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against the army of the parliament, under Lord Brooke and Sir John Gill; but was taken after a month's siege. In the course of the war it was taken by Prince Rupert, but fell at length, with the rest of the kingdom, to the republican party. It is governed by two bailiffs, recorder, burgess, &c. and sends two members to the British parliament. There are two markets weekly, on Tuesday and Friday: eighteen miles N.W. Coventry, and 119 N. W. London. Lon. 1. 44 W. Lat. 52. 41 N.

LICHTENAU, a town of Franconia, in the margravate of Anspach, with a fortress on the Rezel, 17 miles S. W. of Nuremberg, and subject to that city. Lon. 11. 12 E. Lat. 49. 10 N.

LICHTENBERG, a castle of France, in the department of Lower Rhine, seated on a rock, near the Vosges mountains, and considered as impregnable. It is twelve miles N. N. W. of Haguenau.

LICHTENBERG, a town and castle of Germany, in the duchy of Deux Ponts, 25 miles N. of Deux Ponts.

LICHTENBERG, a town of Germany, in Franconia. In the neighbourhood are quarries of marble, and mines of copper and iron. It is 22 miles N. of Bayreuth, and 26 E. of Coburg. Lon. 11. 41 E. Lat. 50. 16 N.

LICHTENBURG, a town of Franconia, in the margravate of Cullembach, 20 miles N. E. of Cullembach. Lon. 12. 2 E. Lat. 30.25 N.

LICHTENFELS, a town of Franconia, in the bishopric of Bamberg, seated on the Maine, 15 miles N. E. of Bamberg. Lon. 11. 12 E. Lat. 50. 16 N.

LICHTENSTEIN, a town of Swisserland, capital of the county of Tockenburgh, seated on the Thur, 31 miles E. of Zurich. Lon. 9. E. Lat. 47. 15 N. LICHTENSTEIN, a principality of Germany,

in the circle of Suabia.

LICHTENSTEIN, a castle and village in the archduchy of Austria, nine miles S.S.W. of Vienna.

LICINIUS (C.), a tribune of the people, celebrated for the consequence of his family, his intrigues, and abilities. He was a plebeian, and the first of that body who was raised to the othce of a master of horse to the dictator. He was surnamed Stolo, or useless sprout, on account of the law enacted during his tribuneship, which forbade any person to possess 500 acres of land, or keep more than 100 head of Lrge cattle, or 500 small. He afterwards

age a law which permitted the plebeians to share the consular dignity with the patricians, A. U. C. 388. He reaped the benefits of this law, and was one of the first plebeian consuls. 2. C. Calvas, a celebrated orator and poet in the age of Cicero. He distinguished himself by b's eloquence in the forum, and his poetry, which some of the ancients have compared to Catullus's. His orations are greatly commended by Quintilian. He died in the 30th year of Las age.-3. P. Tegula, a comic poet of Rome,

about 200 years before Christ. He is ranked as the fourth of the best comic poets which Rome produced. Few lines of his compositions are extant.-4. C. Flavius Valerianus, a celebrated Roman emperor. His father was a poor peasant of Dalmatia, and himself, at first, a common soldier in the Roman armies. His valour recommended him to Galerius Maximianus, who had once shared with him subordinate offices of the army, and had lately been invested with the imperial purple by Diocletian. Galerius showed his regard for his merit by taking him as a colleague in the empire, and appointed him over the province of Pannonia and Rhotia. Constantine, who was also one of the emperors, gave him his sister Constantia in marriage, A. D. 313. The successes of Licinius increased his pride, and rendered him jealous of the greatness of his brother-in-law. The persecutions of the Christians soon caused a rupture, and Licinius lost two battles, one in Pannonia, and the other

near Adrianopolis. Treaties of peace were made, but soon broken by Licinius, who was defeated in adecisive battle near Chalcedonia. He fled to Nicomedia, where the conqueror obliged him to resign the imperial purple. Constantia obtained forgiveness for her husband, yet Constantine knew what an active enemy had fallen into his hands; therefore he ordered him to be strangled at Thessalonica, A. D. 824. His family was involved in his ruin.

To LICK. v. a. (licean, Saxon.) 1. To pass over with the tongue (Addison). 2. To lap; to take in by the tongue (Shakspeare). 3. To LICK up. To devour (Pope).

