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LILLO (George), an excellent dramatic writer, was born near Moorgate, in London, in 1693, where he pursued his business of a jeweller many years, with the fairest reputation, He was strongly attached to the Muses, and all his compositions tend to the promotion of virtue, morality, and religion. Mr. Lillo, in pursuing his aim, made a happy choice of this subject. He does not introduce kings and heroes on the stage; yet by exhibiting tragic scenes in common and domestic life, and representing the ruin of private families, by lust, avarice, and other vices, he raises the pas. sions to an equal height, and exacts a tribute of tears from the audience. It is said, that when his George Barnwell first came upon the stage, many of the critics attended its first representation with the most unfavourable impressions; and the story being founded on an old ballad, they brought it with them, intending to make pleasant remarks and ludicrous comparisons between the ancient ditty, and the modern drama; bat the merit of the play soon got the better of their contempt, and presented them scenes written so truly to the heart, that they dropped their ballads, and took out their handkerchiefs. Mr. Lillo wrote four other tragedies: The Christian Hero; Elme. rick; Fatal Curiosity; and Arden of Feversham; and, dying in the year 1739, left behind him an excellent character. His works have been collected and published, with an account of his life, in two 12mo. volumes, by Mr. T. Davis.

LILLY (William), a noted English astrologer, born in Leicestershire, in 1602; where his father, not being able to give him more learning than common writing and arithmetic, he resolved to seek his for tune in London. He arrived in 1620, and lived four years as a servant to a mantuamaker in the parish of St. Clement Danes; but then moved a step higher, to the service of Mr. Wright, master of the Salters' Company in the Strand, who not being able to write, Lilly, among other offices, kept his books. In 1627, when his master died, he paid his addresses to the widow, whom he married with a fortune of 10001. Being now his own master, he followed the puritanical preachers; and, turning his mind to judicial astrology, became pupil to one Evans, a profligate Welsh parson, in that pretended art. Getting a MS. of the Ars Notitia of Corn. Agrippa, with alterations, he drank in the doctrine of the magic cirele, and the invocation of spirits, with great eagerness. He was the author of the Merlinus Anglicus junior; The Supernatural Sight; and, The White King's Prophecy. In him we have an instance of the general superstition and ignorance that prevailed in the time of the civil war between Charles I. and his parliament; for the king consulted this astrologer, to know in what quarter he should conceal himself, if he

could escape from Hampton-court; and General Fairfax, on the other side, sent for him to his army, to ask him if he could tell by his art, whether God was with them and their cause? Lilly, who made his fortune by favourable predictions to both parties, assured the general that God would be with him and his army. In 1648, he published his Treatise of the three Suns seen the preceding winter; and also an astrological judgment upon a conjunction of Saturn and Mars. This year the council of state gave him in money 501. and a pension of 1001. per annum, which he received for two years, and then resigned on some disgust. In June 1660, he was taken into custody by order of the parliament, by whom he was examined, concerning the person who cut off the head of King Charles I. The same year he sued out his pardon, under the great seal of England. The plague raging in London, he removed with his family to his estate at Hersham; and in October 1666, was examined before a committee of the House of Commons, concerning the fire of London, which happened in September that year. After his retirement to Hersham, he applied himself to the study of physic, and by means of his friend Mr. Ashmole, obtained from Archbishop Sheldon a licence for the practice of it. A little before his death, he adopted for his son, by the name of Merlin junior, one Henry Coley, a tailor by trade: and at the same time gave him the impression of his almanack, after it had been printed for 36 years. He died in 1681, of a dead palsy. Mr. Ashinole set a monument over his grave in the church of Walton-upon-Thames.-His "Observations on the Life and Death of Charles, late King of England," if we overlook the astrological nonsense, may be read with as much satisfaction as more celebrated histories; Lilly being not only very well informed, but strictly impar tial. This work, with the Lives of Lilly and Ashmole, written by themselves, were published, in one vol. 8vo. in 1774, by Mr. Burman. LILY. In botany. See LILIUM.

-African Scarlet. See AMARYLLIS.

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LILY, Hyacinth. See SCILLA.

Pyramidal. See LILIUM. -Thorn. See CATESBÆA. LILY (William), a famous grammarian, was born at Oldham, in Hampshire, about 1466, and educated at Magdalen college, Oxford, where he took his degree of B. A. and then went ou pilgrimage to the Holy Land. During his journey he acquired the Greek language at the Isle of Rhodes. From thence he went to Rome, and on his return to England, in 1509, settled in London, where he was appointed first master in St. Paul's school. He discharged his trust with great reputation, and brought up many eminent scholars. He died of the plague in 1522. He wrote several pieces besides his grammar, which is too well known to need observation.

