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KONGSBACKA.—In sailing for the Gulf of Kongsbacka, you may pass on either side of Nidigen; if on the east or south side, with a free wind, bring the beacon on Halsund's Head and Onsala Church in one; keep this course until you are clearly within the entrance. There are also several other marks and beacons to direct your course in. On the headland Fierhals, there is a stone pyramid; on Maloe Island, 3 pyramidical stoneheaps; on Halsund's Head, a beacon, with a barrel at the top; and on Fiolokaret Rock another beacon; Onsala Church is very remarkable, and may be seen 20 miles off; and on Ravnoe, is also a white stone pyramid. By these marks it will be easy to bear-up for this harhour, even should you be compelled to work in with a contrary wind. Kongsbacka is a most excellent harbour, well sheltered, spacious, and with plenty of water for the largest ships; the bottom is clay and mud; the best anchorage is opposite to Onsala Church, in from 8 to 12 fathoms; and the watering place is at Gaatskal, in a little creek, where small vessels may lay up for the winter. Between Maloe and Halsund's Beacon, there is also good anchorage, in from 10 to 12 fathoms; this is called Maloe Sound; but with southerly winds, there is generally a very heavy swell; yet it is convenient for large ships, and preferable to most other places, on account of the facility with which they can at all times sail in and out. Within, is Skalohaven, a small but good harbour, having 3, 4, and 5 fathoms water, with a bottom of mud. Vessels here may, if necessary, safely run aground; and rings are fastened on both sides in the rocks, for the convenience of mooring; but it is too narrow for large ships. Grasset, which is on the other side of Skalo, is another small and safe harbour, having from 4 to 5 fathoms, with a bottom of clay and weeds, holding well; but, unless the anchor is let fall suddenly, the thickness of the sea-weeds will often prevent it catching hold of the ground. Here is room for small vessels; but a large ship, after letting go her anchor, will scarcely be able to swing clear without touching the ground; and the entrance is very narrow.

Monster Sound is narrow, and fit only for small craft, where, during winter, they lie in safety; fresh water is obtained only at Gaatskal, in Kongsbacka Fiord.

In leaving Maloe Sound, or any of the anchorages near it, with a southerly wind, you may sail N. Easterly within Grundboen, Swartskiær, Ron, Kongens, and Braken, and thence into the Cattegat: but it will always be advisable to go to the northward of the Tislerne Rocks, leaving them to the port or larboard; in this track you will have from 9 to 19 fathoms, and in a calm you can anchor at pleasure; but, as the ground is rocky, this had better not be attempted without a pilot.

South of the entrance to Kongsbacka, is Wemesto, or Wendelso Fiord, sheltered from the sea by several islands: between them are several passages, but only known to, and frequented by, small vessels. Nevertheless, in Wemesto Haven, the anchorage is good, and well sheltered.

To the southward of Wemesto, is Kloster and Balio Fiords, fit only for small ships drawing 7 or 8 feet water; the entrance to the latter is on the west side of the Gieter Island. There is also anchorage in Kloster Fiord, and within the Islands Herto; in the former are 7 and 8 feet, and in the latter 5 fathoms. But these places are not recommended, unless in cases of necessity; and pilots can seldom be had on this part

of the coast.

WARBERG.-To the southward of Balio Fiord, is Warberg, known by its castle, which is one of the most conspicuous objects on the Swedish coast; but the harbour is inconsiderable, and open to S.W. winds, which commonly occasion a heavy swell. Coming from the west, you must bring the church (the body of which is white, and the steeple black,) a little to the east or south side of the castle, keeping this course until you are within Skoelklip; this rock is always above water, and lies between Applewig's Hill and Beacon. In entering the harbour, keep about off from Skoelklip, and from the castle, or rather nearer, to avoid the shoals and rocks which surround Skoelklip. The anchorage is opposite the town, and the ground uneven; but the bottom is fine grey sand, though in some places rocky. In coming from the southward, look out for the Swartskiær Rocks, which lie near the shore at Ness; the southernmost being of a red colour, and the northernmost black; behind these rocks, small vessels may anchor in 6 or 7 feet: but if bound for Warberg, run on along shore into the harbour; the way is all clear of danger. To the port or larboard is the Skriven Rock, where the pilots reside; if, therefore, you see a flag hoisted on this rock, you can have a pilot; but if it blows too hard for a boat to come off, a pilot will conduct you in, by

a small flag on a staff, and you must attend to his motions carefully. Ships of 14 or 15 feet water may ride in this harbour with safety; but larger vessels anchor between Skriven Rock and the castle.

