also another and more. dangerous knoll, of only 2 fathoms, lying in the fair-way for Copenhagen Road, and distant from Torbek about 3 miles, and from the outer buoy of the Middle Ground, 3 miles, the buoy bearing S. by W. W.
The current through the sound sets generally to the northward, at the rate of 1 or 2 miles an hour, in fine weather; in the narrow part of the strait it increases its velocity to 3 miles an hour; but with strong northerly and westerly winds, it sometimes changes its course; and when it blows hard in the North Sea, at N.W., the waters rise, and the current will turn to an opposite direction; from Elsineur it inclines towards the Swedish shores at all times; but westerly winds increase its velocity.
COPENHAGEN.-The direct course and distance from Elsineur to the first black buoy of the Ground, is S. by W., a little westerly, 18 miles, and the depth of water generally from 8 to 9 fathoms. But when you distinctly discover the steeples of Copenhagen, you will proceed on until you bring the great northern Crane on with the southernmost steeple, which is of a pointed form, with a statue on its top; you will then
* At Helsingborg and Elsineur, are two small harbour lights.
distinguish the first buoy of the Grounds, No. V., the best leading mark to find which, is a large house on Huen Island on with a white part of the cliff, or a gentleman's house in a wood below Copenhagen, with an avenue cut in the wood for a prospect: when this avenue is open, it will bear N.W., and will bring you directly to the buoy. In the outer road off this buoy, Captain Krusenstern anchored, in 1803, on a bottom of clay, in 7 fathoms water, the Crown Battery bearing W. & S., and the Round Tower, which is 120 feet high, W.S.W. The shore, all the way from Elsineur to Copenhagen, is lined with a sandy flat of shallow water, which, opposite Nibæ, extends out 1 mile, and abreast of Torbek increases to 24 miles; at the edge of this latter are 4 fathoms, shallowing to 3 and 2 fathoms as you approach the coast.
In June, 1836, a light was established, and since shown, on the battery of TreKroner (Three Crown Battery), to the north of the flag-staff, and at an elevation of about 30 feet above the parapet. It will be kept burning, like other Danish lights, so long as the navigation of the Sound remains unimpeded by ice.
There are three sand-banks lying before Copenhagen, occupying a space from E. to W. of full 7 miles, and from N. to S. about 10 miles, called the Grounds; the first surrounds the Island of Amag: that to the eastward encompasses the Saltholms; and between these is the Middle Bank. The passage to the west of the Middle, is called the King's Channel; that to the eastward of the Middle, the Outer or Eastern Gat; and that where these two unite, to the southward of the Middle, is named the Gaspar, or Drogden Channel, running between Amag and Saltholm. These passages are buoyed generally from March to November.
To sail through the Outer Channel, or Eastern Gat, keep nearer the Middle Ground than the Saltholms; for the latter is so steep, that between the space of the first and second buoy, you may get aground in 13 feet water, and yet have 7 fathoms under the stern of your ship.
The second buoy, No. IV., is placed about 1 mile to the southward of the first; the mark for it is the South Crane and Palace in one. Here the channel is narrow, for opposite to this buoy, about of a mile, there is a small rocky shoal or two, having only 12 feet over them.
The third or south buoy, No. III., called sometimes the Gaspar Buoy, lies on the southern extremity of the Middle Ground, distant rather more than 1 mile S. by W. from the second buoy, its mark being the two steeples at Copenhagen in one. Bring the two beacons which stand on the Cliff near the S.E. end of Amag, between Dragoe Town and the single house, to bear S.S.W. W., and you will go, clear of every danger, through the Eastern Gat, always paying attention to what has been said of the Saltholms Bank, between the first and second buoys. In turning, stand either way, until one of these beacons just touches the houses at Dragoe, but by no means bring them on with the houses, until you have passed the second buoy.
Ships drawing less than 12 feet water, may cross the Middle to the northward of the second buoy.
The KING'S CHANNEL appears to have become narrower than it formerly was: its northern extremity is pointed out by a red buoy, situated on the edge of the Stubben Sand, No. VI. On the northern end of the bank, upon which stands the Three Crowns Battery, is a buoy, No. VII.; and there is a beacon on the S. W. edge of the Middle Ground, W.S.W. of which is the magazine. The course in between this bank and the Middle Ground, towards the Three Crowns Battery, is S.W.; but a pilot is always necessary in navigating this channel, the passage being narrow, the current variable and uncertain, and frequently setting strongly northward. There are 5, 6, and 7 fathoms water within it, the course through being S.W., then S. by E. into the Gaspar Channel.
The GASPAR, or DROGDEN CHANNEL, is bounded on the western side by the Isle of Amag, which extends in a southerly direction to Dragoe, and thence W.S.W. W. to Alland's Hage, being surrounded all the way by a sandy flat, on which are several spots with only 7 and 8 feet water; on the edge of this flat, and almost opposite to the Castrup Works, is the Kna Buoy, No. II., lying in 3 fathoms water, and marking the boundary of the channel of deep water. On its eastern side is the low island, called the Saltholms; this also is encircled with a similar sandy shallow, named the Grounds; the edges of these are the boundaries of the passage. The navigable channel lies N. by E. and S. by W., being about of a mile broad; on its western side, near