LICK. s. (from the verb.) A blow (Dry.). LICKERISH. LICKEROUS. a. (liccena, a glutton, Saxon.) 1. Nice in the choice of food; squeamish (L'Estrange). 2. Eager; greedy to swallow (Sidney). 3. Nice; tempting the appetite (Milton).

LICKERISHNESS. 8. (from lickerish ) Niceness of palate.

LICOLA, a lake in the kingdom of Naples, formerly famous for excellent fish; but, in 1538, an earthquake happened, which changed one part of it into a mountain of ashes, and the other into a morass. It was anciently known by the name of the Lucrine Lake.

LICOÑIA, in botany; a genus of the digynia order, belonging to the pentandria class of plants. There are five petals inlaid in the pit of the nectarium at its base; the capsule is bilocular and seed-bearing.


LICTORS (Axe-bearers), among the Romans, were officers established by Romulus, who always attended the chief magistrates when they appeared in public.

The duty of their office consisted in the three following particulars: 1. Submitio, or clearing the way for the magistrate they attended: this they did by word of mouth; or, if there was occasion, by using the rods they always carried along with them. 2. Animadversio, or causing the people to pay the usual

respect to the magistrate, as to a light, if on horseback, or in a chariot; to rise up, uncover, make way, and the like. 3. Prætio, or walking before the magistrates: this they did not confusedly, or all together, nor by two or three abreast, but singly following one another in a straight line. They also preceded the triumphal car in public triumplis; and it was also part of their office to arrest criminals, and to be public executioners in beheading, &c. Their ensigns were the fasces and securis.


the declared design of the speaker is not to in. form, but to divert; compliments in the subscription of a letter; a prisoner's pleading not guilty; an advocate asserting the justice, or his belief of the justice, of his client's cause. such instances, no confidence is destroyed, becanse none was reposed; no promise to speak the truth is violated, because none was given or understood to be given. 2. Where the person you speak to has no right to know the truth, or, inore properly, where little or no inconveniency results from the want of confidence in such cases; as where you tell a falsehood to a madman for his own advantage; to a robber to conceal your property; to an asssasin to defeat or divert him from his purpose. It is LICUALA. In botany, a genus of the class upon this principle, that, by the laws of war, tetrandria, nogynia. Calyx three- it is allowed to deceive an enemy by feints, parted; cool free-pared; nectary truncate, false colours, spies, false intelligence, and the wreath-le; drape one-seeded. One species: like: but by no means in treaties, truces, siga Molucca pala, rith a single jointed fun. nals of capitulation, or surrender: and the dif LID. 8. (d., Saxon.) 1. A cover; aay_ference is, that the former suppose hostilities thing that sa town over a vessel (Addison), to e, ntinue, the latter are calculated to termi2. The membrane that, when we sleep or wink, nate or suspend them. is drawn over the eye (Prior).

As to the number of lictors allowed each magistrate, a dictator had twenty-four, a master of the horse six, a consul twelve, a prætor six and each vestal virgin, when she appeared abroad, had one.


LIDA, a town of Lithuania, in the palatinate of Wildna, 56 miles S. of Wilna. ' Lon. 25. 31 E. Lat. 53. 50 N.

LIDBE/CHIA. In botany, a genus of the class syngenesia, order polygamia superflua. Receptacle naked; downless; seeds angular, with the lowermost joint of the style permanent; floret of the ray numerous. Calyx many-parted. Three species: plants of the


LIDDEL, a river in Roxburghshire, and the only one in that county that flows southward. It falls into Solway Frith, near the mouth of the Esk.

LIDDISDALE, a district in Roxburghshire, comprehending the southern angle of that county. It admits of little cultivation, and is chiefly employed in pasture.

LIDFORD, a village in Devonshire, on the river Lid, seven miles N. of Tavistock. It was once a borough, with a castle; and its parish may now compare for lands and liberties with any in the kingdom, the whole forest of Dartmoor being in the verge of it. The river here being pent up at the bridge with rocks, has made itself so deep a fall by its continual work ing, that passengers only hear the noise of the water without seeing it.

LIE. s. (lie, Fr.) Any thing impregnated with some other body; as, soap or salt (Peacham).

LIE. S. (lige, Saxon.) 1. A criminal false hood (Watts). 2. A charge of falsehood (Locke). 3. A fiction (Bryden). The late archdeacon Paley, in treating of this subject, observes, that there are falsehoods which are not lies; that is, which are not criminal: and there are lies which are not literally and directly false.