Eight miles to the southward of Warberg, is Morup Village, where stand a mill and a red-painted church; but this part of the coast must have a good berth, on account of the Berg's Reef, which runs a considerable way out. Morup Tange also is a rocky point, but not so dangerous, the rocks being mostly above water; it may be readily known by its white cliff, which is very conspicuous.

MORUP TANGE LIGHTHOUSE.-The new light-tower, near Morup Tange, in the Cattegat, in lat. 56° 55′ 12′′ N., and long. 12° 22′ 36′′ E. of Greenwich, one league north of Falkenberg, is provided with lenticular apparatus, having a fixed light, which will show a glare round the whole horizon. The tower also offers a particular mark during the day-time, being 70 feet high, the roof and the light 95 feet above the level of the sea, and may be seen, in clear weather, at 33 German miles distant, or 5 English leagues.

From hence to the Island of Tylo, a distance of nearly 20 miles, you may keep about 2 miles from the shore; and as you sail along, you will observe various pyramidical beacons placed on the different hills: on Smorkstack Hill is, or was, a remarkable tree; Falkenberg Church has a high steeple, and Sonarum Church a white tower. The coast beyond Tylo, turns easterly to Halmstad Bay and Town, where there is a small river: to the southward, is Laholm and another river; but these rivers vary so much by the sand they bring down, and those a westerly wind brings in, that vessels commonly are obliged to ride in the open road, and convey their goods to and from the shore in boats and lighters. At Halmstad Bar, there generally are about 3 and 4 feet water; and within the river, 7 and 8 feet: Baastad River is also incommoded by sand at its entrance, where there are 8 or 9 feet. Should a vessel be driven in here by a hard westerly gale, and obliged to anchor, her best place will be nearly in a line between Vadero and Tylo, in about 10 fathoms, on a bottom of sand, where, if you are provided with good ground tackle, you may ride out a gale in safety, for the ground holds well.

VADEROE.-South, a little east, of Nidigen, distant 18 leagues, is Waderoe or Vaderoe Island, lying about 2 miles from the main, about 2 miles long and a mile broad, having several small rocky islets about it. The roadstead is of easy access, and vessels may go in or out at either end, as best suits their convenience. If you are coming from the northward, give the north point of the island a berth of about 3 of a mile, for a reef stretches out a mile from it; steer, therefore, from S.E. to S.S.E., until the Koll Lighthouse comes just in sight to the eastward of the island; and when in a line with the beacon, you will be mid-channel, and may proceed on to the anchorage. Should you be beating in or out of the North Channel, you may stand to the eastward, until Koll Lighthouse comes on with Winga Beacon; and to the westward, until the two beacons are in a line.

If sailing from Anholt, the wind blowing fresh from the S. Westward, and you cannot gain the Sound, it is advisable to bear away for Vaderoe anchorage; to enter which, from the southward, you will endeavour to bring the island to bear E. by N., and run for it in that direction, until you get the Town of Toreko in sight. The town is built on the beach, and has a white church, somewhat higher than the houses, but without any spire. Bring it to bear E. S., and Hoff Church, which stands inland upon a rising ground, and is white also, will be in one with it. Run on with this mark, until the western part of Vaderoe comes N.W.; a mill will then become visible to the southward of Toreko: you should steer on to the northward, until you bring this mill in one with the Church of Hoff, bearing east; run on, until the beacon on the Wrænen comes open to the eastward of that on Winga, bearing nearly N. by E.; then haul in, about N.N.E., for the road: in passing Winga Beacon, at the distance of a cable's length, you will have 7 fathoms water. Anchor between the two beacons, Wrænen bearing north, and the Winga Beacon S.W. by S., on a fine sandy bottom, distant from the island about of a mile, and about 1 mile from Toreko Town. You will observe, the two rocks, named Winga and Wranen, have each a gibbet-like beacon erected upon them, the arm pointing to the eastward, to direct you to sail to the eastward of them. The best anchorage is with the highest part of Vaderoe brought N.W. Near Vaderoe, are 7 fathoms; but, towards Toreko, 9 and 10.