LILY (George), eldest son of the above, was born at London, and educated at Magdalen college, Oxford, and became prebendary of Canterbury. He was the first who pub. lished an exact map of Britain, and died in 1559. He wrote some books on the English history.

LILYBEUM, a promontory of Sicily, projecting towards the African coast, with a town of the same name near the gates. The town was strong and very considerable, and it maintained long sieges against the Carthaginians, Romans, &c. Nothing now remains of this city, but the ruins of temples and aqueducts.

LILYLIVERED. a. (lily and liver.) Whitelivered; cowardly (Shakspeare).

LIMA, a city, capital of Peru, with an archbishop's see, and a university. In 1531, Pizarro, marching through the country, was struck with the beauty and fertility of the extensive valley of Rimac. There, on a small river of the same name with the valley at the distance of five miles from Callao, the most commodious harbour in the Pacific Ocean, he founded a city, and gave it the name of Ciudad de los Reyes. This name it retains among the Spaniards in all legal deeds, but is better known to foreigners by that of Lima, a corruption of the ancient appellation of the valley in which it is seated. Lima gives its name to the principal audience of Peru, and is surrounded with brick walls, with ramparts and bastions. The streets are handsome and straight the houses are generally only one story high, on account of the earthquakes. One part of the roofs is covered with coarse linen cloth, and the others only with reeds, which is not inconvenient, because it never rains here; but the rich inhabitants cover theirs with fine mats, or beautiful cotton cloths. There are trees planted all round their houses, to keep off the heat of the sun. What the houses want in height they have in length and depth; for some of them


200 feet long, and proportionably broad, so that they have 10 or 12 large apartments on the ground floor. The river

forms canals in the streets, which run to most of the houses, and serve to water their gardens, &c. The churches and convents are extremely rich; and many images of the saints are of gold, adorned with jewels. The city is four miles in length, and two in breadth, and is divided into eight parishes. It is the seat of the viceroy, and contains several courts, as that of the viceroy, of the archbishop, of the inquisition, of the crusado, and of the wills. Earthquakes are very frequent, and some have done the city much damage, particularly that in 1746, by which it was almost destroyed. The inhabitants are so rich that when the viceroy, sent from Spain in 1682, made his public entrance into this city, they paved the streets he was to pass through with ingots of silver. They are also very debauched, but, at the same time, extremely superstitious; and they have a strong belief in the power of charms. Lima is 800 miles S. of Quito. Lon. 76. 41 W. Lat. 12. 1 S.

LIMA, an audience of Peru, lying on the Pacific Ocean; bounded on the N. by the audience of Quito, on the E. by the Andes, on the S. by the audience of Los Charcos, and on the W. by the Pacific Ocean.

LIMATURA FERRI. Steel filings are considered as possessing stimulating and strengthening qualities, and are exhibited in worm cases, ataxia, leucorrhæa, diarrhoea, chlorosis, &c.

LIMAX. Slug; naked snail. In zoology a genus of the class vermes, order mollusca. Body oblong, creeping, with a fleshy kind of shield above and a longitudinal flat dish beneath; aperture placed on the right side within the shield; feelers four, situate above the mouth, with an eye at the tip of each of the larger ones. Fifteen species; of which six are common to our country. The following are most worthy of notice.

1. L. ater. Black slug. Body black and furrowed with deep wrinkles. There are four or five varieties from a little variation of colour; the feelers however are always black, the back convex; the shield rough with numerous dots; abdomen wrinkled. Found in woods, meadows, fields and gardens; from one and a half to five inches long; crawls slowly, and leaves a slime upon whatever it passes over.

2. L. agrestis. Rustic slug. Body whitish, with black feelers. Of this there are also several varieties, from spots or streaks or other intermixtures of colour. The variety possessed of a yellowish shield, and perhaps several others, has a power of secreting a large quantity of mucus from the under surface, and forming it into a thread, like a spider's web; by this means it often suspends itself and descends from the branches of trees or any height it had crawled up to. The variety with scattered black specks is recommended to be swallowed by consumptive persons. It is found in gardens, pastures and groves, from May till Decem

ber; about half an inch long; and when touched, sticks as if dead to the fingers.

LIMB. s. (lim, Saxon.) 1. A member; a jointed or articulated part of animals (Mil.). 2. (limbe, French.) An edge; a border (Newton).

To LIMB. v. a. (from the noun.) 2. To supply with limbs (Milton). 2. To tear asunder; to dismember.