1. Cases of the first class are those, 1. Where no one is dereived: as for instance in parables, fables, novels, jests, tales to create mirth, or Iudicrous embellishments of a story, in which

Many people indulge in serious discourse a habit of fiction and exaggeration, in the accounts they give of themselves, of their acquaintance, or of extraordinary things which they have seen or heard; and so long as the facts they relate are indiferent, and their narratives though false are inoffensive, it may seem a superstitious regard to truth to censure them merely for truth's sake. Yet the practice ought to be checked; for, in the first place, it is almost impossible to pronounce beforehand, with certainty, concerning any lie, that it is inoffensive; or to say what ill consequences may result from a lie apparently inoffensive: and in the next place, the habit, when once formed, is easily extended to serve the designs of malice or interest; like all habits, it spreads indeed of itself. Pious frauds, as they are improperly enough called, pretended inspirations, forged books, counterfeit miracles, are impositions of a more serious nature. It is possible that they may sometimes, though seldom, have been set up and encouraged with a design to do good; but the good they aim at requires, that the belief of them should be perpetual, which is hardly possible; and the detection of the fraud is sure to disparage the credit of all pretensions of the same nature. Christianity has suffered more injury from this cause than from all other causes put together.

II. As there may be falsehoods which are not lies, so there may be lies without literal or direct falsehood. An opening is always left for this species of prevarication, when the literal and grammatical signification of a sentence is different from the popular and customary meaning. It is the wilful deceit that makes the lie; and we wilfully deceive when our expressions are not true, in the sense in which we believe the hearer apprehends them. Beside, it is absurd to contend for any sense of word, in opposition to usage; for all senses of al words are founded upon usage, and upon nothing else. Or a man may act a lie; as by

pointing his finger in a wrong direction, when a traveller inquires of him his road; or when a tradesman shuts up his windows, to induce his creditors to believe that he is abroad: for to all moral purposes, and therefore as to veracity, speech and action are the same; speech being only a mode of action.

To LIE. v. n. (leogan, Sax. liegen, Dutch.) 1. To utter criminal falsehood (Shakspeare). 2. To exhibit false representations (Swift).


To LIE. v. n. pret. I lay; I have lain, or hen. (hegan, Saxon; liggen, Dutch.) 1. To rest horizontally, or with very great inclination against something else. 2. To rest; to press upon (Shakspeare). 3. To be reposited in the grave (Genesis). 4. To be in a state of decumbitare (Mark). 5. To pass the time of sleep (Dryden). 6. To be laid up or reposited (Boyle). 7. To remain fixed (Temple). 8. To reside (Genesis). 9. To be placed or situate, with respect to something else (Collier). 10. To press upon afflictively (Creech). 11. To be troublesome or tedious (Addison). To be judicially imputed (Shakspeare). 13. To be in any particular state (Watts). 14. To be in a state of concealment (Locke). 15. To be in prison (Shakspeare). 16. To be in a bad state (L'Estrange). 17. To be in a belpless or exposed state (Swift). 18. To consist (Shakspeare). 19. To be in the power; to belong to (Stilling fleet). 20. To be valid in a court of judicature: as, an action lieth against one. 21. To cost: as, it lies me in more money. 22. To LIE at. To importune; to tease. 23. To LIE by. To rest; to remain still (Shakspeare). 24. To LIE down. To rest; to go into a state of repose (Isaiah) 25. To LIE down. To sink into the grave (Job). 26. TO LIE in. To be in childbed (Wiseman), 27. TO LIE under. To be subject to; to be oppressed by (Smalridge). 28. To LIE upon. To become the matter of obligation or duty (Bentley). 29. To LIE with. To converse in bed (Shakspeare).

LIEF. a. (leof, Saxon.) Dear; beloved (Spenser).

LIEF. ad. Willingly (Shakspeare). LIEGE. a. (lige, French.) 1. Bound by some feudal tenure; subject. 2. Sovereign (Spenser).

LIEGE. S. Sovereign; superior lord (Phil.) LIEGE (Ligius), in law, properly signifies at vassal, who holds a kind of fee, that binds him in a closer obligation to his lord than other people. The term seems to be derived from the French lier, to bind; on account of a ceremony used in rendering faith or homage; which was by locking the vassal's thumb or his hand in that of the lord, to show that he was fast bound by his oath of fidelity. Cujas, Vigenere, and Bignon, choose rather to derive the word from the same source with leudis or lodi, loyal, faithful. But Du Cange falls in with the opinion of those who derive it from liti, a kind of vassals, so firmly attached to their lord, on account of lands or fees held of him, that they were obliged to do him all manner of service, as if they were his domestics. He

adds, this was formerly called litgium servitium, and the person litge. In this sense the word is used, Leg. Edw. cap. 29. Judæi sub tutela regis ligea debent esse, that is, wholly under his protection.