Another and easier direction for a stranger to enter by the southern passage, will be

for him to run on to the south-eastward, giving the island a berth of 2 or 3 miles, until the Koll Lighthouse comes S.W. by W.; then to adopt a N.E. by E. course, until he gets sight of the Winga Beacon, and as soon as this is visible, endeavour to bring it to bear N.N.E.; proceed on until he is within 2 cables' length of it, and brings the Wrænen Beacon open to the eastward; which having done, continue to steer in N.N.E. or N.E. by N., and anchor, as before directed.

This roadstead is spacious, and can accommodate some hundreds of ships, which may ride secure from all winds, excepting those from the N.W. by N. to N.E.; but should the winds blow from this quarter, they are generally accompanied with fine weather. Fresh water may be had in abundance, about 3 miles to the southward of Toreko.

At the south end of Vaderoe, is the small harbour of Kappleshaven, for small vessels, with 6 or 7 feet water; there is also a passage between Tyge and Rakesten, but too intricate for a stranger. The Island Vaderoe may be considered the port or larboard point of entrance to the Bay of Skelder, the Koll being the starboard point, from whence it runs in about 11 or 12 miles. S.W. S., distant 8 miles from the south part of Vaderoe, is the Koll Lighthouse.

KOLL LIGHTHOUSE.-The Royal Naval Board hereby makes known, for the information of mariners, that, in accordance with the ordinances of the 15th of April and 10th June, 1842, the Koll lighthouse will be rebuilt in the course of the present summer, and the light altered from a coal light to a revolving reflector: and that the illumination during the time occupied in the repairs, will be made from an open coal light, placed upon a rock near the tower. The revolving light will consist of 12 reflectors of polished glass, three of which will be placed on each side of a square frame, made to revolve by the assistance of clock-work, the whole time to be occupied in the revolution being 8 minutes, during which period 4 equal flames, each of about 30 seconds' duration, with dark intervals of about 1 minute, will consequently illuminate the horizon.

It is, therefore, impossible to mistake this light for that of the Anholt, as, according to the notice issued by the Royal Danish Lighthouse Department, on the 24th of March, 1842, the time occupied in the revolution of the latter is only 3 minutes, during which time 8 flames, each of 6 seconds' duration, are exhibited.*

At the botttom of Skelder Bay, is the River and Town of Engelholm, a place of little note, having no shelter; vessels trading there, generally run for Grythamn, a small harbour on the east side of the bay, where they will have 6 or 7 feet water, and may lie during the winter. If driven into this bay, and you are disposed to let go an anchor, it is advisable to run on into 8 or 9 fathoms, for the anchorage in deeper water is not safe.

GENERAL REMARK.-Mariners who visit this part of the coast of Sweden, will frequently have to complain of the negligence and inattention of the pilots, who seldom come on board until the vessel has passed the principal dangers, and sometimes omit coming altogether; it becomes, therefore, indispensably necessary, they should pay a proper and diligent attention to those instructions with which we have here been enabled to present them.

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HAVING described the harbours and roadsteads along the Swedish coast, from Christiania to the Koll, we shall return to the Scaw, and conduct the mariner through the Cattegat to the Sound. We have already stated, that

When abreast of the Scaw, with an offing of 5 miles, and the light bearing due west, your course will be S.E. by S., 9 leagues, by which you will clear all dangers, and pass between the Trindelen Rock and Wingoe Beacon, in a depth of water of from 19 to 32 fathoms; your next course will be S. E., 20 leagues, or upwards. Proceeding on this track, you will pass the Fladen, or Red Ground, lying from 7 to 10 miles S.W. by W. from Nidigen Island. On the body of this bank are 13, 14, 15, and 16 fathoms; on

* By a notice from the Swedish and Norwegian Consulate General, dated London, October 24th, 1843, the new Koll Light was to be lighted for the first time on the evening before the 1st of November following.