LIMB. In botany. The border or upper dilated part of a monopetalous corol. Since we have only the word border in vernacular English, to express the upper spreading part, both in this and the polypetalous corol, it would perhaps be better to preserve the Latin terms limb (limbus) for the first, and lamen (lamina) for the second.

LIMB, the outermost border, or graduated edge, of a quadrant, astrolabe, or such like mathematical instrument.

The word is also used for the arch of the primitive circle, in any projection of the sphere in plano.

LIMB also signifies the outermost border or edge of the sun or moon; as the upper limb, or edge; the lower limb; the preceding limb, or side; the following limb.Astronomers observe the upper or lower limb of the sun or moon, to find their true height, or that of the centre, which differs from the others by the semidiameter of the disc.

LIMBAT, the name of a periodical wind common in the island of Cyprus, and of great service in moderating the heats of the climate, which would otherwise be intolerable. According to the Abbé Mariti, it begins to blow at eight in the morning the first day; increases as the sun advances til noon; then gradually weakens, and at three falls entirely. On the second day it arises at the same hour; but it does not attain its greatest strength till about one in the afternoon, and ceases at four precisely. On the third day it begins as before; but it falls an hour later. On the five succeeding days, it follows the same progression as on the third; but it is remarked, that a little before it ceases, it becomes extremely violent. At the expiration of five days it commences a new period like the former. By narrowly observing the sea on that side from which it is about to blow a little before it arises, one may determine what degree of strength it will have during the day. If the horizon is clear, and is entirely free from clouds, the wind will be weak, and even almost insensible; but if it is dark and cloudy, the wind will be strong and violent. This limbat wind, notwithstanding its utility in moderating the excessive heat, often becomes the cause of fevers, especially to the Europeans, from their being less habituated to the climate, and more apt than the natives to suffer themselves to be surprised by the cool air, when in a state of perspiration. This wind, the falling of which happens an hour sooner or later, is succeeded by a calm,

accompanied by a certain moisture that renders the air somewhat heavy. This moisture disappears in the evening, being dissipated by a wind which arises every day at that period. This wind is considered as a land breeze by the inhabitants of the southern and eastern parts of the island; but it is called a sea breeze by those in the northern and western, who indeed receive it immediately from the sea.

LIMBED. a. (from limb.) Formed with regard to limbs (Pope).

LIMBER. a. Flexible; easily bent; pliant; lithe (Ray. Harvey).

LIMBERNESS. 8. Flexibility; pliancy. LIMBERS, in artillery, a sort of advanced train, joined to the carriage of a cannon on a march. It is composed of two shafts, wide enough to receive a horse between them, called the fillet horse: these shafts are joined by two bars of wood, and a bolt of iron at one end, and mounted on a pair of rather small wheels. Upon the axle-tree rises a strong iron spike, which is put into a hole in the hinder part of the train of the gun-carriage, to draw it by. But when a gun is in action, the limbers are taken off, and run out behind it. See the dimensions and figure in Muller's Treatise of Artillery, pa. 187.

LIMBO. 8. 1. A region bordering upon hell, in which there is neither pleasure nor pain (Shakspeare). 2. Any place of misery and restraint (Hudibras).

LIMBORCH (Philip), a learned divine, was born at Amsterdam in 1633, and received his education among the remonstrants. In 1654 he became a probationary minister at Haerlem, from whence he removed to Gouda as pastor of a remonstrant congregation. In 1667 he became minister at Amsterdam, and the year following succeeded Pontanus in the divinity professorship. In 1686 he published his System of Theology according to the tenets of the remonstrants, and it was so well received as to pass through four editions. The same year he had a dispute with Isaac Orobio, a Spanish Jew, the result of which was an admirable piece by our author, entitled, Collocatio Amica de Veritate Religionis Christianæ cum erudito Judæo. In 1694 he succeeded in recovering a young woman to christianity, who had been perverted to Judaism by a rabbi of whom she had received some instructions in Hebrew. This learned man died in 1712. Besides the above books he published the History of the Inquisition, and several of the works of Episcopius, who was his great-uncle.

LIMBURG, a town of Germany, in the electorate of Treves. The Austrians defeated the French on the heights near this place, in 1796. It is seated on the Lahn, 10 miles E. of Nassau, and 20 N. of Mentz. Lon. 7. 51 E. Lat. 50. 24 N.

LIMBURG, a fertile province of the Netherlands; bounded on the N. by the

duchy of Juliers, on the E. by that duchy and the territory of Aix-la-Chapelle, and on the S. and W. by the bishopric of Liege, from which it is separated by the Maese. It is 42 miles long and 30 broad, and contains some of the best iron mines in the Netherlands.