By liege homage, the vassal was obliged to serve his lord towards all, and against all, excepting his father. In which sense, the word was used in opposition to simple homage; which last only obliged the vassal to pay the rights and accustomed dues to his lord; and not to bear arms against the emperor, prince, or other superior lord: so that a liege man was a person wholly devoted to his lord, and entirely under his command. "Omnibus, &c. Reginaldus rex Insularum, salutem. Sciatis quod deveni homo ligeus domini regis Angliæ Johannis, contra omnes mortales, quamdiu vixero; & inde ei fidelitatem & sacramentum præstiti," &c. MS. penes W. Dugdale. But it must be observed, that there were formerly two kinds of liege homage; the one by which the vassal was obliged to serve his lord against all, without exception even of hist sovereign; the other, by which he was to serve him against all, except such other lords as he had formerly owed liege homage to.


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In our old statutes, lieges and liege people are terms peculiarly appropriated to the king's subjects; as being liges, ligi, or ligati, obliged to pay allegiance to him; 8 Henry VI. 14 Henry VIII. &c. though private persons had their lieges too. Reinaldus, Dei gratia, abbas Ramesiæ, præposito & hominibus de Brancestre, & omnibus vicinis Francis & Anglis, salutem. Sciatis me dedisse terram Ulfe, in Depedene (hodie Depedale) huic Boselino, & uxori ejus Alfniæ ea conditione, quod effecti sint homines leges." Lib. Rames. LIEGE, a bishopric of Westphalia, bounded on the north by Brabant and Guelderland, on the east by the duchies of Limburg and Juliers, on the south by Luxemberg and the Ardennes, and on the west by Brabant and the county of Namur. It is fruitful in corn and fruits, and contains mines of iron, lead, and coal, besides quarries of marble. The bishop is elected by the chapter, composed of sixty canons; he is one of the most considerable ecclesiastical princes of Germany, and has an annual revenue of 300,000 ducats.

LIEGE, the capital city of the bishopric of the same name in Germany, is large, popu lous, wealthy, and remarkable for its antiquity, the magnificence of its public buildings, and the vast number of its churches. It is seated in a valley surrounded by high mountains, separated from each other by pleasant dales, which are watered by three little rivers; there are several hills and valleys within the walls, which are about four miles in circumference, and some islands made by the river Maese, two branches of which run through the town. It is divided into three parts, the city, the island, and the Outer-Maese; it has 16 gates, 17 bridges, and 154 streets; these last are pretty broad, but are neither clean nor regular; and most of the private houses are built of wood;

a clear stream generally runs through the middle of the streets, and many of the best houses have fountains in their courts and gardens. Here are upwards of 100 churches; and the cathedral, dedicated to St. Lambert, is a magnificent structure built with stone, and within are a great number of relics: the busto of St. Lambert is in silver, as also the statues of the Virgin Mary and Joseph, as big as life; five great coffers, which hold the relics, are of silver, and St. George on horseback is of massy gold. They have vestments given by pope Gregory, adorned with large pearls, intermixed with diamonds. St. Peter's is the most admirable of the parish churches, being set off with marble ornaments and paintings: all the religious orders have handsome convents and churches. This city is governed by two burgomasters, twenty counsellors, two perpetual counsellors, and a recorder; besides which they have a chief mayor and two subordinate mayors. The town is seated very conveniently for trade, on account of the river Maese, which is navigable up to this place. This city was bombarded in 1691, and delivered to the French in 1701; it was retaken by the allies in 1702; and the French attempted to get possession of it again in 1705, at the approach of the duke of Marlborough; but it was restored to its bishop by the treaty of Baden. In 1792 the French took the city, and effected another revolution; but being driven thence in 1793, the citizens were once more obliged to submit. Liege is 15 miles south-west of Maestricht, and 62 south-west of Cologne. Lon. 5. 40 E. Lat. 50. 37 N.

LIEGEMAN. 8. A subject: not in (Spenser).


LIEGER. s. (more properly leger.) A resident ambassador (Denham).