its north edge, is a spot, with only 6 and 8 fathoms; and towards its S.E. extremity, is another place, with only 4 fathoms; while round its edges are from 23 to 32 fathoms: it is composed of a substance like broken bricks, mixed with brown sand. Some large stones, or rather rocks, have also been discovered on this bank, down the sides of which the lead will frequently slide into deeper water. The above-mentioned spot of 4 fathoms, was examined on the 2d and 3d of May, 1810, by the masters of his Majesty's ships Dictator, Ganges, Plantagenet, and Vanguard. It is of small extent, and has from 5 to 7 fathoms round it, rocky ground. When on it, Warberg Castle bore S. 57° E., and Nidigen Lighthouse N. 42° E.; at the distance of a mile S.W. by W. from this shoal, they found another, with from 25 to 29 feet on, and 12 fathoms close to it. When on the latter shoal, Warberg Castle bore S. 59° 30' E., distant about 16 miles, and Nidigen Lights N. 42° E., distant about 94 miles.

LITTLE MIDDLE GROUND.-Eleven miles to the southward of the Fladen, is the Little Middle Ground, a dangerous and extensive bank, running nearly in a north and south direction, its northern extremity lying in about the latitude of 57°. From the shallowest part of this shoal, the Castle of Warberg bears E.N.E., distant 13 miles; Anholt Lighthouse nearly S.W. by W., distant about 16 miles; and Morup Church E. by S., distant about 14 or 15 miles; its space is, from N. to S., of a cable's length, and its breadth, from E. to W., half as much; close to it are 4 fathoms, which immediately deepens: it is partly formed of large stones, whose tops, pointing upward, in a conical form, have the least depth of water, the lead gliding down their sides into unequal ground. In storms, the sea frequently breaks over it, and therefore ships are advised to avoid it, which will readily enough be done, by keeping your lead constantly going, for, in dark weather, objects on land may not be visible. The stony bank above mentioned, has from 4 to 7 fathoms over it. Vessels navigating this part should be very attentive to the quality of the ground, and large ships should never venture into less water than 8 fathoms.

The following observations will infallibly point out the Little Middle Ground, from whichever side you may be approaching to it :


If from the N., you will have fine loose sand; hard sand; coarse shingles. -from the N.E., loose sand; chalky stones; large stones; red sand with shingles. -from the E., grey sand; shingle and shells; yellow sand; chalky stones. -from the S.E., coarse sand; shells and stones; stones; red sand.

-from the S., fine sand; sand with shells; coarse sand; coarse gravel with stones. —from the W., coarse sand; shingle with large stones; brown sand with black spots; coarse sand with shingle.

-from the N.W., fine sand with stones; coarse sand; brown sand; fine sand with


On the east side of the Little Middle Ground is another bank, of less extent; and between them is a channel a mile broad, with soundings from 16 to 24 fathoms, muddy ground. The entrance from the N. and N.E. sides of the Little Middle Ground and this bank, are nearly the same, having from 20 fathoms, muddy ground, a sudden decrease to 15, 14, and 13 fathoms; but the difference of quality of the ground, and the following soundings within the banks, will show which bank you are upon.

Sailing on the Little Middle Ground, from north to east, you will perceive a gradual decrease of water; but, from the east, it shallows immediately.

If you enter the smaller bank from the S.E., you will get from a depth of 29 fathoms, mud, to 10 and 11 fathoms, sand, with chalk, stones and shingle; but when coming on the Little Middle Ground from the same direction, you will have 17, then 15 fathoms, fine sand, afterwards gravel and shells, the soundings decreasing as you advance farther in; for the more southerly you go on the Little Middle Ground, the deeper your water becomes, its farthest extremity having 21 fathoms; and you may readily know when you are off the bank, by the lead dropping into deeper water, 27, 30, and 32 fathoms,


When the light at Anholt bears W.S.W., or more to the southward, distant 5 leagues, you will have 15 and 16 fathoms, sand and shells, and be about 2 miles off the shallow part; but if in that direction you have not these soundings, you are either on the east or west side of it; in the first case, you will find from 23 to 25 fathoms, muddy ground, and in the latter from 18 to 20 fathoms, fine sand.

Still farther inward, towards the Swedish shores, is a little bank, about 2 miles long

and a mile broad, over which are from 16 to 18 fathoms, having a channel between it and the Inner Bank before mentioned, 14 mile wide, with 24 and 26 fathoms in it. This sand is distant from the shore about 5 miles, the water being deep between.