LIMBURG, the capital of Austrian Limburg. It was taken by the French in 1675, and by the allies in 1702, but afterward ceded to the Austrians, the fortifications having been first demolished. Here is a manufacture of woollen cloths, and it is famous for excellent cheese. It is seated on a mountain, near the river Verse, 15 miles S. E. of Liege. Lon. 6. 5 E. Lat. 50. 38 N.

LIME, a town in Dorsetshire. See LYME REGIS.

LIME OF LIMEN, a village in Kent, three miles W. of Hitle. It was formerly a port, till choked up by the sands, and is now a poor town, but it has the horn and mace, and other tokens left of its ancient grandeur. It used to be the place where the lord warden of the Cinque Ports was sworn, at his entrance upon his office. The Roman road from Canterbury, called Stane-street, ended here; and from the brow of its hill may be seen the ruins of the Roman walls. Here was formerly a castle, now converted into a farm-house.

LIME, in mineralogy and masonry, the basis of chalk, marble and mortar. See CRETA and MARMOR.

This substance has been known from the earliest ages; from a very early period of time it has been employed as an ingredient in mortar, as an article in medicine, and as a manure to fertilize fields. It is found in calcareous spars, shells, and a variety of other substances, but purest and most in quantity in lime-stones, marbles, and chalk. None of these substances are, however, strictly speaking, lime; but they are all capable of becoming lime by a well known process; by keeping them some time in a white heat; which process is called burning of lime. The product, which in common language is denominated quick-lime is the lime, of che mistry.

Pure lime is of a white colour, moderately hard but easily reducible to a powder. It has a hot burning taste, and in some neasure corrodes and destroys the texture of those animal bodies to which it is applied. Its specific gravity is 2.3. It tinges vegetable blues green, and at last converts them to yellow. It is incapable of being fused by the most violent heats that can be produced in furnaces, or even by the most powerful burning-glasses.

If water be poured on newly-burnt lime it swells and falls to pieces, and is soon reduced to a very fine powder. In the mean time so much heat is produced that part of the water flies off in vapour. If the quantity of lime slacked (as this process is termed) be great, the heat produced is sufficient to set

In this manner vessels


fire to combustibles. loaded with lime have sometimes been burnt. When great quantities of lime are slacked in a dark place, not only heat but light also is emitted, as Mr. Pelletier has observed. When slacked lime is weighed, it is found heavier than it was before. additional weight is owing to a part of the water mixing with the lime, which water may be separated again by the application of a red heat; and by this process the lime becomes just what it was before being slacked. Hence the reason of the heat, cooled during the slacking of lime. Part of the water combines with the lime and thus becomes solid; of course it parts with its caloric of fluidity, and probably also with a considerable quantity of caloric which exists in water even when in the state of ice for when two parts of lime and one part of ice (each at 32) are mixed, they combine rapidly, and their temperature is elevated to 212. elevation of temperature during the slacking of barytes and strontian is owing to the same



The smell perceived during the slacking of lime is owing to a part of that earth being elevated along with the vapour of the water; as evidently appears from this circumstance, that vegetable blues exposed to this vapour are converted into green.

Limestone and chalk, though capable of being converted into lime by burning, possess hardly any of the properties of that active substance. They are tasteless ; scarcely soluble in water, and do not perceptibly act on animal bodies. It was for many years undecided, and indeed has been but lately determined, what the actual difference between lime and limestone is owing to. The earliest chemical attentions that were paid to these substances discovered than the latter was specifically heavier that the former; and it was soon conceived that the greater weight was owing to a combination of water; upon pushing the examination, however, still farther, it was next perceived that the weight of water possessed by the lime-stone by no means allowed for the difference: but some very happy experiments of Dr. Black, during the general inquiry, very shortly settled the dispute by proving that a considerable quantity of air as well as of water existed in the lime-stone, which did not exist in the lime, and that the weight of the extricated air and water conjointly just accounted for the difference between the two. This air, which from its confinement in the limestone was denominated fixed air, was soon after minutely examined by Dr. Priestley and several other philosophers, and found to consist of characters peculiar to itself; and that these characters corresponded to those of the gas extricated from charcoal, and combined with oxygen, whence it was denominated carbonic acid gas.

Water, at the common temperature of

the atmosphere, dissolves about 6.002 parts of its weight of lime. This solution is called lime-water. It is limpid, has an acrid taste, and changes vegetable blue colours to green. One ounce troy of lime-water, contains about one grain of lime.