LIEN. The participle of lie (Genesis). LIENTE/RICK. a. (from lientery.) Pertaining to a lientery (Grew).

LIENTERIA. (lienteria, Kuvre, from X6.25, smooth, Toy, the intestine, and w, to flow.) A species of diarrhoea. See DIARRHEA. LIER. s. (from to lie.) One that rests or lies down, or remains concealed (Joshua). LIEU. s. (Fr.) Place; room; stead (Add.) LIEVE. ad. (See LIEP.)Willingly(Shak.). LIEVENS (John), an historical and portrait painter, was born in 1607 at Leyden. His fame was so great at the age of twenty, that Charles I. invited him to his court, and he accordingly went thither, and had the honour of painting the portraits of all the royal family and most of the nobility. He remained in England three years, and then went back to Antwerp.

LIEUTAUD (Joseph), a French physician, was born at Aix in Provence, and became first physician to Louis XVI, and in 1752 member of the Academy of Sciences. His Anatomical Essays, and Elements of Physiology, are his principal works.

LIEUTENANCY. s. (lieutenance, Fr.) 1. The office of a lieutenant (Shakspeare). 2. The body of lieutenants (Felton).

LIEUTENANT, an officer who supplies the place, and discharges the office of a superior in his absence. Of these, some are civil, as the lords-lieutenants of kingdoms, and the lords-lieutenants of counties; and others are military, as the lieutenant-general, lieutenantgeneral of the artillery, lieutenant-colonel, lieutenant of the artillery of the Tower, lieutenant of horse, foot, ships of war, &c.

LIEUTENANT OF IRELAND (Lord), is a viceroy, and has all the state and grandeur of a king of England, except being served upon the knee. He has, or till lately had, the power of making war and peace, of bestowing all the offices under the government, of dubbing knights, and of pardoning all crimes except high treason; he also before the union called and prorogued the parliament, but no bill could pass without the royal assent. He is assisted in his government by a privy council; and on his leaving the kingdom, he appoints the lords of the regency, who govern in his absence.

LIEUTENANTS OF COUNTIES (Lords), are officers who, upon any invasion or rebellion, have power to raise the militia, and to give commissions to colonels and other officers, to arm and form them into regiments, troops, and companies. Under the lords-lieutenants are deputy-lieutenants, who have the same power; these are chosen by the lords-lieutenauts, out of the principal gentlemen of each county, and presented to the king for his approbation.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL, an officer next in rank to the general: in battle he commands one of the wings; in a march, a detachment, or a flying camp; also a quarter, at a siege, or one of the attacks when it is his day of duty.

LIEUTENANT, in the land-service, is the second commissioned officer in every company of both horse and foot, and next to the captain, and who takes the command upon the death or absence of the captain.

LIEUTENANT OF ARTILLERY. Each company of artillery has four: one first and three second lieutenants. The first lieutenant hath the same detail of duty with the captain; because in his absence he commands the company he is to see that the soldiers are clean and neat; that their clothes, arms, and accoutrements are in good and serviceable order; and to watch over every thing else which may contribute to their health. He must give attention to their being taught the exercise, see them punctually paid, their messes regularly kept, and to visit them in the hospitals when sick. He must assist at all parades, &c. He ought to understand the doctrine of projectiles and the science of artillery, with the various effects of gunpowder, however managed or directed; to enable him to construct and dispose his batteries to the best advantage; to plant his cannon, mortars, and howitzers, so as to produce the greatest annoyance to an enemy. He is to be well skilled in the attack and defence of fortified places, and to be conversant in arithmetic, mathematics, mechanics, &c.

Second LIEUTENANT in the Artillery, is the same as an ensign in an infantry regiment, being the youngest commissioned officer in the company, and must assist the first lieutenant in the detail of the company's duty. His other qualifications should be equal to those of the first lieu


LIEUTENANT of a ship of war, the officer next in command to the captain, and who governs the ship in his absence. In the British navy an officer must have served six years at sea, two of which he must have been mate or midshipman in some of the king's ships, before he can be appointed a lieutenant he must also pass an examination. The number of lieutenants appointed to a ship is always in proportion to her rate, a first rate having six, and a sixth rate only one. In an engagement the station of the lieutenants is to superintend the manœuvre of the great guns, and observe that they are properly supplied with powder and shot, &c. The lieutenant ranks with captains of horse and foot.