ANHOLT. Directly west of the southern part of the Little Middle Ground, lies the Island of Anholt, or Anout: it is low, flat, and sandy. On its eastern end stands a lighthouse, 120 feet above the level of the sea, which at night shows 2 lights, the high light flashing, the lower one fixed 63 feet below the upper one, on the eastern side, and serves as a mark for Knoben; the upper light may be seen 5 or 6 leagues off, and is of the greatest utility in directing vessels to avoid the dangerous reef which runs off the eastern point of the island. Near the extremity of this reef, lies a stone, always above water, called the Knoben, distant from the island 2 leagues, and joined to it by an isthmus, or neck of sand. The Knoben, or east end of the reef, is steep-to; and at the distance of of a mile from it, you will have 23 and 25 fathoms, soft ground. Between the Trindelen and Anholt, which is 44 or 45 miles, the soundings are very irregular, and considered of no small importance to navigators. Keeping to the eastward, you will have muddy ground and deep water; but to the westward, and nearly in a line between the Trindelen and Lessoe East Point, is a bank, on the outermost edge of which are from 15 to 13 fathoms; farther in, only 7 and 8 fathoms, decreasing as you near the Island Lessoe. In this direction, and just to the northward of 57°, are two small shoals, the southern one having 23 feet, the northern one only 13 feet; these are about 17 or 18 miles north of the Anholt Light. There is also another bank, situated about 2 leagues to the eastward of these, over which are from 14 to 24 fathoms, sand and shells; on all sides of it are 30 fathoms, muddy ground.

ANHOLT FLOATING LIGHT-VESSEL.-This vessel, having two masts, with the peculiar rig of a schooner, and whose sides are painted red, with a white cross, lies E. S. from the lighthouse on the Island of Anholt, about of a mile from the end of the reef, in 18 fathoms water.

The light apparatus consists of 9 lamps, with rotatory gear, which surrounds the after-mast, and will be elevated 25 feet above the level of the sea. This, like the other Danish lights, will in future be kept burning between Michaelmas and Easter, from an hour after sun-set to sun-rise; and between Easter and Michaelmas, from an hour after sun-set. In thick rain or fog, the ship's bells will be rung continually for 5 minutes, after a pause of the same duration. During the day a red ball will be hoisted on the fore-top, formed of twisted bars of iron, and 4 feet in diameter; this ball will be constantly hoisted, at an elevation of 52 feet above the level of the sea. The light-vessel is appointed to remain at her station until the 21st of December, and to resume it as early as possible in the month of March in each year. The crew are not allowed to have communication with any passing vessel, except in cases of distress requiring immediate assistance, which will then be rendered as far as possible. The fixed light on the Island of Anholt is now altered to a flashing light, comprising 8 lamps, with rotatory apparatus, revolving in 3 minutes, so that every 25 seconds a strong flash is shown, which continues about 6 seconds, and then disappears for 19 seconds. This light is, in future, to be exhibited every night throughout the year, according to the regulations for lighting and extinguishing the Danish lights. On the contrary, the additional fixed light on the eastern side of the lighthouse, will be kept burning only so long as the light-vessel is not on her station.

Three miles to the southward of Anholt Light, is a ridge of sand, called the Little Bank, with 6 fathoms water over it, while between it and Anholt are 13 and 14 fathoms. A sandy shoal surrounds the whole Island of Anholt, its southern edge stretching all the way from the Knoben to the Island, getting broader to the southward, where it shallows out from the shore above 3 miles. It then turns to the northward again, and ends in what is called the N. W. Reef, which now may be distinguished by a black buoy at its extremity, lying in 4 fathoms water, and bearing nearly N.W. by W. from the lighthouse, distant 10 miles; the edge of this bank then returns towards the Island of Anholt, lines the northern shores of the Island, and joins the Knoben.

GREAT MIDDLE GROUND.-To the southward of the Little Middle Ground, and S.E. of Anholt Light, lies a large bank, called the Great Middle Ground, the northern part of which is about the parallel of 56° 40′ north, extending thence southerly to the parallel of 56° 22′, and being in breadth nearly 9 miles. On a patch of ground near the middle are only 5 fathoms; round this spot are 8, 9, 10, and 11 fathoms,

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