Lime is not acted upon by light, neither does it combine with oxygen: sulphur and phosphorus are the only simple substances with which it unites. It does not combine with azot, but it unites readily with muriatic acid, and forms muriat of line. It facilitates the oxydizement of several of the metals, and combines with several of the metallic oxyds, and forms salts which have not hitherto been examined, if we except the compounds, which it produces with the oxyds of mercury and lead, described by Berthollet. Lime-water also dissolves the red oxyd of lead, and litharge still better.

Lime does not combine with the alkalies. One of its most important uses is the formation of mortar as a cement in building, Mortar is composed of quick-lime and sand reduced to a paste with water. When dry it becomes as hard and as durable as a stone; and adheres very strongly to the surfaces of the stones it is employed to cement. But this effect is produced very imperfectly unless the mortar be well prepared: for which purpose the lime should be pure, complete. ly free from carbonic acid, and in the state of a very fine powder: the sand should be free from clay, and partly in the state of fine sand, partly in that of gravel; the water should be pure, and if previously saturated with lime, so much the better. The best proportions, according to the experiments of Dr. Higgins, are three parts of fine sand, four parts of coarser sand, one part of quicklime recently slacked, and as little water as possible.

The stony consistence which mortar acquires, is owing partly to the absorption of carbonic acid, but principally to the combination of part of the water with the lime. This last circumstance is the reason that if to common mortar one-fourth part of lime, reduced to powder without being slacked, be added, the mortar when dry acquires much greater solidity than it otherwise would do. Hig. gins found that the addition of burnt bones gives additional tenacity to mortar, and renders it less apt to crack in drying; but the quantity should not exceed one-fourth of the lime employed.

When a little manganese is added to mortar, it acquires the important property of hardening under water; so that it may be employed in constructing those edifices, which are constantly exposed to the action of water. Lime-stone is found not unfrequently combined with manganese; and in such case it becomes brown by calcination, instead of white. These native lime-stones are employed for making water-mortar; but good water-mortar may be made by the following process, first proposed by Mor

vean. Mix together four parts of blue clay, six parts of black oxyd of manganese and ninety parts of lime-stone, all in powder. Calcine this mixture to expel the carbonic acid, mix it with sixty parts of sand, and form it into mortar, with a sufficient quantity of water.

The best mortar for resisting water, is made by mixing with lime puzzolano, a volcanic sand brought from Italy. Morveau informs us that basaltes, which is very common in our own country, may be substituted for puzzolano. It must be heated in a furnace, thrown, while red hot, into water, and then passed through a sieve, to reduce it to the proper size.

LIME-STONE: the harder kinds of native chalk or carbonat of lime. It is often combined with iron ochre, and hence assumes a blueish, greyish, or brownish, appearance. On breaking, it exhibits a granular fracture. See LIME, CRETA, STALACTITE, and MARMOR, &c. It is only necessary to add that the chief kinds are, 1. compact lime-stone, including common lime-stone and roe-stone; 2. foliated lime-stone, whether granular or sparry; 3. fibrous lime stone, including calesinter, and pea-stone; 4. caletuff, found chiefly in alluvial land; 5. arragonite; 6. slate spar; 7. brown spar; 8. dolomite; 9. rhomb spar; 10. swine-stone; 11. marl; 12. bituminous marl slate.

LIME, in botany. See CITRUS.

To LIME. v. a. (from the noun.) 1. To entangle; to ensnare (Shakspeare). 2. To smear with lime (I'Estrange). 3. To cement: not used (Shakspeare). 4. To manure ground with lime (Child).

LIMEKILN. s. (lime and kiln.) A kiln where stones are burnt to lime (Woodward). LIMESTONE. 8. (lime and stone.) The stone of which lime is made. See MARMOR. LIME-WATER. 8. A medicine made by pouring water upon quicklime. See PHAR


LIMERICK, a county of Ireland, in the province of Munster, 48 miles long, and 23 broad; bounded on the N. by Tipperary and Clare, from which last it is separated by the Shannon; on the W. by Kerry; on the S. by Cork, and on the E. by Tipperary. It contains 130 parishes, and sends eight memnbers to parliament. It is a fertile county, and well inhabited, though the W. parts are mountainous.

LIMERICK, or LOUGH MEATH, a city of Ireland, in the county of Limerick, and the metropolis of the province of Munster. Within a century, it was reckoned the second city in the kingdom; at present it has lost its rank; not because it flourishes less, but because Cork flourishes more. It is still a commercial and populous place; and consists of the Irish and English town; the latter situate on an island formed by the

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