LIEUTENANTSHIP. 8. (from lieutenant.) The rank or office of lieutenant.

LIFE. 8. plural lives. (hrian, to live, Saxon.) 1. Union and co-operation of soul with body; vitality; animation (Genesis). 2. Present state (Cowley). 3. Enjoyment or possession of existence (Prior). 4. Blood, the supposed vehicle of life (Pope). 5. Conduct; manner of living with respect to virtue or vice (Pope). 6. Condition; manner of living with respect to happiness or misery (Dryden). 7. Continuance of our present state (Locke). 8. The living form (Brown). 9. Exact resemblance (Denham). 10. General state of man (Milton). 11. Common occurrences; human affairs; the course of things (Asch.). 12. Living person (Shakspeare). 13. Nar. rative of a life past (Pope). 11. Spirit; briskness; vivacity; resolution (Sidney). 15. Animated existence; animal being (Thom.). 16. System of animal nature (Pope).

LIFE, in natural philosophy, animal or vegetable existence; to which two departments the term is rigidly confined. The natural division under which this subject ought to be discussed, appears to be as follows:

I. Its mode of production or propagation.
II. Its essence or principle.
III. Its modifications or diversities.
IV. Its extent or duration.

Of these the first has been already considered under the articles GENERATION and GERMINATION, and the third will constitute an important part of the article PHYSIOLOGY.

Under the present head, therefore, we can only briefly enter into a consideration of its essence or principle, and its extent or duration.


What is this power which in some sort or other equally pervades animals and vegetables? which extends from man to brutes, from brutes to zoophytes, from zoophytes to fuci and confervas? We do not here enter into the consideration of an intelligent or thinking principle ;-but confine ourselves alone to that inferior but active power, upon

which the identity and individuality of the being depends, and upon the failure of which, the individual system ceases, the organs lose their relative connection, and the whole becomes decomposed, and resolves itself apparently into earth, air, and


natural principle, will perhaps be admitted by every That simple life, in this view of the subject, is a

school of philosophers, and in effect has been so admitted from the earliest periods of history: the only question being, what is the material organ that se

cretes it, or the modification of matter on which it depends?

§1. This in the earliest writings of the Hebrew scriptures is asserted to be the blood: "the life of the flesh (we are expressly told) is in the blood." Homer appears to allude to this very ancient opinion the epithet of purple to death or the cessation of life, in a variety of places, and very frequently applies

pros avaos; while Virgil alludes to it still more distinctly in a very common feature by which he designates the dying soldier

Purpuream vomit ille animam. Empedocles and Christas in like manner believed life to be the blood itself.

The same idea has been occasionally supported and rendered fashionable, and occasionally relinquished and regarded as erroneous, till the present day, in which it has been revived and restored with arguments which it never before possessed, by subject: in which he infers the existence of a livMr. J. Hunter, in an express treatise upon this of the system) in the blood, from its capability of ing principle (and of the general living principle contraction upon the application of certain stimuli; which power of contraction, he observes, bears a striking resemblance to the irritability or contractility of the muscles. And it is a curious fact in proof of this doctrine, that in cases of asphyxy or sudden death from lightning, electricity, or a violent blow on the stomach, in which the muscles remain relaxed, the blood also remains uncoagulated and uncoagulable. "The difficulty," says he, "of conceiving that the blood is endowed with life while circulating, arises merely from its being a fluid, and the mind not being accustomed to the idea of a living fluid.— ganization and life do not in the least depend upon each other; that organization may arise out of living parts and produce action; but that life can never arise out of, or depend on organization." The experiments here adverted to are highly plausible, but are chiefly confined to the phoenomena of eggs. "This living principle in the blood," he then adjoins, "similar in its effect to the living principle in the solids, owes its existence to the same matter which belongs to the other, and is the materia vita diffusa of which every part of an animal has its portion. It is impossible to say, perhaps, where the living principle first begins in the blood: whether in the chyle itself, or not till that fluid mixes with the other blood, and receives its influence from the lungs." Hunter on the Blood, p. 20-96.

I shall endeavour, he continues, to show that or

§ 2. Another very early hypothesis concerning the principle of life, and which has also descended in some shape or other to our own days, is that it depends upon a general harmony or consent between the different organs of which the vital frame consists. This opinion is said to have been first invented by Aristoxenus, who was first a pupil of Lampyri of Erythra, afterwards of Xenophylus the Pythagorean, and lastly of Aristotle.

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